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Full text of "Anecdotes of the manners and customs of London, during the eighteenth century : including the charities, depravities, dresses and amusements of the citizens of London, during that perion : with a review of the state of society in 1807 : to which is added, a sketch of the domestic architecture, and of the various improvements in the metropolis : illustrated by forty-five engravings"

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JBequest ot 

1Rev>. 1b. <L 

to tbe library 
of tbe 

1Hniver0iti? of Toronto 


John Nichols and Son, Printers, 
Red Lion Passage? Fleet Street, London- 





Preface Page v 


State of Parish Children Anecdotes of various 
descriptions of Charity exercised in London 
between the years 1700 and 1800 1 


Anecdotes of Depravity, from 1700 to 1800 87 


Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants of Lon- 
don, from 1700 to 1800 229 


Anecdotes of Eccentricity 396 





Foundling Hospital r Page 15 

Bancroft's Almshouse 47 

The Small-pox Hospital 48 


JL BEG leave to return my sincere thanks to the 
community, for the flattering reception with which 
this undertaking has been honoured : A more con- 
vincing proof of that approbation which every Author 
most ardently desires seldom occurs, and still more 
seldom is expressed in so short a period as between 
the dates of the first appearance of the book and the 
present preface (March 1808 and May 1809.) 

It had been my intention, from the moment I 
thought of tracing the habits of the residents of our 
Metropolis, to give a history of them from the earliest 
a^es to the close of the last century : those early asres 

O J J O 

should certainly have been noticed first ; but the 
length of time required for collecting materials, and 
the heavy expences attending printing, made it im- 
periously necessary that I should offer to the publick 
the least difficult portion of my labours, in order to 
ascertain whether I might proceed in safety with the 
remainder. The result has surpassed my hopes, and 
roused me to redoubled exertion in preparing for the 
press a volume including Anecdotes of Manners and 



Customs from the Roman Invasion to 1700, in which 
will be found mostof the apparent omissions discoverable 
in this ; but I shall ever reserve a right to myself of 
saying nothing on a subject of which I have an imper- 
fect knowledge, through impediments not always to 
be explained without a charge of prolixity. This 
circumstance, and the impossibility of knowing how 
the work would be received, compelled me to give a 
retrospective view, at the commencement of some 
chapters, that should contribute to render them satis- 
factory, provided the early portion never appeared. 
The readers of the Quarto edition of the History of 
the Eighteenth Century will therefore have the good- 
ness to excuse the retrospective sketches in it ; and 
those of the present will perceive the sketches al- 
luded to are omitted, in order to confine each event 
to its proper acra in the work when completed. 

It will be observed that I address myself in the 
above sentence solely to the liberal reader for infor- 
mation and amusement, and by no means to the in- 
visible censors of the age, who kindly and charitably 
supply the place of Inquisitors without receiving their 
appointment either from the Church, the State, or 
the Publick. A person who honours this publication 
with his notice in the Eclectic Review remarks. 
" We should have thought the progress of learning, 
and the novelties in the trade of books, during the 
last century, well intitled to some regard ; and, as 
Mr. M. has ' been indebted to his worthy friend Mr. 
Nichols for the inspection of his matchless collection 
of periodical publications, from which great part of 
his materials have been selected,' we: wonder not a 
little how the very institution of periovlical publica- 


tions could escape his notice." The history of litera- 
ture did not escape my recollection as connected with 
that of the manners of the Metropolis ; but you t Gen- 
tlemen Reviewers, being literary men, ought to have 
been aware that the very worthy friend you have 
mentioned had nearly printed his Literary Anecdotes 
of the same century, which would have appeared at 
the moment my Anecdotes were published, had not 
one general conflagration destroyed the whole of the 
impression, and a considerable number of ray own 
books, and compelled the benevolent sufferer to re- 
commence his labours. " Perhaps," continue the Re- 
viewers, " Mr. M. did not know that the voracity of the 
publick for scandal demanded four editions, compris- 
ing 19,000 copies of the Town and Country Magazine, 
on its first appearance." I did know the prevailing 
voracity for scandal, and that it was partly supplied 
by Reviews. I do not mean by any particular work so 
termed, but by individual articles in many publica- 
tions of that description. 

Knowing the mischievous consequences to authors^ 
of perversion, misquotation, and misrepresentation, 
before the nature of Reviews was fully understood, the 
enlightened and excellent Dr. Blair, whose Sermons 
do his head and heart so much honour, wrote thus to 
Mr. Bruce, the celebrated Abyssinian Traveller : " I 
do not get the Monthly Review, and never saw that 
article in it which has been so injurious to you. In- 
deed, I seldom see any Reviews, unless what is cal- 
led The Analytical one, which a friend of mine 
takes, and commonly sends to me ; and that Re- 
view appears abundantly favourable to you. But 
I entirely agree with Dr. Douglas, that the Reviews 



are beneath your notice. They are always guided by 
the interest of some booksellers ; and it is not on their 
opinions that the reputation of books and authors will 
depend. I am so much of this mind, that though I 
lately published a volume of Sermons, I never gave 
myself the smallest trouble to enquire what the seve- 
ral Reviewers said of it, or whether they took any 
notice of it at all *." 

It is well known that Dr. Blair had established a 
reputation which it was impossible to undermine by 
secret attacks : hence he naturally held those who 
aimed them at others in sovereign contempt. There 
are authors, however, who are endeavouring by every 
laudable exertion in their power to establish a similar 
reputation ; and would frequently accomplish it, did not 
the secret envious Reviewer annihilate their hopes by 
exciting terrors in their minds, and by this means de- 
stroy all their vigour, substituting hesitation for energy, 
and trepidation for modest confidence in their abilities. 
Worthy and enviable pursuit, to wound the feelings 
of a man we never saw, and rob him not only of fame, 
but of that remuneration which the risk of his pro- 
perty in some degree demands from the pubiick he 
endeavours to please ! 

When an author so far forgets his moral obligations 
as to publish to the world sentiments or narratives 
dangerous to the beautiful order and simplicity of 
social life, it becomes the province of a Reviewer to 
expose his intentions, and lash him into a sense of 
his duty ; nor should arrogance and presumptuous 
lolly escape the reprehension of a genth man from the 

* Murray's Life of Bruce, p. 12S1. 



same source : but, when a work appears which de- 
monstrates great labour and diligence in the compila- 
tion or invention, and contains nothing offensive to 
honour and morality, envy and malice, and the rest- 
less spirit termed ill-nature, should really be subdued 
in the breast of the Censor, so far as to permit him 
not to expose himself, and the Review his individual 
article disgraces. Besides, both the writer and pub- 
lisher should reflect, that when they have almost for- 
gotten the article which leaves a deep and a malignant 
sting, the party suffering from it lingers in hopeless 
melancholy ; and in more than one instance even life 
is said to have been wasted in the decay produced by 
a malicious Review. 

I should here apologize to the reader for having 
omitted the portrait of an incompetent and splenetic 
Reviewer in the first edition of this work ; but, as it 
is never too late to amend, and I cannot violate my 
own sense of the injustice of giving information in a 
new edition withheld in the first, by noticing so com- 
mon a character, I shall here proceed to shew him in his 
true colours, as part of the grand aggregate I have at- 
tempted to describe ; merely observing, as a further 
excuse, in the words of the Critical Review on these 
Anecdotes : I am " more pleased with faithful deli- 
neations of general nature, than \vith the account of 
any anomalous productions." Unfortunately for the 
majority of authors, and most fortunately for the Re- 
viewer, it too often happens that second editions of 
works are not called for ; through this circumstance 
Reviews of Reviewers are rarely to be met with, and 
pamphlets refuting their strictures seldom answer any 


purpose, owing to their confined sale. Happily for 
myself, an opportunity offers which must have full 
effect, as the reader of these pages will judge for 
himself on their merits, and between the assertions 
of certain Reviewers, and what I have to offer in op- 
position to them. 

These self-important unknown persons will find me 
combating on the side of injured authors, not only on 
my own account, but on that of other individuals se- 
verely and unjustly condemned. I certainly despise 
them with Dr. Blair ; that I do not fear them in my 
literary pursuits, and have no cause for so doing, my 
own words, and the approbation of the publick, suffi- 
ciently demonstrate. I shall be highly gratified if 
the following investigation leads one man to judge for 
himself hereafter, when he finds Reviews of a similar 
description connected with others of liberality and 

We may venture to attribute the introduction of 
Modern Reviews to Edward Cave eventually ; for, al- 
though the Gentleman's Magazine never assumed that 
exclusive character, it certainly suggested the hint of 
issuing monthly anonymous strictures on new publi- 
cations *. All have since professed to commence their 
career with good humour, talents, liberality, candour, 
justice, mercy, and, in short, with the exercise of 
every virtue. Had they all strictly adhered to their 
professions, Literature would indeed have flourished 
under the moderate corrections of Criticism, which is 
necessary to raise a perfect stock for the great de- 
mand of England ; but, instead of those tempered 

* The previous attempts of individuals, which never exceeded a few 
volumes, 1 tU> not consider as cas>-s in point. 



reproofs, we are often surprised by floods or torrents 
of censure, which beat to the earth, and completely 
destroy, every thing within their scope. It is die 
authors of those torrents that I combat : the impartial 
and candid Reviewer I honour and admire, in pro- 
portion to the dangers and difficulties of his office. 

The Critical Review for May 1 808 versus " Anec- 
dotes of the Manners and Customs cf London." The 
writer of this article says: " The following sketch of 
the contents of this performance will convince the 
reader that he may expect much information and 
amusement in the perusal." This is extremely well 
for a preliminary assertion ; and yet we shall find him 
contradicting it almost from page 1 to 15, where the 
Review terminates. The contents are then given, and 
the Reviewer continues : " Such is the bill of fare 
which Mr. M. has prepared : in which, perhaps, the 
generality will find many agreeable dishes and savoury 
ingredients. It is, however, rather a confused medley ', 
than a well assorted or nicely selected entertainment." 
Here we have a simile warm from the Crown and 
Anchor or London Tavern. " Mr. M. has very in- 
dustriously perused the public papers, periodical 
works, &c. of the last century ; and from these he 
has culled as much matter as, with his own head and 
tail pieces .of remark, explanation, and connection, 
compose an ample quarto of 490 pages." " In tra- 
versing the pages of this bulky volume, we have some- 
times been instructed, and often amused ; but on the 
whole we have experienced sensations of tediousness 
and languor, which the author will perhaps impute 
to our squeamishness of appetite or apathy of tempera- 
ment; but which we are more willing, to. ascribe to 



the prolixity of the work. When the reader has 
taken the trouble to go through the book, we shall leave 
him to determine whether the critic be insensible, or 
the author occasionally dull." This sneering critic 
(for he at length appears in the singular case, speak- 
ing grammatically) affects to be unwilling to accuse 
me of practising the art of book-making, and of in- 
serting every piece of information which came in my 
way relative to the manners of London ; but really 
" we would willingly have dispensed with many of his 
details, in which there is nothing either to edify or 

The single critic, or congregated critics, which 
the reader pleases, next introduces the following 
quotation : " Then, says Mr. Malcolm, (meaning be- 
fore the invasion of Caesar) the hardy native stood 
erect in the full dignity and grace of nature, perfect 
from the hands of the Creator, and tinted with those 
pure colours which vary with the internal feelings. 
Ccesar, doubtless, found the males muscular and full 
of energy, the females graceful in their forms, and 
both wild and unrestrained in his estimation of man- 
ners ; though probably they were such as we now ad- 
mire in the Savage, sincerity unpolished and kindness 
roughly demonstrated." 

I shall make no comments on this passage, which 
the reader of the Review is requested by the critic to 
take as a " specimen of that affected, stiff*, and verbose 
style in which Mr. M. sometimes thinks proper to in- 
dulge, and on which the critic or critics would fail in 
thtir duty to the publick if they did not fix the seal of 
their utter reprobation." " Perspicuity and ease are 



mong those constituent principles of good, writing, 
which we should be unwilling to sacrifice for any of the 
starched refinements and elaborate perplexities of mo- 
dern composition." " When Mr. M. tells us that Caesar 
found the Aborigines of Britain ' tinted with those pure 
colours which vary with the internal feelings, he seems 
to have forgotten that Csesar himself tells us (B. G. 
lib. v.) that he found these ' hardy natives' bedizened 
with a coat of paint. And we leave our modern line 
ladies to inform Mr. M. whether this artificial disco- 
loration were likely to serve as a mirror for the vary- 
ing emotions of the breast." 

It may be presumed that he who undertakes to 
criticise the language of another should himself be 
perfect in the arrangement of his ideas, and of words 
to express them, and capable of composing similies 
that shall bear some reference to the subject illus- 
trated. Whether the author of the Review in ques- 
tion is qualified for the employment he has under- 
taken, will appear in the elegant extracts which fol- 
low ; " agreeable dishes," " savoury ingredients," 
" confused medley," " nicely selected," " culled as 
much matter," " his own head and tail pieces," " tra- 
versing the pages," " bulky volume," " squeamish- 
ness of appetite," " to go through the book," " af- 
fected, stiff," " starched refinements," " elaborate 
perplexities," " bedizened," aod " discoloration were 
likely to serve as a mirror." Surely, if he asserts my 
style to be affected, stiff, and starched, I may ven- 
ture to pronounce his extremely vulgar, incorrect, 
and confused. 

I had 


I had not forgotten that Caesar found the natives ol 
England stained with the juices of plants, and partially 
covered with coloured earths ; still I maintain that 
Nature had perfected her work, and given the fluids 
that due circulation, improved by exercise and tem- 
perance, which renders the complexion florid and 
beautiful. Extraneous matter at times defaced her 
operations ; but luxury, disease, and enervation, had 
not dried the channels of the blood of the Aborigines, 
as it has those of the fine lady I am referred to, whose 
discoloration is to serve as a mirror to show my own 

" In p. 4. Mr. M. tells us what we suppose he dis- 
covered after many nights of sleepless meditation, that, 
' There are in every human circle persons whose pa- 
triotism may be lulled ; [the words between lulled and 
and, " such may be taught by invaders to execrate 
their chiefs or governors" are shamefully omitted by 
the Reviewer as well as the beginning of the first sen- 
tence] and glittering ornaments of dress, and indo- 
lence, soon produce unfavourable comparison between 
the former and a naked limb, and the exertions of 
what is termed savage and the more refined concep- 
tions of quiet life.' Without staying to make any re- 
marks on the phraseology or the structure of this sen- 
tence, we shall proceed to shew Mr. M. as a collector 
of curious anecdotes and amusing details, in which he 
appears to much more advantage than as a philoso- 
pher or a rhetorician." 

Is it possible that an author can feel himself injured 
by such absurd and ridiculous spleen as those four 



lines and an half produced in the breast of this miser* 
able Reviewer ? 

Contemptible and futile as my information is con- 
sidered by the writer, he has deigned to compress 
nearly the whole matter of my Anecdotes of Charity 
for his own purposes ; and, although he denies 
me any share of his charity, he is delighted with 
the instances of it / have introduced to his notice 
of that of others. For once he agrees with me in 
opinion as to the general improvement of manners ; 
and occupies from the 3d to the 9th page in contra- 
dicting himself in almost all the positions he has en-* 
deavoured to establish as to my incompetency for the 
present undertaking. 

" Mr. M's 4th chapter is intituled ( Eccentricity 
proved to be sometimes injurious, though often in- 
offensive.' We could willingly have spared Mr. Mal- 
colm the necessity of exhibiting any proofs on this 
ocasion ; most of the Anecdotes which he has scraped 
together are destitute of interest." The writer has 
been much my friend in this instance, though cer- 
tainly without intending it; for he could not have 
more effectually convinced the publick of his incapa- 
bility. Can he suppose it possible that, in describing 
the Manners of the Metropolis, the eccentricities of 
its inhabitants should be omitted ? It is as impossible 
as that any person should agree with him in all his 
absurdities. As to exciting of interest, the very na- 
ture of eccentricity is such, that pity alone must pre- 
dominate in the breast of the considerate reader. The 
sneer that my specimens of eccentricity will make the 
Anecdotes " a favourite*/ the Circulating Libraries," 



came from the same hand that could write " a bushel 
of coals" instead 'of a c/ialdron of coals allowed by 
James Austin to boil his pudding fourteen days. 

The loyal reader shall comment for himself on the 
following extract from this admirable Review : " In 
1736, a laudable attempt was made to suppress the 
excessive use of Gin ; and the resentment of the po- 
pulace became so very turbulent, that they even pre- 
sumed to exclaim in the streets, ' No Gin, no King.* 
Whatever respect we may have for the exclamation, 
' No Bishop, no King? we do not think that either mo- 
narchy or any other government needs the support of 
this pernicious distillation." This is what the Re- 
viewer ' tells us,' and / suppose the discovery was 
made " after many nights of sleepless meditation ;" 
indeed the same degree of intense thought seems to 
have produced another sapient piece of philosophy or 
rhetoric, which is offered to our consideration in p. 1 1 
of the Review. " When a bull gives permission to a 
greater brute than himself to bait him to death with 
dogs, we will allow that something like a sanction is given 
to the sport." Surely these specimens of deep cogita- 
tion are almost equal to my " novel observation that 
* partnerships too frequently produce dissention and a 
struggle for individual power' ;" and the Reviewer's 
own words, " Mr. M. might have added to the spirit 
and interest of his work by omitting such superfluous 
details." These superfluous details, good reader, 
relate to the disputes between Messrs. Harris and 
Colman in 1763, which, having excited great interest 
amongst those who frequented the Theatre, could not, 
and ought not to be omitted to gratify an invisible 



individual, who is perhaps too much of a Philosopher 
to be pleased with Dramatic Entertainments. 

The spleen of the Reviewer, having increased by 
indulgence, attains its acm& of virulence at the close 
of the article : " In his 12th Chapter Mr. M. profes- 
ses to exhibit a Sketch of the present State of Society 
in London ; in which we do not meet with much sa- 
gacity of remark, or novelty of information. Take an. 
instance of his common-place details : * The reader 
must recollect, that when a family is without visitors, 
it is governed by greater regularity. Many Mer- 
chants and rich Tradesmen pass much of their leisure 
time at Coffee-houses ; and dinners are commonly 
given at those places'." 

Now, what but blind and indiscriminating acrimony 
could dictate the above remarks ? What sagacity was 
required to narrate facts as clear as noon-day ? Or, 
what novelty of information could arise from describing 
the domestic occurrences of families in general ? The 
Reviewer dared not say I have falsified a single arti- 
cle ; perhaps he would rather I had drawn a fancied 
picture of present customs, that he might have added 
a charge of deeper dye against me. The Review of 
my performance, which has enabled him to earn a 
dinner, could not have been written if similar com- 
mon-place details had not appeared during the last cen- 
tury. Good Sir, because you know how we all live at 
"present, are we not to inform those who succeed us 
how we have lived ? Taking the conclusion of senten- 
ces as a specimen of the whole, is peculiar to a certain 
description of Reviewers. Now, by referring to the 
page whence the extract is taken, it will be found I 

VOL. i. b had 

XV 111 

had been describing a family as entertaining their vi- 
sitors, and naturally concluded by saying, " when 
alone, it vvas^ governed with greater regularity." For 
once we have an attempt at wit, which originates from 
my having asserted that the dissipation common in 
high life, and late hours, rendered eating of breakfast 
a " languid operation.** " We do not believe that 
there is, in general, so much languor in this operation 
of eating, as Mr. M. seems to suppose. But, per- 
haps, Mr. M. will think that we judge of the morning 
appetite of others by our own ; and that we Reviewers 
have appetites like wolves, and are ready to devour 
mountains of toast, when they come in our way." 
Mountains of toast admirable metaphor ! Surely this 
cannot be called affected, stiff, starched, verbose, or 
elevated language ; it is familiar enough, and will be 
understood perfectly by the cook or house-maid, when 
the article which contains it reaches the Kitchen as 
waste paper. 

" The author ends his smooth-papered volume (a 
fault I must transfer to the paper-maker, as I have 
not had it hot-pressed) with the following sentence : 
' Such are the follies of many ; but, thanks to Hea- 
ven ! there are numbers of our nobility and gentry 
who live and act for the general benefit of mankind. 
And now, Vale Londinium /' We will add, Vale Mr. 
M. We have been indebted to you for some infor- 
mation and amusement ; but should have been more 
gratified with the perusal of your work, if you had 
exhibited more judgment in the selection of the ma- 
terials, and had not swelled the bulk by a number of 
futile, irrelevant, x aiid incongruous details." 



The readers of the first edition of this work, amount- 
ing perhaps to some thousands, have completely and 
decidedly contradicted the objections brought by the 
Reviewer in general terms, and supported by cavils 
upon four or six sentences selected from 490 pages. 
The readers of the present are offered all those ca- 
vils for their consideration, and will judge for themselves 
of their justice. 

With due allowance for a small degree of asperity, 
for which the writer can have no good excuse, the 
Anti-Jacobin Review of December last contains some 
argumentative strictures on the arrangement of this 
work, as it appeared in the first edition. When a 
book is offered to the world, it cannot be expected 
that every fact in it, and the method, should meet 
the approbation of all descriptions of persons ; as 
taste and opinions are acknowledged to be as various 
as the features of the face. That the publick at large 
have not disapproved of the progressive chronological 
manner adopted, I have the most positive evidence 
by the rapid sale of the work ; and this I shall retain. 
However, as objections have been raised by individu- 
als who act as Public Censors, I have adopted their 
suggestions in part, and given the Anecdotes a more 
connected form, bv removing; the breaks between 

' / o 

each. But, while I submit to their decision in the 
above instance, I beg leave tlf deny that any of the 
materials are too trivial for insertion. I was to give 
the habits and manners of the Londoners as I found 
them. If their conduct was even infantile in some 
cases, the fault lay with them, not with me ; if part 

b2 of 


of their conduct resembles that of all the rest of the 
world, it is still a part of their conduct, and requires 
notice as much as their pecularities ; and it is mere 
wanton contradiction to assert the contrary. 

The Reviewer next discovers, that periodical pub- 
lications are not the best authorities for ascertaining 


the manners of the times. This I utterly deny j and 
I challenge the Reviewer to point out the cases where 
falsehood and inaccuracy are discoverable, in the 
use I have made of them. In truth, they are almost 
the only vehicles by which we obtain any thing like a 
correct account of the foibles of the day nay, any 
account at all. What does he say to the Spectator, 
the Tatler, the World, the Rambler, the Guardian, 
the Observator, the Female Tatler ? Were they not 
periodical publications ? Do they abound in " shame- 
ful lief (the gross words of the Reviewer) ? or are 
they not considered as faithful sketches of those cus- 
toms which escape the notice of the Historian ? 

Every Newspaper may contain misrepresentations 
and falsehoods ; but those are generally confined to 
politics and artifices of trade : when any indifferent 
circumstance is to be related, there is no inducement 
to wilful falsehood. Besides, our ingenuous Reviewer 
must have allowed me to have had sufficient discern- 
ment to reject articles of that description. Were I 
to act with the same candour towards him as he has 
evinced towards " Newspapers, Intelligencers, and 
Magazines" (observe, Reviews are omitted) in his re- 
jection of them as authorities, I should charge him 
with declaring a deliberate falsehood in informing his 
readers that my excellent friend Mr. Nichols had lost 


his matchless collection of periodical publications in 
the late burning of his warehouse and printing-office, 
A statement of this nature need not rest upon " a'r 
believe :" London is extensive, but surely within the 
compass of a Reviewer's walk, who dogmatically sub- 
stitutes we believe for the simple question at Mr. Ni- 
chols's door, " Have you lost your collection ?" 

I shall now follow this candid gentleman's example 
he damns in the Theatrical term the whole of my 
book, by endeavouring to mislead the publick into a 
belief that it contains not a word of truth j and then 
a high-sounding apology in these words : " That Mr. 
M. would intentionally pervert a single fact, or make 
one statement that he believed to be erroneous, we 
certainly have not the most distant idea of intimating; 
he possesses too high a sense of honour, too great a 
feeling of manly integrity, even to permit the sup- 
position." Pray, good Sir, who would willingly con- 
sider me rather as a foob than as a liar, apply your 
own words to yourself; and let me add, I am convinced 
you believed Mr. Nichols's collection to have been 
consumed by fire, though it certainly was not. 

Further let me repeat your words, " Thus have I 
done, and / challenge contradiction: mine are the 
best authorities" Yes, they are the best authorities ; 
such as the Journals of the House of Commons, the 
Gentleman's Magazine, official publications of Chari- 
ties, and various institutions, under the signatures of 
their Secretaries, Reports of Coroners on Inquests, 
the Statements of G. A. Wachsel, Sir John Fielding's 
official reports, Mr. Howard's letters, Acts of Parlia- 
ment, Dr. Hawes's information to the Author, Adver- 


tisements from different Speculators, the official state- 
ments of the Society for Reformation of Manners, 
Report of the Committee of Magistrates 1725, Letter 
from Secretary of State 1728, Proclamations by the 
King and the Lord Mayor, original Letters of Richard 
Smith 1732, the Police Act, Evidence before the 
Committee of the House of Commons 1750, Address 
from Justice Fielding 1759, Narrative relating to the 
Cock-lane Ghost, Evidence of Physicians relating to 
Mad-houses 1762, Examinations before Committee of 
Commons respecting Robberies 177D, Sir J. Field- 
ing's Address to Grand Jury 1773, official statement 
of Society for suppressing Vice ; Quacks' own adver- 
tisements ; Addison, from the Lover ; London Ga- 
zette, ceremonial for receiving George I.; Royal 
Proclamation, 1721, confirming the existence of scan- 
dalous Clubs, Mackay's Journey through England 
1724, Switterda's Advertisements, Act for suppres- 
sing Private Balls, Report of Committee of Common 
Council 1761, Charge by Sir J. Fielding respecting 
Profane Swearing 1763, original letters between the 
Bishop of Bristol and his Parishioners 1768, Grosley's 
Tour to London, Advertisements by C. Weedon, Esq. 
Life of Sacheverell, Henley's Advertisements, pre- 
sentment of the Grand Jury relating to him 1728, 
Lady E. Hamilton's advertisements, Lord Viscount 
Vane's advertisement, original advertisements of Lot- 
teries and Benefit Societies, Q.ueen Anne's commu- 
nication to the Lord Mayor respecting Riots 1709, 
Abstract of Wild's indictment 1725, official parish 
letter of Chiist-caurch Surrey 1757, Minutes of Co- 
roners Inquest 1763, Wilkes's letter 1768, Trial of 



Donald M'Lane, King's Proclamation 1768, that of 
Harley, Mayor, same period, Trial of J. Grainger, &c. 
1768, Petition of W. Allen 1768, Presentment of 
Grand Jury 1701, that of Middlesex 1703; London 
Gazette, reformation of the Stage; the Present- 
ment of Middlesex Grand Jury 1723, Advertise- 
ments of Figg and others, masters of defence, No- 
tice from Wilks, &c. and Gibber's answer 1733, No- 
tice from the Proprietor of Vauxhall-gardens, propo- 
sal from same 1738, Life of Handel, original letter 
from Mrs. Clive, Statements by- Mr. Garrick and Mr. 
Beard, Letters of Messrs. Harris and Colman, Mack- 
lin's narrative, Plan of the Regatta 1775, Foote's let- 
ter to the Lord Chamberlain, Advertisements of 
Clothing lost, Peruke-makers' petition 1763, Sir Wil- 
liam Davenant, original docquet to Mr. Cole for globe 
Jamps, Act for improving London 1760, Notice from 
Commissioners for paving, AND, LASTLY, PERIODICAL 

My words in the Introduction are : " It gives me 
pleasure to acknowledge I have been indebted to my 
worthy friend Mr. Nichols for the inspection of his 
matchless collection of periodical publications, from 
which great part of my materials have been selected." 
Whether they were the sole sources of my Anecdotes 
let the above list of authorities testify, which the rea- 
der may verify by turning over the following pao-es. 
If the Reviewer has read this work, I charge him on 
his conscience to say why he asserts my information 
depends wholly upon lying newspapers, &c. Where, 
alas ! has the " full spirit of moral honesty" evapo- 
rated which he so calmly professes ? 



Two sentences more, and I hare done with the 
Anti-Jacobin. I am treated with the utmost superci- 
liousness for attempting to prove that many male and 
female figures are to be found in London equal to the 
celebrated statues of the Venus de Medicis and the 
Apollo Belvidere, which were alluded to by the 
words Grecian Apollos and Vtnuses. What, am I to 
be told that my powers of discrimination " are far 
above par " because 1 assert the British human form 
is equal to the conceptions of the antient Grecians ? 
This " Gre-y-beurd," as he calls himself, must have 
studied the Arts in a Mercantile way indeed, or 
he would have pronounced my powers were be- 
low par in saying they were only equal, as, upon 
a moment's consideration, I am convinced there 
are hundreds of persons in London whose forms in 
general, and the swells of their muscles, as far sur- 
pass the statues in question, excellent as they may 
be, as the works of God ever did and ever must ex- 
ceed those of man. Indt ed, the best Artists invaria- 
bly acknowledge with humility and regret how very 
inferior their works are to the common productions of 
Nature. Then how extremely ridiculous are these 
vrords of the Reviewer : " That the Metropolis can 
furnish many beautiful figures both male and female, 
from the millions of its inhabitants, we readily allow ; 
but that perfection of form and character which cha- 
racterises an Apollo and a Venus, has but few, very 
few resemblances" I am almost tempted to say the 
latter part of this paragraph is impious : The most 
complicated, wonderful, and beautiful specimen of the 
powers gf the Creator, exceeded by the works of the 

created ; 


created ; nay, so far exceeded as to leave but fevr 
even of resemblances ! ! ! Has the Reviewer read that 
indefatigable and accurate author Keysler ? Hear 
what he says of the Venus de Medicis, after paying it 
the just tribute due to superior excellence : " The 
head is by most Connoisseurs considered as too small 
in proportion to the rest of the body, particularly the 
hips ; some censure the nose as too large ; and possi- 
bly the furrow along the vertebrae of the back is 
something too deep, especially as the object repre- 
sents a soft plump female ; and both the bend of the 
arms and inclination of the body jointly conspire to 
lessen the depth of this furrow, if not totally to obli- 
terate it. The ringers are remarkably long, and all, 
except the little finger of the left hand, destitute of 
joints ; but this should not affect the reputation of the 
Artist, as it is sufficiently evident, that the hands had 
not received his last touches." It has often been as- 
serted that the English Jacobin cordially hates his own 
countrymen, and endeavours to exalt the perfections 
of their enemies : the above fact seems to prove de- 
cidedly that an Anti-Jacobin treats an author with 
contempt, because he wished to say the truth of the 
Reviewer's countrymen. If the reverse was the case, 
and the British form was less perfect, I ought to have 
escaped censure merely for my amor patrife. 

It was to deprecate such criticism as the preceding, 
which I expected, through the experience of others, 
that I prescribed an Antidote in the Preface of the 
first edition. 

And now I shall leave these two wise Review- 
ers " to chew the cud in their own way" accord- 
ing to the elegant expression of the Anti- Jacobin. 



The Eclectic Review, in noticing this work, has 
confined itself to such observations as were highly 
proper, supposing the volume intended to form a com- 
plete history of the century. I have already explained 
the reasons why I offered it to the publick as it ap- 
peared, and shall not therefore repeat them; but I 
cannot avoid adding, I feel myself indebted for the 
offered suggestions, though they were anticipated. 
When gentlemanly reproof is tempered with praise, 
he must be an arrogant and presumptuous writer in- 
deed who feels offended at the recital of his real or 
supposed errors. I shall give some commendatory 
extracts, and the Reviewer will permit me to refute 
one of his suppositions. 

" We certainly approve Mr. M's choice of a sub- 
ject; and highly should we have congratulated our- 
selves if collectors of equal diligence had performed 
the same task for the 17th and many preceding cen- 
turies which he has undertaken for the last." " Mr. 
M. with equal modesty and prudence, intitles his vo- 
lume Anecdotes.' 1 '' " It presents some of the principal 
features of the times, and will afford amusement and 
knowledge to the present generation, and still more 
to future generations, who cannot by recollection 
compare the portrait with the original." " Whoever 
desires to form a just estimate of the manners of the 
English in the 18th century will derive great assist- 
ance from Mr. M's collections." 

After what has been said, I am sorry to be obliged 
to censure any part of this Review of my Anecdotes. 
Speaking of my prints of Dress, the Reviewer says, I 
should have consulted several works which he has 



named, particularly Hogarth's labours, or family pic- 
tures, and adds :> " We are very much afraid Mr. M's 
prints on this subject have been made up memoriter" 
The above sentence must be considered by every im- 
partial person as perfectly unjustifiable, and insulting 
to my moral character. This instance sufficiently 
proves that I am personally unknown to the Reviewer, 
or he would also have known deceit and baseness form, 
no part of my composition. It now remains for me to 
give my authorities for the sketches of dress, which 
are full as authentic as any the Reviewer has men- 
tioned ; and to his surprize and regret he will learn 
that the very Hogarth he blames me for neglecting is 
one of them. 

Dress 1690 1715, is from a print published imme- 
diately after the coronation of William and Mary re- 
presenting that event, offered to the world by one of 
the Heralds at Arms. Dress 1721 is from a wooden 
cut in a newspaper exhibiting the young beau of the 
day. Dress 1735 is three figures grouped from Ho- 
garth's plates. Dress 1738 is the old maid in Covent- 
garden from Hogarth, the position of the figure al- 
tered. Dress 171-5 from Hogarth, the attitudes differ- 
ent. Dress 1752, attitudes altered from a large print 
of Vauxhall-gardens. Dress 1766 from Rooker's 
view of Covent-garden Church. Dress 1773 from a 
Mezzotinto, figures altered. Dress 1779 the hint 
laken from Miss Burney's Evelina. Dress 1785 from 
a large Aquatinta of the interior of the Pantheon, Ox- 
ford-street, figures newly grouped. The two last the 
Reviewer knows to be correct. In concluding this sub- 
ject, I cannot do better than quote the words of the 



Reviewer of my work in the European Magazine for 
June 1 808. Speaking of the Anecdotes of Dress, he 
could not omit noticing " a Chapter" that " has in a 
manner fixed these fleeting meteors of public absurdity, 
by a series of prints, that at once serve as embellish- 
ments and elucidations of the work." " These prints 
we really wish our readers could see, because they 
are, in many instances, extremely curious, and also 
because, on subjects of this nature, an artist with a 
few strokes of his pencil can convey ideas in a much 
stronger manner to the mind than an author in pages 
of laboured description." 

As I have candidly given the reader all that the 
preceding Reviewers have said against me, he will in- 
dulge me in adding a few words from those who praise 
me. Were all Reviews formed on the liberal plan 
which distinguishes the article concerning my Anec- 
dotes in the European Magazine, every author must 
be gratified with the prospect of having his work 
fairly analysed, and receiving explanatory notices for 
a future edition, and rejoice that Reviews are pub- 
lished. In proceeding through the contents of my 
book this worthy critic has given explanations of such 
passages as his knowledge of London enabled him to 
illustrate, which I have inserted in the form of notes 
in their proper places in the present edition ; and in 
this pursuit he has, to his great credit, never once 
indulged in captious exceptions against particular sen- 
tences, or spoken of every thing omitted and nothing 
inserted. The conclusion is extremely grateful to my 
feelings : " When we consider the labour which Mr. 



M. must have undergone in collecting such a variety 
of materials from such a number of volumes, pam- 
phlets, and papers, as he must have perused (some 
of which are no longer accessible but to the curious) 
we are of opinion that he deserves great praise for 
his industry. As a body of information respecting 
the morals, the manners, the foibles, and follies of 
our ancestors, we think this work very useful ; as a 
book of reference, still more so. As an amusement, 
therefore, to the idle, and an assistant to the industri* 
ous readers, we unequivocally recommend it to the 

It may, perhaps, be said this praise is venal ; on the 
contrarj', I most solemnly declare I know neither my 
bitter Censors nor my Panegyrists. As some other 
Reviews have praised the work, I shall refer the rea- 
der to th Gentleman's Magazine, the Annual Re- 
view, &c. 

May 1809. J. P. MALCOLM. 









THERE is something in the composition of the 
British atmosphere highly congenial to human 
and animal life : the clouded air and frequent 
humidity, and consequent coolness, prevent the 
violent perspirations the natives of finer climates 
experience ; hence the fluids remain in full effect, 
and expand every part of the frame to its full 

The habits and manner of living at various 
periods of our history had great influence on the 
exteriors of our ancestors : when men were forced 
into armies to repel invaders from Saxony and 
Denmark, the whole race of Englishmen became 
either hardened into almost supernatural exertion 
and strength, or were victims to those chronic 

VOL. i. B diseases 


diseases which deform the body and destroy the 
regularity of features ; then the youth of each 
sex experienced privations incident to war, and 
the whole population must have suffered in the 
gracefulness of their persons. It required many 
years of quiet to restore the disorders of the body 
politic ; and those of individuals recovered in the 
same slow proportion. In the reign of JEdward 
III. Englishmen had again expanded into full 
military vigour ; they marched with the front of 
Hercules against their enemies, and they main- 
tained their strength and courage beyond the 
period of our Henry V. 

After that reign, I should imagine, their stature 
diminished, and their countenances assumed a 
less pleasing form ; and we find them bending 
under the most profligate despotism through the 
reigns of Henry VII. and VIII. Elizabeth, pos- 
sessed of equal power, but inclined to use it for 
the benefit of her subjects, as far as- the confined 
ideas of the time permitted, raised the people 
nearer to manhood ; and her young soldiers 
waited for the enemy on their coasts, not yet 
as volunteers, but as defenders of their metropo- 
lis for a virtuous arbitrary Monarch. 

The sentiments imbibed during this auspicious 
period, contributed to render domestic life more 
cheerful than it had hitherto been; the person 
was enlarged, and became more graceful ; dis- 
content fled from the features ; and the Londoner, 


still nearer perfection, at last accomplished those 
two Revolutions which have for ever banished 
Despotism, and secured his home nay made it 
his castle. See the consequences in the myriads 
of beautiful infants that smile on every side of 
him, with the regular and placid lines that mark 
their faces, and the strait and truly proportioned 
limbs that distinguish vast numbers of all ranks 
of people of both sexes. 

Still the deformed and pallid are numerous ; 
but deformity and disease in London generally 
proceed from causes which may be prevented; 
very confined residences destroy the health of 
parents and their offspring ; the lowest class of 
inhabitants drink away their comforts, and suffer 
their children to crawl into manhood. 

The highest classes sometimes trust infants to 
mercenaries ; crooked legs and injured spines are 
too often the consequence : yet we find thousands 
of males and females, who appear to have been, 
nursed by the Graces, and as far surpass the cele- 
brated statues of the Venus de Medicis and the 
Apollo Belvidere, as the works of the Creator 
ever will those of man. When a female of high 
rank emerges from the controul of her governess, 
and receives the last polish, I pronounce her an 
ornament to any Court in Europe. 

Those favoured with an opportunity of seeing 
the 30,000 volunteers assembled at Hyde-park in 
1804, determined to fight for their homes., must 

u 2 agree 

agree with me that no nation ever produced an 
equal number together so finely proportioned and 

In confirmation of my assertion that part of 
the deformity observable in the lower class of 
people might be prevented, I shall insert a Par- 
liamentary report concerning their children, and 
show how numbers taken from parents have been 
disposed of. 

" Mr. Whitworth reported from the Commit- 
tee appointed to inquire into the state of the 
parish poor infants, under the age of 14 years, 
within the bills of mortality, and to report their 
opinion to the House ; that the Committee had 
inquired accordingly, and had come to several 
resolutions which they had directed him to re- 
port to the House. The said Report was read, 
and is as follows : 

S( The Committee having examined the regis- 
ters of the several parishes referred to them by 
the House, have collected from them the state of 
the parish infant poor ; and find, that taking the 
children born in workhouses or parish houses, or 
received of and under 12 months old in the year 
176*3, and following the same into 1764 and 
176*5, only seven in one hundred appeared to have 
survived this short period. 

" That having called for the registers of the 
years 1754, 1/55, l/o'l, 17&2, of the children 
placed out apprentices by the parishes within the 


bills of mortality, it appears that there have 
been apprenticed out the number of 1419 ; but, 
upon examining the ages at \vhich the said chil- 
dren so placed out were received in the seven 
years from 1/41 till they grew up to be placed 
out, it appears that only 19 of those born in the 
workhouses, or received into them under 12 
months old, compose any part of the 1419 ; and 
even of those received as far as three years old, 
only 36* appear to have survived in the hands of 
the said parishes to be placed out apprentices. 
It appears that the children are kept in the seve- 
ral workhouses in town, or in the hands of parish 
nurses in town, only a small portion of them 
being sent into the country to be nursed, and the 
price of 3$. and 2s. 6d. per week first paid, is 
often reduced so low as Is. 6d. and 1*. per week ; 
that it cannot be presumed to be equal to the 
necessary care of infants. 

" Your Committee find the conduct of parish 
nurses was taken notice of by Parliament in the 
year 1715 ; and upon examining also into the 
recent facts above related, it doth not appear to 
your Committee that the evil is or can be reme^ 
died, unless proper regulations are established by 
legislative authority. It appears from the evi- 
dence of the parish officers of St. Andrew, Hoi- 
born (called within the City liberties), and also 
from Mr. Hutton, a principal inhabitant of that 
parish, that the sum of 2s, 6d. a week for the 


article of nursing, is as little as a child can be 
nursed at to have justice done it ; but at the same 
time, they being sensible of the good conduct 
and management of the Hospital for the main- 
tenance and education of exposed and deserted 
young children, they have proposed to the gover- 
nors and guardians thereof, to receive their infant 
parish poor at a certain rate, which, by the mi- 
nutes of the general court of the said Hospital, 
dated Feb. 18, 1767, which was produced to 
your Committee and read, the said governors 
and guardians are ready to comply with, and 
likewise to forward any general purpose the Le- 
gislature may think proper to direct, in relation 
to the preservation of the infant parish poor 
within the bills of mortality. 

" It appears upon the examination of Saun- 
ders Welch, esq. that great inconveniences have 
been found from parish boys being placed out 
apprentice so long as till the age of 24 ; and upon 
reading the clause in the 4,3d of Elizabeth, cap. 
2, intituled, c An Act for the relief of the Poor,' 
in the 5th section thereof it is said, l Parish offi- 
cers are to bind their man child to the age of 24, 
but the woman child to the age of 21, or time of 
marriage.' This, your Committee thinks, checks 
marriage, and discourages industry. It appears 
to your Committee, that the usual sum given by 
parishes with apprentices, has been generally 


from 20 to 40s. only, which your Committee 
think inadequate to the procuring good masters. 

" It appears that the register directed to be 
made out by the Act of the 2d of His present 
Maje^.y, intituled, ' An Act for keeping a regu- 
lar, uniform, and annual register of all parish 
poor infants under a certain age, within the bills 
of mortality,' is deficient, by not setting forth 
how children are disposed of after the age of four 

" Upon the whole, your Committee came to 
the following resolutions : That it is the opinion 
of this Committee, that the parish infant poor, 
within the bills of mortality, should be sent into 
the country to be nursed, at a distance not less 
than a certain number of miles from any part of 
the town : That it is the opinion of this Com- 
mittee, that the parish officers should allow and 
pay a certain sum for nursing each child : That 
it is the opinion of this Committee, that a proper 
number of principal inhabitants should be chosen 
in every parish respectively, under the denomi- 
nation of Guardians of the parish infant poor, to 
inspect into the treatment of the said children 
nursed as above : That it is the opinion of this 
Committee, that the parish officers, governors, 
and directors of the poor, should have the alter- 
native of sending such children to the Hospital, 
for the maintenance and education of exposed 
and deserted young children ; and the governors 


and guardians thereof be permitted to take them 
at a certain sum, and to be paid by the said of- 
ficers for nursing such children out of the parish 
rates : That it is the opinion of this Committee, 
that parish children should be placed out appren- 
tice for a shorter time than is by law prescribed : 
That it is the opinion of this Committee, that a 
proper sum should be given as apprentice fees 
with the said parish children: That it is the 
opinion of this Committee, that the register of 
in! ant poor under four years of age, should be 
continued on till the children are in the same 
manner disposed of in the world. 

" These resolutions were agreed to by the 
House, and a bill ordered." 

It appears from a return inserted in the Jour- 
nals of the House of Commons, 1778, that, in 
the preceding eleven years, the following was the 
state of the reception and discharge of parish 
children in the parishes mentioned, from which 
an accurate estimate may be formed for the res,t 
of London. 

Children under Died. Returned to Appren- 
6 years old. their parents, ticed. 

St. Giles in the Fields, 

and St. George, 

Bloom sbury 1479 177 .9 5 ft 310 

St. Margaret and St. 

John, Westminster 1109 l8l ?G6 1J2 
St. Anne, Westminster 324 100 152 76' 


Children under Died. Returned to Apprwv 
6 yeais old. their parents. ticed. 

St. James, Westminster 8&'l 215 250 243 

St. Clement Danes 257 1*3 84 89 
St. Andrew, Holborn, 

and St. George Martyr 75(1 137 308 207 

Saffron Hill - 231 30 82 95 

St. James, Clerkenwell 701 104 456 116* 

St. Mary, Whitechapel 449 69 102 286 

St. Saviour's, Southwark 539 105 205 187 

St. Leonard, Shoreditch 586 99 178 185 

St. John, Southwark 154 48 65 12? 

St. Luke, Old-street 42! 103 103 234 

St. Botolph, Aldgate 297 90 130 101 

St. Martin in the Fields 1512 463 736 321 

St. Paul, Covent-garden 5 1 8 27 36 

9727 2042 4600 2794 

Children, nursed as the above authentic docu- 
ments prove they were, cannot but have been 
checked in their growth ; and perhaps many of 
them are at this moment part of the miserable 
objects we daily see in the streets. The exercise 
of a little humanity may prevent similar evils in 

There js an admirable example, which has 
long been established for our imitation, where 
the offspring of vice and humble virtue, equally 
innocent, are received and nurtured with the ut- 
most care, and where human nature is rescued 
from debasement,, corporeal and mental. Let 



the reader reflect on the thousands originally pre- 
served, and their descendants rendered happy, 
through the god-like benevolence of Captain 
Coram ; and he will immediately recollect the 
Foundling Hospital. 

In consequence of that worthy man's petition, 
George II. granted a Charter of incorporation, 
whL'h authorised Charles duke of Richmond, and 
several other eminent persons, to purchase lands, 
&c. in mortmain, to the annual amount of 4OOO/. 
to be applied to the maintenance and education 
of ev : nd deserted infants. 

The first quarterly general meeting of the Cor- 
poration was held December 2fi, 1739, when 
subscription-books were ordered to be opened at 
the Bank of England and various bankers, for 
inserting the names of annual contributors. The 
governors and guardians then amounted to near 
400, who unanimously determined to vote their 
thanks to Captain Coram ; but he declined them, 
and modestly requested they might be transferred 
to those ladies whose subscriptions had enabled 
him to procure the Charter. This proposal was 
acceded to, and the benevolent Captain deputed 
to convey them. 

Montague house, now the British Museum, 
had been thought by the governors in 1740, an 
eligible receptacle for the objects of the intended 
charity ; but Messrs. Fazakerly, and the Attorney 
and Solicitor Generals, to whom the matter was 



referred, gave it as their opinion that the expence 
of obtaining those extensive premises would be 
too great. The governors resolved, in conse- 
quence, to open subscriptions for the purchase of 
land on which to erect an hospital, and in the 
mean time to receive sixty children in a tempo- 
rary receptacle. 

They accomplished their wishes in the follow- 
ing December, by obtaining 56 acres North of 
Ormond-street, of the earl of Salisbury, for 7000/. 
the present site of the Foundling hospital, Guild- 
ford-street, &c. On the 25th of March, 1741, 
19 male and 1 1 female infants were received, all 
of whom were less than two months old ; their 
baptism took place the ensuing Sunday, when 
two were honoured with the names of Thomas 
and Eunice Coram ; others of robust frames and 
apparently calculated for future seamen, were 
called Drake, Blake, and Norris. 

John Milner, esq. vice-president of the corpo- 
ration, assisted by many governors, laid the first 
stone of the new hospital in 1742, when a cop- 
per plate, secured between two pieces of milled- 
lead, was deposited in a cavity ; the plate is thus 
inscribed: " The foundation of this hospital for 
the relief of exposed and deserted young children, 
was laid l6th September, 16 George II. 1742." 

The Corporation, laudably attentive to the fu- 
ture happiness of the orphans committed to their 
care, determined to have them inoculated for the 


small-pox in 1744 ; a process then as much con- 
demned as vaccination is at presen*. 

The first stone of the Chapel was deposited by 
-- Jacobson, esq. and contains the following 
inscription : " The foundation of this Chapel was 
laid the 1st day of May, A. I). 1/47, anf t ni the 
20th year of his most sacred Majesty King 
George II." At the same time a successful at- 
tempt to obtain farther pecuniary assistance was 
made, by a public breakfast for ladies, at 2s. 6d. 
per ticket, when a collection for the Chapel 
amounted to 5.96^ 13.9. and another for the hos- 
pital produced liol. gs. 6d. 

The Prince and Princess of Wales honoured 
the governors with tb-'ir presence at the Chapel, 
Saturday, May 27, l/4y, to hear one of Handel's 
compositions performed for the benefit of the 
hospital ; the audience is said to have consisted 
of 1000 persons, who each paid lOtf. 6Y7. for their 

tickets. The King sent 2000/. and an unknown 
benefactor 50/. 

The worthy and veteran Coram died March 
2.9, 1751, aged 83, and was buried April 2d, in 
the vault beneath the chapel of his hospital. 
The honours due to this excellent philanthropist 
were paid by the Corporation to the utmost ex- 
tent; and the choirs of St. Paul's and St. Peter's 
Westminster chaunted Dr. Boyce's funeral ser- 
vice over the body, which was covered by a prill 
borne by many persons of distinction, foil 



by the charter of the foundation carried on a vel- 
vet cushion ; and the infants preserved by his 
exertions closed the procession. The present 
governors, fully sensible of the public debt of 
gratitude still in arrears, have recently given his 
name to Great and Little Coram streets, erected 
on the surplus ground belonging to the charity *. 

Frequent repetitions of Handel's music, and 
contributions of every description, enabled the 
governors to receive 1240 children from 1742 to 
1754. They, however, thought proper to petition 
the legislature for assistance two years afterwards, 
and obtained 10,000/. to be applied for the re- 
ception of infants under two months old. On 
the 2d June, 1756", 117 were admitted -{-. 

The governors found it necessary to publish 
the following notice on this occasion : " The go- 
vernors and guardians of this Hospital thinking 
it incumbent on them to expose the falsity of 
what has been propagated in several newspapers, 
that out of 10,000/. granted by Parliament to 
this Corporation, 1200/. was deducted in several 
offices for fees ; do hereby assure the publick, 
that all fees whatsoever were charitably remitted 
by all the noblemen and gentlemen through 
whose offices the proper warrants pass, so that 
the clear sum of 1Q,000/. was paid into the Bank 
of England on account of the Hospital. By 
order of the general Committee, 

Sept. 7, 1757. J. CoLLitfcwooD, Sec" 

* Gent. Mag. f Jour, of House of Commons. 

In 1757, the House of Commons granted the 
enormous sum of 20,000/. to enable the gover- 
nors to take all children under six months of a^e, 

o * 

brought to them before Jan. 1, 1758. 

A general statement of the proceedings pub- 
lished in 1758, declared, that from the opening 
of the Hospital, March 25, 1741, to Dec. 31, 
1757* 6894 children had been received, 5510 of 
whom were taken from the 1st of June, 1750, in 
consequence of the grant of 10,OOO/. The num- 
ber of deaths to the 31st of Dec. 1757? was 2821. 
The sums presented to the charity in 1757, in- 
cluding 30,000/. from the legislature, amounted 
to38.002/. Is. 2rf.; 28067. 10*. 3d. of which was 
bequeathed to the Hospital, 508/. 4*. 6V. given 
in annual benefactions, and 06 7. 14.9. 6d. bene- 
factions towards the charges of the Chapel. 

The expences of this eventful year, in the 
annals of the charity, was 33,S32/. 13s. 2d.; 
502/. 4*. 6d. of which was paid in fees, when 
passing the warrants for 20,000/. the second grant 
from Parliament. 

In 1797, there were 357 children on the esta- 
blishment, 175 in the house, and 182 at nurse, 
principally received from the metropolis. From 
1770 to 1797, lfi84 were received, of which 
number, 482 died under the age of twelve 
months ; their age when received is generally 
under two months, and the limitation is twelve 
months, unless in particular cases or when 10O/. 



is sent with the child, and except the children 
of soldiers or sailors in the service of their coun- 
try. Children are admitted on petition, and the 
mother is examined as to the truth of her state- 
ments, who is placed, if practicable, in # proper 
situation to obtain a livelihood *. 


This school was established in 17 18, for the 
reception, maintenance, education, and appren- 
ticing poor children of Welsh parents, born in 
and near London, who have no settlement ; the 
school was originally held at the Hat, Shire-lane, 
then on Clerken well-green ; but the trustees find- 
ing it insufficient for the purpose, and it having 
been patronized by the Prince of Wales, and en- 
riched by the donations of the publick, the go- 
vernors were enabled in 1772, to purchase the 
piece of freehold ground in Gray's-inn lane, 
where the school is now situated ; on which and 
other buildings for the reception of 42 boys and 
14 girls, they expended 36951. From the foun- 
dation to 1779, 642 boys were entered upon the 
establishment, of whom, 511 were apprenticed 
to captains of vessels and various trades -j~. 

* See the plate of the North side of the Foundling, 
f Gent. Mag, The origin of the Welsh Society, 
arid the subsequent charity school, ma.y perhaps be 




Such have been part of the proceedings of the 
inhabitants of London, in endeavouring to pre- 
serve the lives of infants ; to which might be 
added many collateral means, particularly those 
which adopt the offspring of criminals, and thus 
render them useful members of society. 

The subject might now be spread into various 
ramifications ; but as brevity should be preferred 
when practicable, I shall confine my information 
and observations to the last century, and present 
the reader with the most material occurrences in 
the still greater work of preserving the population 
of London from degenerating in every point of 
view, and even from starvation, during their pro- 
gress to maturity, and in the decline of life. 

The commencement of the century was re- 
markable for a grand effort of charity, not the 
passing charity which provides for temporary 
wants of the body, that may recur almost imme- 
diately upon the disposal of the gift, nor that 
which removes the possibility of penury from the 
residents of alms and workhouses ; but that which 

dated from the celebration of the birth-day of the Prin- 
cess of Wales, Feb. 1115, when several distinguished 
sons of St. David heard a Sermon preached in their 
native language, by Dr. Lewis, at St. Paul's, Covent- 
garden ; whence they adjourned to Haberdashers hall, 
where, invigorated by repletion, the Antient British 
Society was planned for the double celebration of the 
Prince's birth-day, and the commemoration of their 
Patron Saint. 


rendered the infant mind the seat of innocence, 
morality, and knowledge. The reader will fully 
appreciate the importance of this event, when I 
mention the schools established by one divine 
impulse in every quarter of the metropolis, and 
when he compares the chaos of ideas which must 
have composed the minds of the poorest classes 
of children, previous to the existence of these 
institutions, with the instructed infant comfort- 
ably cloathed, clean, and regular in attending 
divine worship. 

The next general act of beneficence originated 
from a forcible appeal to the feelings of the Lon- 
doners, who beheld many hundreds of deluded 
Germans or Palatines, deserted by those who had 
promised to convey them to America, houseless, 
and without food, and relieved them from the 
pressure of those evils. 

Cavendish Weedon, esq. issued the following 
advertisement in 1/01, which does him immor- 
tal honour : " His Majesty having been pleased 
by his late most gracious proclamation to signify 
his desires for the encouraging of piety and mo- 
rality and suppression of vice, Mr. Weedon of 
Lincoln's-Inn, for the better promoting the ho- 
nour of God and such his pious intentions, hath 
established a monthly entertainment of Divine 
Musick at Stationers-hall, on Monday, the 5th 
day of January next, and intended to be kept 
and continued there every first Monday in every 

VOL. i. c mouth. 


month, excepting the Lent season, and the 
months of July, August, and September. The 
same to consist of Anthems, Orations, and Poems, 
in honour and praise of God, religion, and vir- 
tue, one day; and in discouragement of irreli- 
gion, vice, and immorality, the other, alter- 
nately : to be performed by the best masters in 
each faculty ; for which purpose all ingenious 
persons skilled in those qualifications that shall 
think fit to send in any composition in prose or 
verse to Mr. Playford, bookseller in the Temple- 
change in Fleet-street, free from all manner of 
reflections on parties and persons in particular, 
such as shall be approved of, Mr. Playford shall 
have orders to gratify the authors, and to return 
the others with thanks for the Author's kind in- 
tentions. The performance to begin exactly at 
eleven of the clock in the morning ; and tickets 
to be had at Mr. Play ford's, Garra way's, the Rain- 
bow, and at most of the chief coffee-houses in 
town. The benefit of the Tickets, being only 
5*'. a-piece, the common price of other Musick- 
tickets, is to be disposed of amongst decayed 
gentry, and the maintenance of a school for edu- 
cating of children in Religion, Musick, and Ac- 

Mr. Weedon advertised in the Gazette of May 
4, 1702, that his Musical and other entertain- 
ments would be performed at Stationers-hall on 
the 7th with Anthems by Dr. Blow, an Oration 



by Mr. Collier, and Poems by Mr. Tate, her 
Majesty's Poet Laureat, in praise of Religion and 
Virtue. The receipts to be applied as before- 

In 1/llj British charity extended beyond the 
bounds of the realm, through an application from 
the Society for the propagation of the Gospel in 
foreign parts to her Majesty, who was pleased, 
in consequence, to permit a collection to be made 
from house to house in all the parishes and pre- 
cincts within the bills of mortality, to be applied 
to the purposes of the institution ; which was 
announced from the reading-desks on Trinity 

Exclusive of the annual meetings of the cha- 
rity children, there were opportunities taken to 
impress the publick with,a due sense of the value 
of the institutions. 

In 1713, they were assembled in the Artillery- 
oTound, where the duke d'Aumont the French 
resident, and other distinguished characters at- 
tended to inspect them ; the ambassador evinced 
his approbation by handsome presents of money 
to buy them books, &c. And on the thanksgiv- 
ing day 4000 of these youths were seated upon 
elevated benches, which extended 600 feet in the 
Strand, where they saluted the two Houses of 
Parliament and the great officers of state, with 
hymns sung in unison. 

c 2 


The trustees adopted a plan in 1713, that 
seems well worth imitation at present, which was 
a Sermon preached by the Rev. Dr. Waugh, at 
St. Bride's, from the 12th verse of the 27th 
Psalm, " When my father and my mother for- 
sake me, the Lord taketh me up," before 1400 
of those children, of 2250 who had been placed 
with persons as apprentices and servants. An 
impressive discourse addressed to young persons, 
under such circumstances, must be attended with 
the best effects. 

The gifts of private individuals to the poor can- 
not often be ascertained, but, that they are gene- 
rally considerable, may be accidentally collected 
through the death of common beggars : one of 
those who lived in Barbican, died in October, 
1713, when 80 years of age, and seems to have 
perished through the chill occasioned by some 
sour beer given to her in Sinithfield ; her pock- 
ets contained eight farthings, but the rags that 
covered her concealed 150 broad pieces and 

In 1714, the King gave the Sheriffs 1000/. for 
the relief and discharge of poor prisoners for debt. 

Mr. Feast, brewer, of Whitecross-street, set a 
most brilliant example of charity in the dreadful 
winter of 171-5-16, by purchasing 400 chaldrons 
of coals, which he distributed to such poor per- 
sons as were deprived of work by the severity of 

the winter. 


In the following year 4400 persons formed a 
Society for insurance upon Lives, with a monthly 
dividend ; but that which distinguished this asso- 
ciation, and rendered it a proper subject for this 
Chapter, was, their requesting the rectors, vicars, 
and wardens of St. Martin in the Fields, -St. 
James, St. Margaret's, St. Giles, St. Andrew's 
Holborn, and St. Clement Danes, " to recom- 
mend two boys out of each parish to the Society, 
which shall be put forthwith to school, cloathed, 
and I0l.. given Lo put them out apprentices ; and 
as the Society receives encouragement, the same 
method will be used to the great parishes, within 
the bills of mortality, that are overburthened 
with poor ; and that a monthly stock is kept, 
and security given to the trustees for the security 
of the stock, to put several hundred children ap- 
prentices, and the 101. charity. Each subscriber 
pays only 1.9. per week ; and if the person dies in 
a month after entrance, you are entitled to a 
dividend of 500 months to be made ; but, if your 
life should continue one year, you are entitled to 
15/. to put out a child apprentice, or JO/, to be 
disposed of to charitable uses as you shall judge 
proper; and I2jl. per month laid by as a stock 
to sink your weekly payments," &c. c. * 

4800 children attended the anniversary of the 
charity-schools in 1716, at St. Sepulchre's church ; 

% Original proposal, 



on which occasion the bishop of Lincoln preached 
from Dan. iii. 12. The number of schools of 
this description had increased from the reign of 
king William III. in England and Ireland to 
1221, and near 30,000 children received the 
benefit of instruction, and in many instances 
food and cloathing ; those of London were 124, 
the number of boys educated in them 3131, the 
girls 1789 ; the children apprenticed from them, 
boys 2513, girls 1056 *. 

A most dreadful fire occurred at Limehouse in 
the month of December, 1716, by which near 
200 houses were destroyed, aud infinite distress 
occasioned ; the Prince Regent, agitated with 
strong sentiments of compassion, ordered the 
sum of 1000/. to be distributed immediately to 
the most pitiable objects ; which laudable exam- 
ple was promptly followed by others to a con- 
siderable amount. A more disinterested charity 
was prosecuting at the same period for the Epis- 
copal Protestants of Poland ; towards which, 60 1. 
was obtained in the inconsiderable parish of St. 
Helen's, Bishopsgate -^. 

The Prince of Wales, actuated by the same im- 
pulse which now operates in the Society for the 
relief of prisoners confined for Small Debts, sent. 
350Z. at Christinas, for the discharge of those at 
Ludgate and the two Compters. 

* Statement of the trustees. f Newspapers. 



In the year following a person, unknown, sent 
a 50/. note to the treasurer and trustees of the 
Blue-coat school, near Tothill-fields, the receipt 
of which was acknowledged in an advertisement, 
stating the agreeable fact, that this sum enabled 
them to receive four additional scholars, whom 
the} r promised to cloath at the periods mentioned 
in the statutes of the institution. 

Another, or perhaps the same person, released 
30 persons from Whitechapel prison, in August, 
1717? cloathed them, gave them a dinner, and 
2s. 6d. each; six months afterwards, the same 
benevolent unknown, repeated his charities at 
Whitechapel, and released all confined for small 
debts, one of whom was imprisoned near six 
months for 55. 6d. which had been swelled by 
charges and fees to 40s. 

Jan. 1717-18, the King gave 1000/. for the 
discharge of insolvent debtors, in the gaols of 
London and the county of Middlesex. 

The King gave 1000/. per annum, towards the 
relief of poor housekeepers in London and West- 
minster * ; that sum was increased to IOQO/. in 
1718, by collections under his Majesty's letters 
patent for the same purpose. 

The Prince appears to have given 2jO/. annu- 
ally to the Charter-house. 

* This Royal donation is still annually repeated ; 
and a collection under the King's letters patent is also 
made in all the parishes within the Bills of Mortality. 

A re- 


A repetition of the liberality of the unknowu 
occurred again in September 1719, at White- 
chapel, when he released 35 prisoners, besides 
giving them money. 

1720, the earl of Thanet gave 10QO/. to the 
widows and children of clergymen. 

The Society for the relief of the Widows and 
Children of Clergymen has been already noticed, 
in the first volume of " Londinium Redivivum ;" 
it will therefore only be necessary to state their 
gifts in 1720, which amounted to 2645 /. 1Q*- 
exclusive of a considerable sum expended in plac- 
ing out apprentices. 

Mrs. Mary Turner, in the same year, com- 
menced that noble foundation, which has since 
flourished with so much success, for the reception 
of incurable lunatics at Bethlehem hospital, by a 
handsome legacy. 

Shortly after an examination of the Marshalsea 
books took place, when it was found that up- 
wards of eleven hundred persons confined for 
small debts had been discharged within three 
years, by the charitable contributions of Roman 

Amongst the charities of 1720, was that of 
lady Holford, who left Wl. each to 2/ clergy- 
men, on condition they attended her funeral ; 
and eleven exhibitions of about 10/. each to as 
many boys, educated at the Charter-house upon 
th.e foundation. 



Tl>e collection for the Sons of the Clergy 
amounted to 239/. lOs. in 1720, which was dis- 
tributed to 16 children, in sums from 10/. to 20/. 
each ; the annual contributions generally average 
now at 1000/. * 

The year closed with the unequalled donation 
of Thomas Guy, who then determined to found 
that hospital on the site of the antient St. Tho- 
mas's, in Southwark, which has immortalized 
his name. 

Certain charitable persons established an In- 
firmary in 1719. Two years afterwards they 
published one year's statement of their proceed- 
ings, from which it appears 108 patients had been 
received, of whom 52 were cured, 6 incurable, 
8 died, 19 discharged for non-attendance, 1 for 
irregularity, 11 out-patients, and 11 within the 
infirmary, who received, with food and medi- 
cines, the exhortations of such clergymen as the 
Society could procure. 

The London Workhouse received from March 
1720 to March 1/21, 683 vagabonds, beggars, 
pilferers, and young vagrants, and lewd and dis- 
orderly persons, of whom 620 were discharged, 
2 buried, and 6 1 remained. In the same period, 
27 children were bound to tradesmen, 2 were 
buried, and 86 remained ; the latter were religi- 
ously educated in the doctrines of the Esta- 

* All these statements are from the Daily paper?, 


blished Church ; and were employed in spinning 
wool, sewing, and knitting, and taught to read, 
write, and cast accompts. 

A treaty was completed in 1/21, between the 
British Government and the Emperor of Morocco, 
by means of which, 280 persons were restored to 
their country ; who went in procession, clad in 
the Moorish habit, to St. Paul's, where a Sermon 
suited to the occasion was preached by Mr. Ber- 
riman, chaplain to the bishop of London. The 
curiosity of the citizens to see the emancipated 
slaves was such, that the benevolent intentions 
of many charitable persons were frustrated ; the 
collectors however obtained about lOOl. After 
the Sermon, they proceeded to St. James's, and 
were admitted to the garden, where the King 
did them the honour of viewing their grateful 
countenances, and afterwards ordered them 500/. 
The captives went thence to Leicester-house, and 
received 250/. from the Prince of Wales. 

The newspapers of December 1721, mention 
the revival of an antient custom upon the eve of 
great festivals ; which was the Lord Mayor's vi- 
siting the Markets in person, to solicit contribu- 
tions of provisions for the poor. It is said that 
his lordship was very successful at this period. 

The spring of 1725 was extremely wet, and 
serious apprehensions of a total failure of the 
crops very generally prevailed. Those fears for- 
tunately proved fallacious ; but the useful body 



of labourers who resort to the neighbourhood of 
London as haymakers suffered dreadfully, and 
several actually died for want of food and lodging. 
One sentiment of compassion seems to have pre- 
vailed for these wretched people, and 20 and 30/. 
at a time was collected at the Exchange and in 


several parishes: the duke of Chandos gave 150 
of them 2.y. 6d. and a sixpenny loaf each, at his 
gate at Canons. Mr. Carey, vicar of Islington, 
went to every house in the parish soliciting for 
them ; and, having received a handsome sum, he 
afterwards distributed it in the church. 

The following January was very propitious to 
the funds of Bethlehem hospital, several gentle- 
men having subscribed towards the erection of 
the wings for incurables. One of these gifts was 
500/. a second 200/. and another 100/. with a 
promise of the same sum annually for four years ; 
they unanimously concealed their names. 

M. Mahomet, a Turk, and a valet-de-chambre 
to George I. died in 1726, of whom it was said, 
" He wore the habit of a Turk, but had many 
Christian virtues, being profusely liberal to the 
poor ; and is said to have discharged near 300 
debtors from prison for small sums, since his 
coming into England." 

A Mrs. Palmer died in 1727, who bequeathed 
the following large sums in charities : 4000/. for 
propagating the Gospel abroad ; 4000/. for pro- 
moting Christian knowledge in the Highlands of 

Scotland ; 


Scotland ; 2000/. to queen Anne's bounty ; 2QOOL 
to Bethlehem hospital ; 500/. to the charity 
school of St. Andrew's, Holborn; and 500/. to 
poor widows, who received no alms from the 
parish. She resided in the parish of St. Andrew ; 
but was buried at St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 

The King honoured the Corporation of Lon- 
don with his company to dinner, in October, 
1727 ; when on his way, a person presented him 
a petition, beseeching relief for the various pri- 
soners for debt in London; this he received in 
the most gracious manner, and immediately or- 
dered 1000/. to be paid to the Sheriffs for that 

A Committee of the House of Commons visited 
the various prisons of the Metropolis, by order 
of the House, in March, 1729, when they found 
30 miserable wretches in the greatest extremity, 
through illness and want, at the Marshalsea; 
which operated so forcibly on their feelings, that 
they immediately contributed sufficient to pro- 
cure them medical assistance, nurses, cloaths, 
and food. 

Bloomsbury-market, built by the duke of Bed- 
ford, was opened in March, 1730, to the great 
satisfaction of the neighbourhood. On the fol- 
lowing Monday, the Duke bought all the unsold 
meat at the market-price, and had it distributed 
to the reduced housekeepers, and other necessit- 


ous persons, inhabitants of the parish of St. 
Giles's *. 

630 chaldrons of coals were purchased in June. 
1730, for the use of the poor of the several wards 
within the city of London. 

There were dreadfully destructive fires at 
Blandford and Tiverton in 1731 ; the sufferers 
from which received unusual commiseration from 
the whole kingdom, and large subscriptions. 
The King gave lOOl. to each of those towns, and 
the several, wards of London made considerable 

In the year 1733, four Charity Sermons were 
preached in the parish of St. Margaret, West- 
minster, and a collection made from door to door, 
which amounted to 125/. intended for certain in- 
habitants of Saltzburg, who were persecuted for 
their religious opinions, and desirous of emigrat- 
ing to Georgia. 

The Weekly Miscellany of May 19, 1733, 
contains the following account of the Charity 
Schools then established in London, with the 
rules by which they were governed ; they cannot 
but be read with avidity. 

" The most charitable and useful design of 


setting up Schools, for the instructing children of 
the meanest and poorest of the people, was be- 
gun in the year lG)8. What has now diffused 
itself through the whole nation, sprung from a 

* Statements in Newspaper-;, 



very small seed, which was first planted in this 
great city, and by the blessing of the Divine Pro- 
vidence has, in a wonderful manner, been in- 
creased ; so that there is now, within the cities 
of London and Westminster and bills of mor- 
tality, 132 charity schools. This charitable de- 
sign meeting with such encouragement from the 
very liberal benefactions of the inhabitants almost 
in every parish, trustees were chosen in each 
district to oversee the management of the masters 
and mistresses, and to prescribe rules and orders 
for the government of each school ; and treasurers 
were appointed, to whom all contributions were 
to be paid, who annually make up accounts of 
all money received and disbursed. The trustees 


frequently meet, to examine into the behaviour 
of the masters and mistresses, and whether due 
care is taken to preserve a regular discipline, and 
that the boys and girls be instructed, not only to 
read, but to be examined in the repetition of the 
Catechism, with the explanation thereof; which 
is brought in many schools to such perfection, 
that the children, upon their examination before 
the trustees, repeat, with great exactness, the 
texts in the Holy Scripture, to prove all the ar- 
ticles of the Creed, and other parts of the Cate- 
chism. These children are all cloathed at the 
expence of the trustees and subscribers ; and 
when they have been fully taught to read, write, 
and cast accompts, they are then either put out 



to services, or to some handicraft trade. The 
girls are bred up not only to read, but to work 
in linen, knitting, and washing, so as to be fit 
for menial services. 

" These schools thus increasing, it was thought 
necessary, in the year 1706", that the trustees 
should be formed into a voluntary Society, and 
that a chairman should be elected to preside, and 
summon meetings of the trustees as often as oc- 
casion should render it necessary. These meet- 
ings have regularly been continued to this time, 
where orders from time to time have been, by 
the majority of votes, agreed upon ; and in the 
year 1729, rules and orders for the better regula- 
tion of the said schools, were recommended to 
the several trustees of the schools in the country ; 
which being laid before the archbishops and 
bishops of the several dioceses in the kingdom, 
the said rules and orders were by them, under 
their hands, approved and established ; which 
orders are here inserted : by which it will appear 
that the utmost care has been taken, not only to 
instruct the Children in the knowledge of the 
Christian religion, but also to breed them up in 
such a manner, that, as they are descended from 
the laborious pail of mankind, they may be bred 
up and enured to the meanest services. If these 
orders be candidiy considered, there is no reason 
for the objections that are commonly made 
against the Charity schools; and it must be a 



great satisfaction to those that have engaged ill 
this charitable and useful design, that out of so 

O * 

great a number of children as have been thus edu- 
cated, there is but one instance that any of them 
have been convicted of any crime ; and this per- 
son, being transported, was so far influenced by 
his first education, that he was so thoroughly re- 
claimed, that he became a very industrious and 
sober man, and is so sensible of the benefit of his 
education, that, being in good circumstances, he 
is an annual contributor to the school where he 
vvas educated. Let it be considered, that as this 
city has vastly increased, and by consequence 
the poor proportionably multiplied, what must 
have become of all their children, if this method 
had not been taken for putting them out in an 
honest way to get their livelihoods, either by 
services or trades, the happy effects whereof is 
very evident. For there are now in the city of 
London many substantial tradesmen, who arc 
constant contributors to the schools in which they 
were educated. To this may be added, that by 
particular benefactions a school is established for 
teaching the art of Navigation, to qualify the 
boys, bred up in the Charity schools, to be skil- 
ful and able seamen ; since which a considerable 
number have been actually sent to sea ; and by 
all the accounts received from captains of the 
ships where they were placed, they have fully 
answered the intention of their benefactors. 

" In 


<c In some schools, both in London, and in the 
country, where the benefactions would allow it, 
the children are both fed and cloathed ; and in 
these both boys and girls are enured to labour, 
and the profit of their work applied towards their 
maintenance and setting them up ; and in most 
of the schools in the country, the children in the 
time of liarvest, are to be absent from coming to 
school, that they may glean, or do other work ; 
and when they are fully taught to read, they are 
put out to handicraft trades, or to be servants in 

" That great Prince the Czar took with him 
not only the models of English ships, but also 
the scheme that was then newly projected for 
establishing Charity schools, which upon return 
to his own country, he ordered to be erected in 
all parts of his vast Empire, which he inforced 
by an edict, that none should be manned that 
could not read the Bible : so differently did this 
wonderful genius think from some politicians 
amongst us, who have laid it down for a maxim 
in government, that the servile part of mankind 
are to be kept as Ignorant as possible ; whereas 
he endeavoured to promote knowledge and reli- 
gion, even in the lowest conditions of life, as a 
means of making his Nation a flourishing and 
powerful people, and himself a great and glorious 

VOL. i. D " Rules 


<e Rules for the good Order and Government of 
Charity Schools ; drawn up by the Trustees of 
tJiose Schools within the Bills of Mortality. 

(f I. That the directions given by the present 
Lord Bishop of London to the masters and mis- 
tresses of the Charity schools within the bills of 
mortality and diocese of London, in the year 
1724 (a copy of which hath been formerly sent 
to the several Charity schools), be duly observed. 

" 1. The cautions there given against teaching 
the children any thing that may set them 
above the condition of servants, or the more 
laborious employments. 

* e 2. The directions laid down concerning the 
Psalms to be sung by the children on the 
days of collection, that they be taken out of 
the book of Psalms only, and sung in the 
most common and usual tunes. 
"3. The method there prescribed to the 
masters and mistresses in several rules, for 
possessing the minds of the children with 
the just sense of the duty and affection they 
owe to the present Government, and the 
succession in the Protestant line, and with 
a just dread of the persecutions and cruelties 
to be expected from a Popish Government. 
tc II. That the trustees of every school, ac- 
cording to the custom of the place, or the ap- 


poiutment of the founder, do frequently meet, 
and examine into the management of the school, 
and report the state and condition of the same at 
every general meeting of the subscribers. 

" III. That they be very careful in the choice 
of a treasurer, who is to keep a fair account of 
all receipts and disbursements, for the view of 
all subscribers and contributors, who may desire 
to know how the money is disposed of. 

" IV. That the person who shall be chosen 
for master or mistress of any school, be a mem- 
ber of the Church of England, of known affection 
to His Majesty King George, and to the Protes- 
tant succession as by law established ; of a re- 
ligious life, and sober conversation, a constant 
communicant, understanding the grounds and 
principles of the Christian religion, and having a 
capacity for educating children, according to the 
rules herein recommended. 

" V. That, in training up of children, parti- 
cular regard be had to the business they are most 
like to be employed in, either as servants, or in 
husbandly, or else in the woollen, iron, or such 
other manufactures, as are most used in those 
places where charity-schools are maintained. And 
in order thereto, that the children whilst at 
school be (so far as is consistent with their neces- 
sary learning, and the different circumstances of 
particular places) inured to some kind of work or 
labour, and in some measure daily employed in 

D2 it; 


it ; so that they may be rendered most useful to 
the publick ; and for this end it may be proper 
that their earnings be applied towards finding 
them in diet, lodgings, and other necessaries. 

" VI. Whereas Thomas Neale, esq. deceased, 
did devise part of his estate to be applied for sup- 
porting of Charity schools, or for such other chari- 
table uses as his executors thought fit ; and Frede- 
rick Slare, doctor in physick, the surviving ex- 
ecutor of the said Mr. Neale's will, hath, out of 
the surplus of the said estate, appointed a con- 
siderable sum of money for the payment of an 
annual salary for a master, to instruct poor chil-. 
dren in such part of the mathematicks as may 
fit them for the sea service; and this appoint- 
ment hath been established by a decree of the 
high court of Chancery ; and a Charity-school 
for that purpose is erected in the City of London ; 
and the Trustees of the said school have ordered 
that each boy that should be sent from any of the 
Charity schools, shall be taught the said science, 
upon the payment of twenty shillings a year for 
each boy : It is therefore in a particular manner 
recommended to the trustees of each school within 
the cities of London and Westminster, that such 
boys as may be thought fit for the sea- service, 
be sent to the said school, to be instructed in an 
art which will render them so very useful to the 

" VII. 


f ' VII. That the trustees do insist upon it 
with parents, as a necessary condition on which 
their children are to be taken into school, that 
they send them clean washed and combed, re- 
gularly and constantly, at the hours of schooling ; 
that they comply with all orders relating to them, 
and freely submit them to be chastised for their 
faults, without quarrelling or coming to the 
school on such occasions ; that children be not 
countenanced in their faults, or masters and 
mistresses discouraged in the performance of their 
duty. But if there be any just reason of com- 
plaint, that it be made to the trustees, in whose 
determination they are to acquiesce ; or if per- 
sons neglect, or refuse to observe these orders, 
then their children to be dismissed the school ; 
and if they are cloathed, to forfeit their school 

" VIII. That the trustees do likewise, as far 
as in them lies, oblige the parents of all such 
children as they take into their schools, to agree 
that their children be put out to such services, 
employments, or trades, as the trustees shall 
think most proper and advantageous to the pub 
lick, and the places where they live. 

" IX. And lastly, that the trustees do what 
they can to engage parents to give their children 
good examples at home, of a sober and religious 
behaviour, frequently to call upon them to re- 
peat the Church Catechism, to read the Holy 



Scriptures, especially on the Lord's day, am? 
cause prayers to be read morning and evening in 
their families : so that both parents and children 
may be the better informed of their duty, and 
by a constant and sincere practice thereof, pro- 
mote the pious and useful design of charity 
schools, and so procure the blessing of God upon 

" Rules proper to be observed by the Masters 
and Mistresses. 

" I. That the masters and mistresses do them- 
selves attend the school at the times appointed 
by the founders and trustees, and keep the chil- 
dren diligently to their business, during the hours 
of schooling, suffering none to be absent at any 
time, but upon account of sickness, or some 
such reasonable excuse, unless in the time of 
harvest, and when the trustees think it proper 
that they should be employed in husbandry, 
spinning, carding, or some other manufactures ; 
but, if children are kept away, the trustees to be 
acquainted with it, that others more conformable 
may be taken into their places. 

" II. That they teach the children the true 
spelling of words, make them mind their stops, 
and bring them to pronounce and read distinctly 
without a tone : and because it is found by expe- 
rience, that in several places in the country due 



Care has not been taken in these respects (the 
masters and mistresses being paid for teaching 
the children either by a monthly or quarterly al- 
lowance), it is proposed to such founders and 
trustees as shall think it requisite, that their pay- 
ments be hereafter made in the following man- 


ner : 'Tliejirst to begin so soon as each child can 
name and distinguish all the letters in the alpha- 
bet ; the second, when the child can spell well ; 
and the third, when it can read well and dis- 
tinctly, and can repeat the Church Catechism. 

" III. That they make it their principal care 
to teach the children to read the Bible, to in- 
struct them in the principles of the Christian re- 
ligion, according to the doctrine of the Church 
of England ; and that they explain the Church 
Catechism to them by some exposition, which, 
together with the Catechism, the children should 
publicly repeat in church, or elsewhere, so often 
as the minister and the trustees shall require; 
and be frequently examined in school, as to their 
improvements of of every sort. 

" IV. That they teach the children those 
doctrines and principles of religion which- are in 
their nature most useful in the course of a private 
life, and especially such as concern faith and 
good manners. 

" V. That they bring the children to church, 
so often as divine service is there performed, be- 
fore it begins, and instruct them to behave them- 


selves orderly, kneeling, or standing as the ni- 
brick directs, and to join in the public service 
with, and regularly to repeat after, the minister, 
with an humble low voice, and in the most de- 
vout manner, in all places where the people are 
so directed, in such manner as not to disturb the 
rest of the congregation, and particularly in sing- 
ing of Psalms : and that they likewise take care, 
that the children bring their Bibles and Com- 
mon-prayer books always to church ; and in 
order to prevent their spending the Lord's-day 
idly or profanely, it wilt be proper that every 
master and mistress give each child some task out 
of the most useful parts of Scripture, to be learnt 
on each Lord's-day, according to their capacities ; 
and that they require a strict performance of it 
every Monday morning, and also oblige them to 
say the texts of the sermons preached the day 

" VI. That they never fail to pray morning 
and evening in the school, and teach the children 


to do the same at home, devoutly upon their 
knees, when they rise and go to bed, as also to 
say grace before and after meat. 

" VII. That they take particular care of the 
manners and behaviour of the children, and by 
all proper methods discourage idleness, and sup- 
press the beginnings of vice ; such as lying, curs- 
ing, swearing, profaning the Lord's-day, obscene 
discourse, stealing, &c. putting them often in 


mind, and obliging them to get by heart such 
parts of the Holy Scriptures, where those things 
are forbid, and where Christians are commanded 
to be faithful and obedient to their masters, to be 
diligent in their business, and quiet and peace- 
able to all men. 

" VIII. That they call over in school the 
children's names every morning and afternoon ; 
and, if any be missing, that they put them down 
in rolls kept for that purpose, as tardy or absent ; 
as also for their being guilty of breaking any of 
the aforesaid rules and orders ; and that they lay 
those rolls before the founders or trustees of every 
school, where required so to do, or before any 
other person empowered by the founder, trustees, 
or subscribers, who have a right to enquire into 
their behaviour, in order to their encouragement, 
correction, or expulsion. 

" IX. That they take care that where the 

children are cloathed, they wear their caps, bands, 

and cloaths every day ; whereby the trustees, 

.benefactors, and others, may know and see what 

their behaviour is abroad. 

" These rules were approved by the arch- 
bishops and bishops whose names are under- 
written : and they were pleased to direct, that 
the same be observed by all the charity-schools 
in their respective dioceses. 

W. Cant. 


W. Cant. Jos. Gloucester., 

Lan. Ebor. W. Norwich. 

Edm. London. Jo. Carliol. 

W. Duresnie. H. Hereford. 

11. Winchester. Ric. St. David's. 

J. Wigorn. E. Chichester. 
J. Bath and Wells. W. Bristol. 

Jo. Oxford. Steph. Exon. 

B. Sarum. Rob. Peterborough- 

E. Cov. and Lich. Sam. Cestriens. 

Sa. RofFen. Fr. Asaph. 

Tho. Ely. Tho. Bangor. 
R. Lincoln. 

" The foregoing rules for the good order and 
government of Charity-schools, being laid before 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
they have approved the same, as being agreeable 
to the rules of Charity-schools formerly published 
by the said Society ; and have therefore directed 
that the same be printed, and dispersed among 
all the Charity-schools in South Britain." 

135 captive Britons, nine of whom were com- 
manders of vessels, arrived in England from the 
States of Barbary in 1734, and were presented to 
the King and the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. The King gave them 100/. and se- 
veral of the nobility and gentry five and ten 
guineas each, to which sir Charles Wager added 
50/. They afterwards dined together at Iron- 
mongers' hall. 



The practice of placing infants in baskets, and 
those at the doors of opulent persons, was a com- 
mon trait in the characters of imprudent females 
previous to 1734; of which the following adver- 
tisement will be a forcible illustration : 

" Last Tuesday evening a female child of 
about three weeks old was left in a basket at the 
door of Buckingham-house. The servants would 
have carried it into the Park ; but the case being 
some time after made known to the Duchess, 
who was told it was too late to send to the Over- 
seers of the parish, and that the child must perish 
in the cold without speedy relief; her Grace was 
touched with compassion, and ordered it to be 
taken care of. The person who left the letter in. 
the basket, is desired by a penny-post letter to 
inform whether the child has been baptized ; be- 
cause, if not, her Grace will take care to have it 
done ; and likewise to procure a nurse for it. 
Her Grace doth not propose that this instance of 
her tenderness should encourage any further pre- 
sents of this nature, because such future attempts 
will be found fruitless." 

It gives me great pleasure to add, that drop- 
ping of children is but little known at present. 

A charitable institution called the Stepney 
feast, produced a sufficient sum, in 1734, to 
apprentice 16 boys at 5/. each; and to cloath 
seven, and one poor man. 



The duke of Bedford, the earl of Litehfield, 
and admiral Haddock, were three of the eight 
stewards for the year 1735 ; when the ensuing 
verses, set to music by Dr. Green, were sung at 
the anniversary dinner. 

" From Zambia's ever icy plain, 

From where eternal Summer burns, 
From all the terrors of the main, 
The wearied Mariner returns. 
Old Thames extends his parent arms, 

And all his rising towers shows, 
To welcome him from War's alarms 
To glorious ease and sweet repose. 
Tritons wind their coral shells, 
And every cliff in echo tells : 
Thus Britain is grateful, thus Britain bestows 
For a youth of brave toil, an age of repose * ." 

The Hospital at Hyde-park corner was insti- 
tuted Oct. 19, 1733, and has been supported by 
voluntary contributions from that day to the pre- 
sent; this is one of the many instances which 
might be produced of the hereditary charity of 
the inhabitants of London ; a species of benevo- 
lence silently handed from generation to genera- 
tion; a bequest not inforced by forms of law, 
and parchment and seals. 

In the year 1734, the Prince of Wales acted 
as president ; the Queen and Princesses became 

* Newspapers. 

subscribers ; 


subscribers ; and the most eminent physicians, 

surgeons, and apothecaries attended the sick, &c. 

gratis. An additional wing was voted to the 

building, and the following statement * published : 

" Cured from 1st Jan. to 2tfth Dec. 1734 379 

Discharged for non-attendance, most of 

them supposed to be cured 196 

Dead 77 

Discharged incurable 26 

For irregularities 15 

Discharged as improper objects 4 

Sent to Guy's hospital 2 

Patients in the house 87 

Out-patierits 50 

Under the care of the house in the whole 840 

Receipts for the year 1/34. 38. s. d. 
Subscriptions from Oct. 19, 1733, 

to Dec. 26, 1734 2277 5 

Benefactions, ditto ditto 1859 11 

413G 16* 6' 
Disbursements 1734 2559 5 Of 

Remainder 1577 11 51 

The necessity of Alms-houses, Hospitals, and, 
in short, every description of receptacles for the 
miserable poor, was apparent to every friend of 
humanity at this period ; and it is to the honour 

* Treasurer's statement. 



of the then publick that the necessity was in a 
great measure removed. The parish-officers were 
universally negligent, and even the public papers 
asserted, " That the present laws (those of 1/35) 
are defective ; and that notwithstanding they im- 
pose heavy burthens on parishes, yet the poor, 
in most of them, are ill taken care of. That the 
laws relating to the settlement of the poor, and 
concerning vagrants, are very difficult to be exe- 
cuted, and chargeable in their execution, vexa- 
tious to the poor, and of little advantage to the 
publick, and ineffectual to promote the good 
ends for which they are intended." 

They proposed these remedies, which will at 
least explain the deficiencies of the day : 

" That a public workhouse or workhouses, 
hospital or hospitals, house or houses of correc- 
tion, be established in proper places, and under 
proper regulations, in each county. 

" That in such workhouses all poor persons 
able to labour be set to work, who shall either be 
sent thither, or come voluntarily for employment. 

" That in such hospitals, foundlings, or other 
poor children not having parents able to provide 
for them, be taken care of; as also all poor per- 
sons impotent or infirm. 

" That in such houses of correction, all idle 
and disorderly persons, vagrants, and such other 
criminals as shall be thought proper, be confined 
to hard labour. 

" That 


" That toward the charge of such workhouses, 
hospitals, and houses of correction, each parish 
be assessed or rated ; and that proper persons be 
empowered to receive the money so to be assessed 
or rated, when collected ; also all voluntary con- 
tributions or collections, either given or made for 
such purposes," &c. &c. 

Whether Bancroft was influenced by having 
viewed the state of the poor in the same light, or 
whether he acted from an innate impulse of 
charity, is of little importance at present ; but it 
is certain that his alms-houses were most oppor- 
tunely erected in 1735> to supply part of the 
wants of the community, on the ground at Mile- 
end, where a fair was previously held. This 
gentleman left 28,OOO/. to accomplish his inten- 
tions ; which were, that 24 houses should be 
built for 24 aged men, a school-room for 100 
poor boys, two houses for as many masters, and a. 
chapel, under the direction of the company of 
Drapers *. 

A person who concealed his name gave, in 
May, 1736, the sum of 1000 1. to each of the 
following charities: the Society for propagating 
the Gospel in foreign parts ; for the Augmenta- 
tion of poor livings ; and the Corporation of the 
Sons of the Clergy ; with 500/. for the promotion 
of Christian knowledge. 

* See the view of this superb structure Seymour's 



The Prince of Wales sent the Lord Mayor 
500/. in January 1737, to be applied in dis- 
charging poor freemen from prison, by the pay- 
ment of their debts and fees. 

The governors and the publick at large had 
enabled the conductors of the Small-pox hospital 
(who at that time had two separate buildings for 
the purpose, the one at Islington, the other in 
Cold Bath Fields) to receive 500 patients in six 
months, so long since as 1757- Those who have 
seen the present elegant building at Battle-bridge, 
will be aware of the excellent accommodations it 
contains ; and those who have not are referred to 
the view of it annexed. 

In the year 1758, another pleasing act of be- 
nevolence distinguished the natives of London, 
under the title of " an Asylum, or house of re- 
fuge for orphans, and other deserted girls of the 
poor within the bills of mortality, situated near 
Westminster-bridge on the Surrey side." The 
following notice appeared in the newspapers of 
the abovtf period : 

< The guardians of this chanty (the intention 
of which is to preserve poor friendless girls from 
ruin, and to render them useful members of the 
community) have engaged three matrons : the 
first to superintend the affairs of the house in 
general ; the second a school-mistress to teach 
reading, knitting, sewing, making linen, c. ; 
the third to preside in the kitchen, and instruct 


the children in plain cookery? curing provisions, 
pickling, and other branches of housewifery. 

" The house will soon be prepared and fur- 
nished for the reception of poor deserted girls, 
from the age of eight to twelve years. 

" As in the beginning of these institutions 
considerable expenees are necessarily incurred, 
the guardians hope the benevolcuce of the pubhck 
will be excited, to enable them effectually to 
carry this laudable design into present execution ; 
and to extend their plan hereafter as they shall 
see occasion." 

This forcible appeal was by no means made in 
vain ; subscriptions followed immediately, and 
the Asylum noiv flourishes in full vigour. 

The efforts of the humane at present, in at- 
tempting to cure the ruptured poor, deserve every 
commendation ; but it should at the same time 
be remembered, that the community of 1759 
were equally desirous of alleviating the sufferings 
of the miserable. Mr. Lee, of Arundel-street, 
surgeon, superintended the hospital at that pe- 
riod ; and according to his statement to the com- 
mittee of subscribers, 60 men, women, and chil- 
dren, and upwards of fifty soldiers, had been p >r- 
fectly cured, without the loss of a single life^ 
from the day of its institution. 

Mr. Paterson, secretary to a charitable fund, 
gave the following account of it in a letter to the 
editor of the London Chronicle, April 21, 1759. 

VOL. i. E " SIR, 



<e The distressed circumstances in which many 
of our inferior Clergy necessarily leave their nu- 
merous families, induced the piety of our ances- 
tors to establish a Corporation for their relief; in 
aid of which, the stewards of the feast of the 
Sons of the Clergy have promoted an annual col- 
lection for putting some of their helpless orphans 
apprentices to reputable trades. But there being 
still wanting a fund for the maintenance and edu- 
cation of these poor children in their more help- 
less infant state ; some gentlemen in the year 
1749) formed themselves into a Society for rais- 
ing such a fund by a small annual subscription, 
and for seeing it faithfully applied to this very 
humane and necessary purpose. 

<l The Society's income, small as it has hi- 
therto proved, yet not being burthened with sala- 
ries of any kind, has enabled them in the course 
of nine years, to take care of 28 boys, selected 
out of the most numerous and distressed families 
that applied. 

" Of these, 13 have been placed out appren- 
tices, and to the remaining number the Society 
have agreed to add two, besides filling up the 
vacancies that will happen, by the placing out of 
others who are now properly qualified. 

(f The Society's general account at their last 
audit in February, stood as follows : 

" Total 


cf Total receipts 97 1 1. l$s. 6d. Disbursements, 
for schooling and maintenance, 7*3^ 11<y - &?. 
Children's travelling charges 32/. 1 5-s. Wd. Print- 
ing 6"2/. 12$. 6d. Balance in the Treasurer's 
hands l6zl. l6s. Sd. 

" The Society's circumstances have hitherto 
prevented them from extending their care to the 
poor girls, whose situation, no doubt, is full as 
deserving of compassion ; but this they hope the 
benevolence of other well-wishers to the Church 
of England will soon enable them to do ; and in 
the plan and management of this branch of the 
Charity, they shall be glad of the advice and 
assistance of the ladies. 

" Several Bishops and other persons of rank of 
both sexes have been pleased to approve of the 
design and conduct of the Society, and to honour 
the subscription with their names. 


" Mr. Hayter (treasurer) desires I will, in his 
name, acknowledge the receipt of a bank-note for 
20/. sent in a penny-post letter signed P. Q. R. 
and also of one guinea sent in the name of E. B. 
for the benefit of the above charity." 

A fire attended with many distressing circum- 
stances occurred in King-street, Covent-garden, 
at the close of 1759? in consequence of which the 
managers of the Theatre there granted the suf- 
ferers a benefit, when every person employed on 
the occasion gave their salaries for the night 
E 2 cheer- 


cheerfully. The produce of another at Drury- 
lane was 230/. 

A subscription in imitation of that which took 
place in 1/45 for rewarding the soldiers with 
money and clothing who assisted in suppressing 
the Rebellion, distinguished the winter of 1760 ; 
and a very considerable sum was obtained for 
those then in the field. 

Another su-bscription, far more disinterested, 
amounting to IjSsl. Ijs. ^d. in January 1/60, 
was intended for the relief of French prisoners. 
As the prologue spoken at the Drury-lane bene- 
fit alludes to each of the above traits of national 
benevolence, I think, the reader will pardon its 

" Cowards to cruelty are still inclin'd, 
But generous pity fills each Briton's mind. 
Bounteous as brave ; and though their hearts are 


With native intrepidity, they yield 
To Charity's soft impulse : this their praise, 
The proud to humble, and th' oppress'd to raise : 
Nor partial limits can their bounty know ; 
It aids the helpless alien, though a foe. 
Hear this, ye French, who urge the insidious 


That arms the Indian with the murdering knife ; 
Who, to your foes less cruel, leave your own 
Starving in sad captivity to groan. 



Think of th' inhuman policy and then 
Confess, ye fight not, nor ye feel, like men. 
Britons, this night your kind compassion flows 
For : .it mis'ries and domestic woes ; 
The dire distress with horror we recall ; 
'Twas death,, 'twas dreadful devastation all. 
"The sleepers were alarm'd with wild dismay, 
As lull'd in calm security they lay ; 
While each perhaps in dreams forgot his pains, 
And fondly counted o'er his honest gains. 
But oh ! the poor mechanic, scarce with life 
Himself escap'd, his children and his wife, 
Cold, naked, hungry, whither can they roam,, 
No friend to succour, and without a home ? 
Their little all with sorrow they survive, 
And hardly deem it mercy, that they live. 
Your tender care their present wants supplies, 
And gives to industry new means to rise ; 
Nor needed yet this bounteous act to prove 
Your wide humanity, and social love ; 
All, all who want it, your protection find ; 
For Britons are the friends of all mankind." 

The continued rains of May 1761 had almost 
ruined the haymakers assembled near the Metro- 
polis, and compelled them to enter it as suitors 
for charity, which they received to the amount 
of 167. 12*. from the Merchants on Change spon- 
taneously. 129 persons shared the above sum. 

In a work of this description the thoughts of 
respectable writers cannot but be acceptable ; one 



of those observed, in July 1761, <: that parish 
charges (were) every where justly complained of; 
but how insupportable would they be, were it 
not for the hospitals erected in the Metropolis, 
and of late in several county towns, which, so 
far as they extend, for they go no farther than to 
relieve such sick or lame poor as there is a pro- 
bability of curing, are of infinite use, not only to 
Londbn and the county towns, but to the coun- 

! try for many miies around them. 

" In St. Bartholomew's hospital, in the year 

1760, there were 3,539 in-patients cured. The 
number of in-patients in that hospital at that 
time is 405, and in Guy's and St. Thomas's 
about 400 in each. Supposing the numbers of 
in-patients cured in the two last to be the same, 
therefore, with that in St. Bartholomew's hospi- 
tal, the total in the three will be 10,617 : add to 
these, the number cured in the hospitals at Hyde- 
park corner and Westminster, the London In- 
firmary, the Middlesex, Small-pox, Bethlehem, 
and other hospitals in London, and they will 
amount to 15,OOO at least. Add to this number 
the patients cured in the hospitals at Winchester, 
Bath, Bristol, Newcastle, Shrewsbury, North- 
ampton, Liverpool, and the two hospitals at 
Exeter ; I think there are fourteen of them out 
of London in different counties ; and I believe I 
shall not exceed when I put the whole number, 
including those at London, at 20,OOO. All these 



are entirely maintained, and do nothing towards 
a subsistence ; except that in some houses, those 
who are tolerably well assist in cleaning the house, 
making the beds, &c. 

" And it is very observable, that these hospi- 
tals for the sustenance and relief of the sick and 
lame poor have all of them been founded (St. 
Bartholomew's, St. Thomas's, &c. excepted) 
within these forty years : Hyde-park hospital was 
founded in 1733- 

" The London hospitals are so many and 
large, and under such prudent management, that 
scarce any persons are so destitute of friends, but 
they can procure admittance into one or other of 
them. In this, as in all other instances, Provi- 
dence seems to have proportioned the quantity of 
pity and compassion to the real wants and dis- 
tresses of the indigent." 

There are numbers of well-disposed persons 
who would contribute to the support of charita- 
ble institutions, were they introduced to their 
notice in a manner congenial to the bent of their 
inclination. A man of a grave and sedentary turn 
of mind may be prevailed upon by a tale of 
distress to open his purse, but similar methods 
will not succeed with the Ion vlvant ; full of life 
and spirit, he drives care from him by every arti- 
fice in his power ; and yet the governors of our 
hospitals and benevolent foundations have con- 


trived a trap for him, and he cheerfully catches 
at the bait. Ecce signum ! 

Magdalen-house charity, Prescot-street, 
Goodman' sfa Ids, Feb. 10, 1762. 

" The anniversary feast of the Governors of 
this Charity will be held on Thursday, the 18th 
of March next, at Drapers- hall, in I nro^morton- 
street; after a Sermon to be preached al uie 
parish church of St George's, Hanover-square, 
before the Right honourable the earl of Hertford, 
president, the vice-presidents, treasurer, and go- 
vernors of this Chanty, by the l\ev. William 
Dodd, A. M. chaplain to the bishop of St. P-.I- 
vid's. Prayers will begin at 11 o'clock precisely. 

" And dinner will be on the table at three 

" N. B. A Te Deum composed by Mr. Han- 
del, for the late duke of Chandos's chapel, with 
Jubilate and other Anthems, will be performed 
by Mr. Beard, and a proper band of the best 
performers, both vocal and instrumental. 

" Tickets for the feast may be had at the fol- 
lowing places sA Jive shillings each" &c. &c. 

The readers of the newspapers of our day will 
thus perceive that Solomon was right in saying, 
* there is nothing new under the Sun ;' from the 
above hour, nay long before, conviviality and 
charity have coalesced. Dinners, and collections 
after dinners, when the mind generously dilates, 


have relieved thousands from the deepest misery ; 
and I hope this mode of tilling the chasms of 
more disinterested benevolence will prevail till 
such methods are unnecessary. 

'An occurrence happened in 176*2, which places 
the humanity of his present Majesty in a very 
amiable point of view. A female infant had been 
left in one of the courts of the palace of St. 
Jauifv.'s ; some of fhe officer* in waiting sent it to 
th v>'/-^eers of St. Martin's- parish, who, with 
t.V of St. ;'- afterwards applied to, re- 
fused to re-rive the child under the plea that the 
p-c*!vice was a;, independent jurisdiction. When 
the Kin<r heard of the circumstance, he immedi- 
ately ordered that a nurse should be provided, 
and the fortunate orphan was subsequently 
honoured with the name of Georgiana Charlotta 

The City of London Lying-in hospital, esta- 
blished many years past, has served as a pattern 
for several others in various parts of the Metro- 
polis. From the date of its commencement to 
1762. 3^55 married women had been received/ 
45 of whom were delivered of twins, and one of 
three children ; including which, 1896* male and 
1806 female infants were indebted for life to this 
humane establishment *. 

* London Chronicle. 



Collections have been frequently made during 
severe weather, or on some particularly distress- 
ing occasion, from door to door in the various 
parishes within the bills of mortality, and con- 
siderable sums obtained. In the winter of 176^3, 
die inhabitants of St. Anne's, Westminster, gave 
l69l. 15s. %d. the Princess dowager of Wales 
100/. and the duke of York 50/. to the poor not 
relieved by the regular assessments. Nor was this 
a solitary instance of generosity, as the duke of 
Newcastle gave above 400/. to different places at 
the same period ; and the rich parish of St. 
James's relieved 12OO persons with gifts of money 
and coals. 

Though so much had been done to prevent 
the calamities of poverty, wretchedness prevailed 
in places where benevolence could not imagine it 
existed. Garrets in retired alleys and lanes al- 
ways afford inmates in the last stages of disease 
and starvation ; and the instances that might be 
adduced would prove very distressing in the re- 
cital ; but that supposed empty houses should con- 
tain wretches expiring with want, was beyond 
the imagination of the most exalted charity ; and 
yet the following melancholy fact actually occur- 
red in November 1763, the narrative of which 
may serve as a hint to overseers, whose duty 
it is, I should conceive, to prevent actual death 
through want in their respective districts. 

A Mr. 


A Mr. Stephens, of Fleet-market, was com-* 
missioned to shew some empty houses in Stone- 
cutter-street intended for sale, and one day ac- 
companied a gentleman to them, who had 
thoughts of purchasing the estate on which they 
were situated. On entering a room on the first 
floor, an ohject of horror attracted their attention, 
a naked female corpse ! Stephens, alarmed be- 
yond expression, fled from the scene; but the 
other more courageous ascended to the next floor, 
where he was soon after joined by his terrified 
attendant, and they discovered a second and a 
third woman dead, and nearly destitute of cloth- 
ing ; pursuing this dreadful research, they found 
in the upper story two women, and a girl about 
eighteen years of age, one of whom, and the 
latter, appeared emaciated beyond description, 
but their companion in misery was in better con- 
dition. Prudence and humanity dictated that an 
examination should take place as to the cause of 
so singular and dreadful an occurrence ; in, conse- 
quence, the survivors were taken into custody, 
and the ensuing particulars were related by them 
before the Coroner and his Jury. 

" It appeared on the inquisition, from the 
evidence of Elizabeth Stanton, one of these wo- 
men, that on the Wednesday preceding the in- 
quiry she came from Westminster, and being in 
want of lodging, strolled to this house, and laid 
herself down on the ground-floor, where she saw 

nobody ; 


nobody ; that about eleven that evening the wo- 
man in good condition (Elizabeth Pattent) a 
stranger to her, came into the room where she 
(Stanton) had laid herself down, and by treading 
on her awakened her, at the same time time cry- 
ins: out Who is there?' To which Stanton re- 


plied, c No person that will hurt you, for that 
she was going away in the morning.' Pattent 
therefore advised her to go up to the garret with 
her, which she did, and stayed there all that 
night, and the following day and night, and 
until she was taken into custody in the garret 
upon the above discovery. 

16 Pattent, being out of place, attended the 
Fleet-market as a basket-woman ; where she be- 
came acquainted with the deceased women, whcfc 
were basket- women, and both known by no 
other names than Bet. Pattent, being destitute 
of lodging, was recommended to this ruinous 
house by the deceased women, who had lived, 
or rather starved, there for some time. Pattent, 
in the day-time, used to go to her late mistress's, 
who kept a Cook's-shop in King-street, West- 
minster, and worked for her victuals, and lodged 
in this house at night, where she continued till 
she was taken into custody. About the middle 
of the week preceding the inquisition, the de- 
ceased women were taken ill ; and on Saturday 
the 12th histant, Pattent pawned her apron for 
sixpence,, and bought some beef and plumb-pud- 


ding at a Cook's-shop in Shoe-lane, and both the 
deceased women on Saturday and Sunday ate 
heartily thereof, and on Sunday night she heard 
the deceased women groan. One had the itch, 
and the other a fever; and. being fearful of 
catching the one or the other, she did not go to 
them any more ; nor did she know of their 
deaths till taken into custody. 

" Elizabeth Sunnan, the girl, was the daugh- 
ter of a deceased Jeweller, in Bell-alley, Cole- 
man-street ; her parents died when she was about 
six years of age, and she was taken care of by 
Mrs. Jones, a next door neighbour, with whom 
she lived about four years ; Mrs. Jones then 
dying, Surman was left destitute ; and on being 
informed she could get employment in Spital- 
rields, she- went there, and assisted a woman in 
winding quills, but she retiring into the country, 
Surman was again left destitute ; however, she 
found employment in Spital-fields market, with 
Mrs. Bennet, in winding silk, but, not pleasing 
her, was discharged in a week. She then went 
to Mrs. Roach's in that market, who took in 
washing and nursed children, where Surman con- 
tinued six years, and until she was taken ill, on 
which account she was discharged her service. She 
then went to the churchwarden of the parish where 
her father had been housekeeper many years, to 
desire relief; but he refused, without so much as 



expostulating with her about her legal settle- 
ment, or informing her that she had gained a 
settlement by sei^vitiidc. She being very ill and 
weak, lay all night at the churchwardens door, 
but it had no effect on him ; and this girl was 
obliged to lie about in the streets, until she was in- 
formed of this empty house, where she lay every 
night for near two months ; the deceased women 
being there when she came, and both then lying 
on straw in the tvvo pair of stairs room. For the 
first week of Surman's being there, she lay in the 
room with them on straw, all which week she 
was ill with an ague, and liad no sustenance 
whatever ; that then Elizabeth Patient relieved 
her; and as Surman grew better, she went 
abroad and received alms, returning at night, 
and delivering her money to Pattent, who bought 
her victuals. Surman was afterwards received 
into St. Andrew's workhouse, where she con- 
tinued a week ; and, about a fortnight ago, she 
returned to this empty house, and lodged in the 
garret ; and being very ill, was assisted by Pat- 
tent, and for the last fortnight was not out of 
the garret till last Friday, when she, with the 
two other women, were found in the garret, and 
taken into custody, and never saw or heard, all 
that time, any thing of the deceased women till 
she was apprehended. 

" On Pattent's being interrogated with respect 
to the woman's being stripped naked and selling 



her cloaths, she strictly denied knowing any- 
thing of it; alledging, that as they all entered 
the house at the cellar, and she being mostly out 
in the day-time, and attending the poor girl at 
night, other persons might strip the deceased un- 
known to her. 

" There were no marks of violence about the 
deceased women, but they appeared as if starved. 

" The Jury were well satisfied with the ac- 
count they had received from their most deplora- 
ble evidence. The Coroner gave them some 
money ; and the Jury ordered them a supper, 
and that care might be taken of them in the 

These pitiable objects, worthy of a far better 
fate, who starved rather than they would steal, 
and met death surrounded with tenfold terrors, 
supported by pure consciences, deserve statues to 
their memory; nay, Pattent would have done 
honour to Roman virtue, who worked the day 
through for a miserable subsistence, and passed 
the night in watching and relieving the sick 
and yet I should be afraid to know the sequel of 
her eventful story. Is it not shocking to think 
on this catastrophe, when we reflect how many 
would have contributed to the relief of this family 
of misery, had they known their wants, when 
advertisements for relief daily appeared from the 
distressed and were successful. Even at the mo- 
ment they were dying a thousand lingering 



deaths through every possible privation, Catha- 
rine Shaw, a widow, with seven children and a 
mother, acknowledged the bounty of the publick 
in the receipt of 191 1. 13*. $d. and presentations 
to Christ's hospital for two of her boys. 

The Marine Society, mentioned in " Londi- 
nium Redivivum," relieved 295 youths a second 
time in 1/63. These lads, rescued originally from 
ruin, and sent by the Society into the King's 
service, were discharged on the conclusion of 
peace; when they apprenticed 15 to fishermen, 
71 to trades, 17 to manufacturers, 6 to public- 
houses, 29 to the merchant's service, 80 to naval 
officers for three years, one to agriculture, and 
nine to water and lightermen ; assisted I/ to pro- 
cure masters, sent 29 to their friends, and 21 
provided for themselves. 

The unfavourable weather which occurred in 
July 1764, did infinite damage to the grain near 
London ; and a hail-storm that fell on the 23d 
injured the inferior farmers' property to the 
amount of 486'4/. in Middlesex only : the bene- 
volent inhabitants of the Metropolis, touched 
with their misfortunes, opened a subscription, 
and restored their losses *. 

A second scene of wretchedness and distress 
attracted commiseration in the above year, for 
certain Germans ; who, deceived !\ i-i lend id offers 

* London Chronicle. 



of prosperity provided they emigrated to Ame- 
rica, were left by their inhuman deceivers to 
perish in the neighbourhood of London, because 
they found some deficiencies in their own calcu- 
lations of profit. Such was the miserable situa- 
tion of those poor Palatines, that they actually 
lay in the fields near Bow, where, it is asserted, 
they had not eaten for two days previous to the 
following generous act recorded of a baker, who 
should have been a Prince. This worthy mail 
(whose name has unfortunately not been men- 
tioned) passing along the road near the Germans 
with his basket on his shoulder, containing 28 
two-penny loaves, perceiving their forlorn situa- 
tion, threw it down, and observed, that his cus- 
tomers must fast a little longer that day, and im- 
mediately distributed the bread, for no other re- 
turn than signs of gratitude and tears of joy. 

This affecting circumstance is the first intima- 
tion the publick received of their situation ; but 
Mr. Wachsel, Minister of the German Lutheran 
church, in Little Ayliffe-street, Goodman's-fields, 
thus addressed the publick immediately after- 
wards, through the medium of the newspapers : 

" I hope you will permit me, by means of 
your paper, to inform those who have the power 
to redress it, of the very deplorable situation of 
the poor unhappy Palatines, lately arrived here 
from Germany. They are in number, men, wo- 
men, and children, about six hundred, consisting 

VOL. i. F of 


of Wurtfcburghers and Palatines, all Protestants ; 
and were brought hither from their native coun- 
try by a German officer, with a promise of being* 
sent to settle, at his own expence, in the Island 
of St. John and Le Croix, in America ; but by ina- 
bility he has been obliged to decline the under- 
taking ; so that, instead of their being shipped 
off for those places, some of them have lain dur- 
ing the late heavy rains, and are now lying, in 
the open fields adjacent to this Metropolis, with- 
out covering, without money, and, in short, 
without the common necessaries of life; others 
lie languishing under the complicated evils of 
ickness and extreme want, at the Statute-hall 
in Goodman's-fields ; and more than 200 remain 
on board the ship which brought them over, on 
account of their passage not being paid for, where 
they are perishing for food, and rotting in filth 
and nastiness. 'Collections have been made at 
the German churches and chapels here, several 
times, to afford them some relief; but as the 
number of these poor creatures is so considerable, 
it is impossible,, by such means, to furnish them 
with a regular and continued supply, adequate to 
their wants; so that, unless some provision is 
very speedily made for them, they must inevita- 
bly perish. These unfortunate people would 
think themselves inexpressibly happy, if the 
English Government would be graciously pleased 
to take them under its protection ; to allow them, 



for the present, some ground to He on ; tents to 
cover them ; and any manner of subsistence, till 
it shall be thought proper to ship them off, and 
settle them in any of the English colonies in 
America; where, I doubt not, they will give 
their protectors and benefactors constant proofs 
of their affection and gratitude for such kindness, 
by behaving as becometh honest, industrious, 
and dutiful subjects to the British government. 
I take the liberty of thus expressing the hopes 
and wishes of these wretched beings, as they 
have no friend to intercede for them who has 
interest sufficient for such an undertaking, or 
even a knowledge of the proper method of appli- 

" That their distresses are unutterably great, 
I myself have been too often a mournful witness 
of, in my attendance on them to administer the 
duties of my function ; with one instance of 
which I shall conclude this melancholy detail. 
One of the poor women was seized with the pangs 
of labour in the open fields, and was delivered 
by the ignorant people about her in the best 
manner they were able; but, from the injury 
the tender infant received in the operation, it 
died soon after I had baptized it ; and the wretched 
mother, after receiving the Sacrament at my 
hands, expired from the want of proper care arid 
necessaries suitable to her afflicting and truly la- 
mentable condition. 

F & " That 


(f That , the Almighty may, of his infinite 
mercy, incline the hearts of the great and good 
of this Kingdom, distinguished for its charity 
and hospitality, to take under their protection 
these their unhappy fellow Christians, who did 
not intrude themselves into this country, but 
were invited hither, and send them whitherso- 
ever they in their wisdom and goodness shall 
think proper, is the most ardent prayer of 

* G. A. WACHSEL." 

A subscription was opened at Batson's Coffee- 
house, where eight hundred pounds was instantly 
subscribed ; and Government, fully impressed 
with the urgency of the case, immediately sent 
100 tents and other necessaries from the Tower. 
On the following Sunday 120/. was collected at 
Whitechapel-church, and several other parishes 
followed this most urgent example ; but one un- 
known good Samaritan sent Mr. Wachsel an 100/. 
bank note, who soon after addressed the Editors 
of the Newspapers with the following welcome 
information : 

" As I have twice solicited the attention of the 
publick through your paper in regard to the Ger- 
man Emigrants, give me leave now to inform 
those beloved servants of the Lord, of every rank, 
who so cheerfully fulfilled the will of their Di- 
vine Master, in kindly receiving, feeding, cloth- 
ing, and visiting- these poor strangers, that the 
remainder of them on the 6th instant (November 


left this Christian hospitable shore, to 
settle in America, on the spot assigned them by 
the bounty of the gracious Ruler of this happy 
realm. For all which extraordinary and unparal- 
leled instances of beneficence, and likewise for 
the attention paid to them by the most worthy 
gentlemen of the Committee, who not only gene- 
rously contributed to their relief, but have also 
been indefatigably employed in conducting this 
charity with the utmost wisdom and integrity, 
my warmest and most respectful thanks, as well 
as those of my poor brethren, are too mean a 
tribute. But, though they earnestly entreated 
me to convey their humble and sincere acknow- 
ledgments to their very humane and generous 
"benefactors, it is out of the power of language 
justly to describe their grateful feelings on this 
occasion : I am, however, confident, that the 
remembrance of the benefits so seasonably and 
liberally bestowed on them will remain on their 
minds to the latest period of their existence ; and 
that they will seize every opportunity of testify- 
ing their gratitude to this nation. 

" I have been applied to by anonymous let- 
ters, complaining of the delay of the promised 
account of receipts and disbursements ; to which 
I take this opportunity of replying, that when 
the gentlemen subscribers, after the publica- 
tion of my first letter, had formed themselves 
Jnto a Committee for the management of this 



Charity, I gave into their hands an account ^e>f 
what I had received and expended before their 
establishment ; and to them I havs paid all the 
monies since received by me, &c. &c. 


The King sent 300/. to the Committee allude<i 
to by the indefatigable Wachsel, who exerted 
themselves with the utmost perseverance, in pro- 
viding food and other necessaries, while the 
JVlinister read prayers and preached daily before 
the Palatines, in addition to his other unwearied 
exertions in their favour. After the more imme- 
diate attentions had been paid to their wants, the 
Committee determined to petition the King, that 
he would be pleased to grant the Germans lands 
AV. some of the American provinces ; which they 
had no sooner done, than they were informed 
land in South Carolina should be appropriated 
for that purpose, and that they would be allowed 
150 stand of arms to be used by them on their 
settlements for defence from the Indians and for 
hunting, Upon this favourable result, the Com- 
mittee agreed with certain ship-owners to con- 
vey the objects of their care to the place of their 
destination, on the following liberal terms : 

" Two ships of not less than 200 tons each, 
and to carry no more than 200 persons in each 
ship, to be ready to sail in ten days: the neces- 
saries to be provided were, one pound of bread 
of sixteen ounces for each person, men, women, 



and children, every day ; one man, one woman, 
and three children to a mess : Sunday, for each 
mess, a piece of beef of four pounds, flour three 
pounds, fruit or suet half a pound, and a quart 
of pease. Monday, stock-fish three pounds, but- 
ter one pound, cheese one pound, potatoes three 
pounds. Tuesday, two pieces of pork six pounds, 
rice two pounds. Wednesday, grits five pounds, 
butter two pounds, cheese two pounds. Thurs- 
day, the same as Sunday, only potatoes instead 
of pease. Friday, grey pease two quarts, butter 
two pounds, cheese two pounds. Saturday, flour 
three pounds, fruit half a pound, potatoes two 
pounds, butter two pounds, and cheese two 
pounds. Sufficient of vinegar, pepper, and salt 
every day ; a ton of water for every three per- 
sons ; six quarts of good ship beer each mess, for 
the first three weeks ; and for the remainder of 
the voyage, a pint of British spirits each day ; 
medicines, and a doctor to each ship, provided 
by the Committee. 

" Half the freight to be paid before sailing 
from Gravesend, the other moiety at their deli- 
very at South Carolina, deducting one half of the 
second payment for every person that dies on 
their passage : all that exceed fourteen years on 
the first of September, to be deemed whole pas- 
sengers ; all under two to be deemed as one pas- 
senger. Security is required for the exact per- 
formance of the above contract.** 



On Saturday, October 6, the Germans left 
their tents, to embark on board of lighters which 
were to convey them to Blackwall, attended by 
the Treasurer and several gentlemen of the Com- 

The parting between those poor people and 
their guardian Wachsel was exceedingly affect- 
ing ; nor were their expressions of gratitude to 
the inhabitants of London less fervent, who ac- 
companied them in crowds in boats, admiring 
the devotion with which they sung various hymns 
on their way. 

One detestable act disgraced this dignified 
scene of disinterested Charity, which seems al- 
most beyond credibility, and yet it is certainly n 
fact; the Committee had filled four tents with 
clothing, which were guarded by children dur- 
ing the time their parents were attending Divine 
Service ; at that critical moment, several wretches 
decoyed the guards away by a distribution of 
half-pence to buy cakes, and immediately stole 
. every article worth conveyance. 

The above splendid aera in the annals of Cha- 
rity was equally distinguished by the exertions 
of other individuals, who obtained large sums by 
contributions from the publick, with which they 
relieved 4J)31 persons who had boon compelled 
to pawn their clothes, and other necessary arti- 
rles, to supply the deficiencies in their caniii: 
through the decline of the Silk manufactory in 



Spitalfields. I am, however, sorry to add that 
the conduct of those artizans did not in the least 
resemble that of the Germans ; clamorous assem- 
blies of men, women, and children, under tur- 
bulent leaders, with a black flag carried before 
them, approached the Royal residence of St. 
James's ; where, disappointed of meeting the 
King, many of the most violent presumed to fol- 
low his ^lajesty to Richmond with a petition, 
which certainly ought to have been presented to 
the House of Commons through the medium of 
a Member ; others met in Old Palace-yard, where 
they obstructed the passage of the Peers, and 
were only prevented from committing acts of vio- 
lence by a party of guards. Thus disappointed 
of their aim, they spread in various directions, 
and almost filled Bloomsbury-square in defiance 
of parties of horse and foot soldiers sent to keep 
the peace* After suffering several severe injuries, 
self-committed by pressure, they returned to- 
wards home ; but in their way broke all Messrs. 
Carr and Co.'s windows on Ludgate-hill, and 
would have done other damage, had not a patrole 
of grenadier guards interfered and dispersed them ; 
but, as this 1 article should, be wholly devoted to 
the peaceful operations of benevolence, I must 
refer the reader to " Popular Tumults," for the 
remainder of the event. 

The King gave 1000/. to the sufferers by a fire 
in Bishopsgate-street, London, in November 
1/65 ; and the Society of Quakers 500/. 



During the severity of the winter of 1767-8, 
a great deal was done for the relief of the poor, 
particularly in the following instances: Earl 
Percy gave 400/. ; 200/. was collected at Almack's ; 
Daniel Giles, esq. distributed 20 chaldrons of 
coals ; the Archbishop of Canterbury gave 5.5. ^d. 
each, to upwards of 2QO watermen of Lambeth ; 
the Lord Mayor had 50 pounds of beef boiled 
every day, and distributed it and the broth from 
it; an unknown person released 2(> prisoners from 
the Poultry, and others from Wood-street, con- 
fined for debts between forty shillings and six 
pounds, and each received thirty shillings, the 
surplus of the cash sent ; besides these gene- 
rous acts, large sums were collected in various 
parishes, and the Queen gave 500/. under a. 
feigned name, through the hands of Dr. Hill *. 

Sir John Fielding, long celebrated for his acti- 
vity as the supreme director of the Police West- 
ward of Temple-bar, thqs addressed the publick 
in March 17/0; 

" The worthy and ingenious Mr. Nelson, in a 
book, intituled, ' An Address to Persons of Qua- 
lity and Estate,' relative to the different methods 
of doing good, seems from the benevolence of hi* 
mind, and from that rich fountain of humanity 
in his heart, to have furnished hints for almost 
all the charities which have been established since 
his time ; rind, indeed, from the present number 

* London Chronicle. 



of them, one should imagine, that scarce a distress 
could arise to the poor, but there is an hospital, 
infirmary, of asylum to relieve; yet, alas, how 
short-sighted is the eye of man ! for, behold a 
new Charity makes its appearance, of a most 
striking nature indeed ; namely, a Dispensary for 
the benefit of the infants of the industrious poor ; 
and how objects so essential to the community 
should have been so long overlooked by the in- 
genious and benevolent, is very surprising. The 
fate of those children that have fallen to the lot 
of workhouses in their tender state, has been 
proved, beyond contradiction, to have been dread- 
ful to the last degree ; few, indeed, of such lives 
having been preserved. For this evil some reme- 
dies have been provided by law, which, I hope 
to God, may prove effectual. The next class of dis- 
tressed objects of this kind are, the infants of the 
industrious poor, who, being careful and tempe- 
rate, have frequently large families, which they 
may indeed subsist, but numbers of these sort of 
Children are precipitately snatched from the fond 
mother s embrace by sudden diseases, which the 
poverty and the ignorance of the parent render 
them incapable of contending with. The lives of 
children hang on a slender thread, and their dis- 
.eases, though few, require immediate and able 
assistance : behold then Armstrong's Dispensary 
openjng its bosom for the relief of these tender 

patients I 

patients ! It seems a work of supererogation to 
recommend such a charity as this ; it speaks for 
itself, and needs but to be considered to be en- 
couraged ; and to the mother's breast it speaks a 
feeling language indeed ; for the experience that 
may be acquired in the knowledge and cure of 
diseases incident to children, by this institution, 
may be the happy means of preserving heirs to 
many valuable families, and of preventing much 
of that sorrow which swells the mother's heart 
when the little object of her affection is snatched 
from her tender arms. 


" The remarkable success hitherto experienced 
in treating the little patients, as appears from the 
account published after the meetings of the Com- 
mittee, must doubtless be no small recommenda- 
tion of this charity." 

This Dispensary, calculated for infants only, 
was accompanied by a plan (separately recom- 
mended by Mr. Daniel Sutton) for the eradica- 
tion of the Srnall-pox by inoculation, at receiving- 
houses in various parts of the Metropolis. The 
latter, however, appears to have been the most 
successful application to the feelings of the pub- 
lick, as I believe amongst the numerous Dispen- 
saries, which at present do honour to London, 
there is not one appropriated exclusively to chil- 
dren ; nor is it necessary when relief is afibrded 



at all to every description of disease in either in- 
fants or adults. 

The excellent Institution for the relief of per- 
sons confined for Small Debts, which originated 
from the active mind of the late unfortunate Dr. 
Dodd, and which has been continued to the pre- 
sent moment, principally through the exertions 
of Mr, Neild, gave the following flattering ac- 
count of their success, even in the infancy of the 
undertaking, Jan. 1773 : 535 persons discharged^ 
together with 245 wives and 1496 children, 
amounting in all to 2276 souls relieved by means 
of the public humanity." 

An Act was passed in 1773? f r the better re- 
gulation of Lying-in hospitals and other places of 
reception for pregnant women, and to provide 
for the safety of illegitimate children bom within 
them ; a clause of which enacts, " That from 
and after the first day of November, 1773, no 
hospital or place shall be established, used, or 
appropriated, or continue to be used or appro- 
priated, for the public .reception of pregnant wo- 
men, under public or private; support, rcgu 
tion, and management, in any .parish in Iv. 
unless a licence shall b^ first had and obtained^ in 
manner therein-mentioned, from the Justices of 
the Peace at some one of their General (Quarter 
Sessions to be held for the County, .Riding, Di- 
vision, City, or Corporation, wherein such hos- 
pital or place shall be situa- 



One of the most singular methods of obtaining 
chanty perhaps ever adopted, occurred in Janu- 
ary 1774. The severity of the weather had ren- 
dered navigable canals useless ; and with others, 
those of Oxford and Coventry ; consequently the 
persons employed on them were distressed for 
want of employment. Eighteen of the sufferers 
obtained a waggon, which a gentleman of Wil- 
loughby generously filled with the best coals ; and 
thus furnished, they harnessed themselves to the 
vehicle, and set off from Bedworth in Warwick- 
shire to draw it to St. James's, there to present 
the coals to the King. The oddity of 'their con- 
trivance proved highly beneficial to them on their 
road ; and when they arrived at the Palace, the 
Board of Green-cloth ordered them twenty gui- 
neas, but refused the coals, which were disposed 
of, and the produce greatly augmented by gifts 
from numbers of persons who witnessed the exer- 
tions of these human drafts-men *. 

Several instances have been already given of 
individuals endeavouring to alleviate the calami- 
ties arising from the resentment of inexorable 
creditors, by the discharge of the debts which 
excited it. Every possible praise is certainly due 
to those philanthropists ; nor is the Society just 
mentioned less deserving of the thanks of the 
community ; but their's is an Herculean labour, 

* London Chronicle. 



and a sum equal to the revenues of a state would 
be little more than sufficient to accomplish the 
release of all entitled to commiseration. Im- 
pressed with similar sentiments, John Howard., 
esq. determined to explore the various prisons in 
England, and indeed throughout Europe, not so 
much with a view to discharge captives, as to ren-' 
der them the most essential service while such, 
by exposing their unwarranted sufferings, inflicted 
in defiance of the dictates of humanity, and even 
contrary to law. His labours in this pursuit, his 
disregard of opposition, his manly reprobation of 
oppression to the oppressor, disdain of personal 
danger from vindictive revenge and disease, his 
death, and the honours decreed him by public 
bodies and public gratitude, are all fresh in the 
memories of my readers: 1 shall therefore merely 
quote his own words in explanation of his inten- 
tions, when they were perhaps not fully developed 
to himself. 

" To the Publisher of the London Chronicle. 
ic Mr. WILKIE, Cardington, March 6, 1774. 
" The account I gave before the House of the 
state of Gaols being somewhat misrepresented in 
the papers. I must beg the favour in your next to 
set it right. 

" I am, Sir, &c. JOHN HOWARD. 

" I informed the House that I had travelled 
and seen 38 out of the 42 gaols in the Lent cir- 


cuit, besides others, as Bristol, Ely, Litch field, 
&c. : that those 1 had not seen in the circuit, in 
a few days I should set out to visit them : that I 
released a person out of Norwich City gaol, who 
had been confined five weeks for the gaoler's fee 
of 1 3s. 4d. : that at Launceston the keeper, deputy 
keeper, and ten out of eleven prisoners, lay ill of 
the gaol distemper ; at Monmouth, last Wednes- 
day se'night, the keeper lay dangerously ill, and 
three of the prisoners were ill ; at Oxford, eleven 
died last year of the small-pox. 

" That as to fees, those in the Western coun- 
ties were highest, as at Dorchester, I/. 3*. yd. 
Winchester, iL ?$. 4d. Salisbury, I/. 6s. 4d. : 
but in the county of York only 9*. 

" That the gaols were generally close and con- 
fined, the felons wards nasty, dirty, confined, and 
.unhealthy. That even York-castle, which to a 
superficial viewer might be thought a very fine 
gaol, I thought quite otherwise ; with regard to 
felons their wards were dark, dirty, and small, 
no way proportioned to the number of unhappy 
persons confined there. Many others are the 
same ; as Gloucester, Warwick, Hereford, Sus- 
sex, &c. The latter had not for felons, or even 
for debtors, at their county gaol at Horsham, the 
least outlet ; but the poor unhappy creatures 
were ever confined within doors without the least 
breath of fresh air. 

" I was 


t( I was asked my reasons for visiting the gaols ? 
1 answered, I had seen and heard the distress of 
gaols, and had an earnest desire to relieve it in 
my own district as well as others. It was then 
asked me, if it was done at my own expence ? I 
answered, undoubtedly. Some conversation passed 
relative to gaolers taking off their prisoners irons; 
but that was private, and not at the bar of the 

" The above account, including that of garnish, 
which was from 3 and 4*. to 8^. which I said was 
a cruel custom, and connived at and permitted 
by gaolers, was the whole of what passed at the 
House as to myself, except the great honour they 
did me in their thanks nem. con" 

This true Patriot addressed the printer a second 
time, March 7, in the same year. 
" SIR, 

" I shall set off for the gaols in Westmoreland, 
Cumberland, and Northumberland, next Mon- 
day, and also visit again some which I have already 
seen, likewise Lancaster, Chester, and Shrews- 
bury, if' lam not taken ofj'uith the gaol dist wi- 
per ; as Dr. Fothergill says, ' I carry my life in 
my hand, and it is a wonder I have not been 
taken off.' 

t( The misery in gaols is great beyond descrip- 
tion ; Sheriffs for many years not having set foot 
into the prisons of most of the counties in Eng- 
land. There are many of them (the felons wards 

VOL. I. c I mean) 

82 , 

I mean) dirty, infectious, miserable places ; so 
that, instead of sending healthy useful hands to 
our Colonies as transports out of our gaols, they 
become infectious, sickly, miserable objects : half 
of whom die on their passage ; and many of those 
that arrive at the places of their destination infect 
the families they enter into. I saw lately in your 
paper, what I knew our Colonies complained of 
from Philadelphia : c An Act passed to prevent 
infectious diseases being brought into that Pro- 

a Another great evil in gaols is, that the poor 
debtors on the common side in most counties 
have not even the felons' county allowance of 
bread ; and I have not -found twelve people that 
have sued out their groats in all the county gaols ; 
that benevolent Act of 32 George II. being frus- 
trated, as no attornies will, without pay, take a 
poor debtor's case in hand. These I have found 
some of the most pitiable objects in our gaols. 
" I am, &c. JOHN HOWARD." 

The result of the visits thus announced has long 
been before the publick, and that infinite im- 
provement followed must be admitted ; yet much 
still remains to be done, merely to obtain that 
order and cleanliness which the Legislature has at 
various periods declared should be maintained in 
each prison throughout the Kingdom. Mr. Neild, 
the worthy magistrate, has undertaken the task 
left incomplete by .his exalted predecessor ; and 



there cannot be a doubt that he has done incredi- 
ble service to the criminal, and the debtor, most 
unaccountably immured within the indosures in- 
tended for the purpose of justice only. 

The same distresses which accompany every 
severe winter recurred in 1776", and the utmost 
exertions were made to alleviate them ; when the 
Corporation of London gave 1500/. and several 
rich Citizens from 100/. to 20/. each, to be dis- 
tributed to poor housekeepers. This fund was 
augmented bv the exertions of the Sheriffs, Alder- 

O J 

men, and Deputies, who went from house to 
house soliciting contributions. 

The Humane Society, instituted for the re- 
covery of persons supposed to be dead from the 
effect of disease, suffocation, and drowning, had 
arrived to that degree of importance in 1/76, as 
to be enabled to distribute several gold and silver 
medals, from a die executed by Lewis Pingo, 
from a design by Dr. Watkinson. The four gen- 
tlemen first honoured with this mark of distinc- 
tion were Dr. Hawes, who had frequently adver- 
tised, before the Society was formed, offering a 
reward to those who would call for his assistance 
in cases where the functions of life were suspended ; 
and Dr. Cogan, his colleague, in establishing the 
first principles of the Institution ; Alderman Bull, 
president; and Dr.Watkinson. 

Since the above period, the enterprising spirit 
and activity of Dr. Hawea hag been constantly ex- 

G 2 


erted in promoting the continuation of the Hu- 
mane Society, which, though under Royal Patron- 
age, derives very small pecuniary aid from tjie 
publick, compared with some Institutions of less 
importance ; nor has the Legislature granted it a 
farthing ; though, as the Doctor once observed to 
me, there are benefactions recorded in the Jour- 
nals of the House of Commons for a Veterinary 
College, to recover horses from diseases *. 

Sermons, and an annual dinner, with a pro- 
cession of those recovered from death by the So- 
ciety, are substituted to obtain contributions ; 
and I am happy to add, that they have always 
amounted, with other voluntary gifts, to a sum 
which has enabled the Governors to render thou- 
sands of persons supremely blest by the restora- 
tion of their relatives from the relentless grave. 

Similar Institutions now existing throughout 
Europe and America, are strong proofs of the 
honours due to the founders, Hawes and Cogan 
honours to be paid by posterity. 

A most melancholy circumstance occurred in 
1777, which deprived the inhabitants of London 
of one of the best orators in the cause of benevo- 
lence they had ever possessed. The reader must 
be aware that I allude to the ignominious death of 
Dr. Dodd, whose conduct cannot but be allowed 
to have been inconsistent beyond parallel ; a 

* The worthy Doctor died in December 1808. 
See a Tribute to his Memory in Gent. Mag. vol. 
LXXVIII. p. 1121. 



teacher of the most exalted benevolence, and one 
who practised it to the degree he taught ; and yet 
a luxurious spendthrift, and a violator of the pe- 
nal laws of his country, to support unjustifiable 
extravagance and splendour of living. When we 
reflect on the thousands of pounds his exertions 
have collected, and will yet collect, for the relief 
of penitent Prostitutes, in the establishment (in 
conjunction with Mr. Dingley) of the Magdalen 
hospital, and the Society for the relief of prisoners 
confined for Small Debts ; besides those, the fruits 
of his preaching on numerous occasions ; we can- 
not but lament that mercy wds withheld which a 
Nation solicited. His was a singular case but 
enough Justice required his life ; and Death, 
the portion of forger}', closed the scene. 

We have now arrived at a period within the re- 
collection of most of my readers ; it will not there- 
fore be necessary to notice every Institution exist- 
ing at present, the result of recent exertion ; they 
are numerous beyond all former example. From 
the temporary relief afforded during severe win- 
ters, and the charities even to passing mendi- 
cancy, with that to individuals advertising for as- 
sistance, up to the incorporated Societies for con- 
stant duration ; all are successful, and none more 
so than the Patriotic Fund, established for reliev- 
ing and rewarding military and naval sufferings 
and merit. 



Exclusive of the various means, described in 
the preceding pages, for effecting the great work 
of alleviating the wants of mankind, there are 
others of established and permanent operation. I 
mean, the constant charitable bequests, continued 
even from the establishment of masses for the re- 
pose of the souls of the testators. In those the 
poor were always remejnbered ; but the Protes^ 
tant, more disinterested, has long given the whole 
of his money to t|ie wretched, and required no 
prayers }n return. Were I to collect the items 
of bequests from the days of Henry VIII. to the 
present moment, this work would not contain 
them, ard the reader would barely credit the 
enormous amount : and yet this is independent of 
the Alms-houses and Hospitals which we meet 
with in every direction, where many thousands 
are absolutely supported by the benevolence of 
those who have very long since paid the debt of 

Such are the effects of the general charity of 
the Natives of Londpn; such their attempts to 
smooth the path of life, and to re rider the person, 
those services which are necessary to maintain its 
dignity and proportion. I am now compelled to 
turn from this grateful scene, and to exhibit what 
has been done by depravity and laxity of manners, 
to shorten life, and destroy the fine proportions 
of the Citizen. 




MANKIND may be universally divided into two 
classes, the honest aad dishonest ; for I admit of 
no medium. That those distinctions have existed 
from the very remotest periods, I believe no one 
will deny ; therefore it is perfectly natural to sup- 
pose, that depraved and idle wretches, who would 
rather steal the effects of another than labour to 
acquire property for themselves, have infested 
London, from the hour in which an hundred per- 
sons inhabited it in huts or caverns. How those 
depredators on Society were treated by the Cits 
of very very very antient times is not worth en- 
quiry ; but that death was often inflicted cannot 
be doubted ; and that might be effected by twenty 
different methods. Strangulation was certainly 
used before the time of Henry I. in London : 
punishment for crimes of inferior magnitude are 



always species of torture ; to repeat the probable 
modes would be far from pleasant. 

Whatever may have been the other inventions 
of the idle to obtain bread, that of begging in all 
its ramifications was the most antient ; the frater- 
nity of mendicants have resisted every attempt to 
dissolve their body, nor will they vanish till the 
last day shall remove every living creature from 
the surface of the earth. After the establishment 
of Christianity, flocks of Christians determined to 
devote themselves to the service of the Lord in 
their way, and work no more ; such were some 
orders of Monks and Friars mendicants ! The 
monasteries afterwards, acting upon a mistaken 
idea of charity, gave alms, and fed the poor and 
idle indiscriminately at their gates : thus a wretch 
might invigorate his body with the viands of the 
Abbots and Monks in the day, and pass the night 
in attacks upon the defenceless traveller, perhaps 
often relieved in presence of the depredator by 
the blind religious. 

In vain have the Monarch, the Law, and the 
Judge, from the days of the Aborigines down to 
the present moment, exerted their authority and 
terrors ; and I am compelled, for brevity's sake, 
to confine myself to the disgraceful acts of a sin- 
gle century. To mention the numbers who were 
condemned at the Old Bailey in 14 years from 
1/00, will be sufficient, without particularizing 
their crimes. 



Years. Condemned, Execute*. 

1701 118 4 died after conviction 66 

1702 49 ...... -.13 

17W 38 ........ 18 

1/04 '35. ........ 17 

J705 44 ........ IS 

1106 33 ........ 5 

1707 23 ........ 18 

1703 34 ....... . 18 

1709 3.9 ........ 10 

1710 3^ ....... .8 

J712 43 ........ 15 

1713 60 ........ 25' 

1/14 108 ........ 59 

696 Reprieved 391 301 

In the mayoralty of Sir Francis Child, 1732, 
502 persons were indicted at the Old Bailey; 70 
of whom received sentence of death; 208 of 
transportation ; eight fined, imprisoned, or pil- 
loried ; four burnt in the hand ; four whipped ; 
and 288 acquitted. 

In 1722, ten pounds reward was offered by the 
Clerk of the New River Company, for the appre- 
hension of persons who had wantonly tapped the 
pipes, and others that had cut the banks to let 
water on their own possessions. 

Lotteries. These pernicious contrivances to 
raise money were in full vigour at the commence- 
ment of the century. There was the " Greenwich 
Hospital adventure," sanctioned by an Act of Par- 



liament, which the managers describe as t( liable 

to none of the objections made against other 
Lotteries, as to the fairness of the drawing, it 
being not possible there should be any deceit in 
it, as 't has been suspected in others." Mr. 
Sydenham's Land Lottery, who declared it was 
" found very difficult and troublesome for the ad- 
venturers for to search and find out what prizes 
they have come up in their number tickets, Jrom 
the badness of the print, the many errors in them, 
and the great quantity of the number of the 
prizes :" the Twelve-penny or Nonsuch : and 
" the Fortunatus," 

Esquire Sydenham's lady's gentlewoman ob- 
tained, an estate worth fiOO/. per annum, in her 
master's Lottery ; but the unfortunate holders of 
blanks, suspecting foul play, advertized an in- 
tended meeting on the llth January 1700, for 
the purpose of entering into an investigation of 
their real or fancied wrongs. This produced a de- 
nial on the part of his Trustees, but did not pre- 
vent the meeting from taking place, when it was 
unanimously resolved to appoint an eminent gold- 
smith in Lombard-street cashier, for the receipt 
of subscriptions to carry their purposes into ef- 
fect ; which being accomplished, they exhibited 
a Bill in Chancery against the unfortunate Squire*. 

* The gentleman who reviews this work in the Eu- 
ropean Magazine, mentions' the Royal Oak Lottery,* 
on the authority of Congreve's " Love for Love," as 
particularly ruinous. 


Guinea-dropping was practised in 1700; and 
it was customary for thieves to ftirry cocks into 
retired or vacant places to throw at them, in order 
to collect spectators, and empty their pockets. 
The following extract from the Protestant Mer- 
cury of February 14, IT 00 * W M point out three 
of those places of iniquity : " Last Tuesday, a 
Brewer's servant in Southwark took his walks 
round Tower-hill, Moor-Jtelds, and Lincoln s- Inn- 
Jieldx, and knocked down so many cocks, that, 
by selling them again, he returned home twenty- 
eight shillings odd pence a richer man than lie 
came out." 

In collecting materials for this portion of my 
review of London, order and regularity are un- 
necessary ; cheatsj impostors, knaves, and thieves, 
members of one great family, will be indiscrimi- 
nately introduced, with their schemes and crimes 
to mark them, and the Gullibility of the good Citi- 
zens of London, a large portion of whom are ever 
ready to catch at the most silly and absurd baits, 
provided they happen to agree with their pursuits. 
Money-lenders, those excellent members of So- 
ciety, the friends of youth, the alleviators of dis- 
tress, who hold forth their thousands to the pub- 
lick, merely with a view to accommodate the wants 
of their countrymen, and without the least wish 
of private advantage to themselves, were known, 
to the inhabitants of this Metropolis at the period 
from which I date my present researches. The 


reader will find a wonderful similarity in the en- 
suing advertisement to some of very recent date. 
fc From our house. New Tuttle-street, near the 
Royal-oak, Westminster, or Young Man's Cof- 
fee-house, at Charing-cross, in the morning. All 
gentlemen and others that have business in Trea- 
sury, Admiralty, or Navy offices, or any of the 
Courts of Law or Equity, may have it faithfully 
solicited. We buy and sell estates, help persons 
to money on good security. We help persons to 
employments, &c. and have now several to be dis- 
posed of, of 400/. 100/. 8o/. 6ol. 40/. per annum*; 
any that shall give in timely notice of places to be 
disposed of shall be rewarded for the same. And 
because many have been defrauded of considerable 
sums of money by one that lately printed from 
Salisbury-court, Fleet- street ; that none maybe 
served so that apply themselves to us, nor the re- 
putation of this undertaking ruined, because ill 
men have had the management of it, we shall not 
take our gratuity, till ice have done their business; 
which must be allowed to be a candid acknow- 
ledgment of our intention" 

In so populous a City as London, no place is 
sacred from the contrivances of Sharpers. Even 
plate used at the Coronation feast of Queen Anne, 
in Westminster-hall, April 1702, was stolen, 
with table-linen and a great deal of pewter *}*. 

* Mark the regularity of the gradations. 
f Gazette. 



To second the operations of the Royal Pro- 
clamation for the Suppression of Vice, certain 
well-disposed Citizens entered into the following 
agreement, to promote the Reformation of Man- 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed, out 
of a sense of the duty we owe to Almighty God, 
in pursuance of His Majesty's Proclamation for 
the discouragement and prosecution of debauchery 
and prophaneness, and for the suppressing of 
them, do agree as followeth : 

" That we meet weekly at , under the 

penalty of each default without a just cause; 

to consult how we may be most serviceable in 
promoting the execution of the Laws against pro- 
phaneness and debauchery. That we use all 
proper means to prevail with men of all ranks to 
concur with us in this design, especially such as. 
are under the obligation of oaths to do so ; and in 
order to their acting vigorously therein, that we 
endeavour to persuade them to form themselves 
into Societies, at least to have frequent meetings 
for this purpose. 

" That we encourage and assist officers in the 
discharge of their duty, of discovering disorderly 
houses, of taking up of offenders, and carrying 
them before the magistrates, and, moreover, en- 
deavour to assist both magistrates and officers, by 
giving information ourselves as we have opportu- 



<( That, for order sake, every Member in his 
turn be Chairman (unless any desire to be ex-* 
cused) for four successive days of meeting ; that 
as soon as four members are met, the Chairman* 
or, in his absence, the next in order upon the list 
(that shall be made for that purpose) shall take 
his place : and that from that time to the break- 
ing up of the meeting, we forbear all discourse of 
public news or our private affairs, as also all un- 
necessary disputes upon speculative and contro- 
versial points of Religion. 

*' That when any thing is proposed and se- 
conded, the Chairman shall put it to the ques- 
tion, which shall be determined by the majority ; 
and such determination shall remain till altered 
by a majority upon another meeting. 

" That, if upon any matter in debate the voices 
are equal, the question shall be again proposed 
by the Chairman at the same meeting, if more of 
the members corne in, or otherwise at the next 
or some other meeting. 

" That it be part of the office of the Chairman 
to take notice of the breach of any of our orders, 
to enquire of every member how he hath dis- 
charged the business that was allotted him at the 
last meeting, and what difficulties he hath met 
with, in order to find out proper remedies. To 
read over the agreement of this Society once a 
month. To read over the minutes of what hath 
been resolved upon at the end of every meeting, 



and the list of the members ; and to go or send to 
such as have been absent twice successively, with- 
out a just excuse known to some member rf the 
Society ; and, the next time any such persons 
shall be present, the Chairman for the time be- 
ing shall put them in mind of the great impor- 
tance of the business they are engaged in> and of 
the obligations they have laid themselves under 
by their subscriptions to attend the meetings of 
this Society. 

" That we endeavour to find out proper per- 
sons to be brought into this Society ; and that no 
member shall be proposed for a member but 
when four or more of the Society are present ; 
and that none shall be admitted into this Society 
till he hath been proposed by three several meet- 
ings, and are thought to be men of piety and 
temper; and that after any person hath been 
proposed a second time for a member, two per- 
sons shall be appointed by the major part of the 
Society to make enquiry concerning his life and 

" That in cases of difficulty that *hall occur, 
we consult the learned in the Law, or other pro- 
per persons, that we by no means go further than 
the Law will warrant us. 

" That we keep an exact account of our pro- 
ceedings in a book kept for that purpose. 

" That the debates and resolutions of the So- 
ciety be kept secret ; and, therefore, no person 



shall be admitted to be present at any debate, in 
any meeting, that is not a member, unless upon 
special occasion, and by agreement of the majo- 
rity present. 

" That we look upon ourselves as under a pe- 
culiar obligation to pray for the Reformation of 
the Nation in general, and to implore the Divine 
direction and blessing upon this our undertaking 
in particular *." 

Every man may be considered as included 
within this class, who hazards a falsehood to for-- 
ward his views, whether they are in the course 
of trade, or deviate into cheating. Mr. Sheri- 
dan, in the Critick, forcibly exposes the various 
kinds of puffs used by Tradesmen and Authors ; 
and he classes them very justly into the puff di- 
rect, indirect, &c. The first instance which oc- 
curs of a case in point, after 1 700, is the follow- 
ing from a Hair-dresser, which fraternity is no- 
torious for extreme modesty and truth in their 
addresses to the publick : " Whereas a pretended 
Hair-cutter, between the Maypole in the Stranc^ 
and St. Clement's church, hath, without any pro- 
vpcation, maliciously abused Jenkin Cuthbeart- 
son behind his back, at several persons' houses, 
and at his own shop, which hath been very much 
to his disadvantage, by saying that he was a piti- 
ful fellow and a blockhead, and that he did not 

* Original proposals. 



understand how to cut hair or shave : I therefore, 
the said Jenkin Cuthbeartson, think myself 
obliged to justify myself, and to let the world 
know that I do understand my trade so far, that I 
challenge the aforesaid pretended hair-cutter, or 
any that belongs to him, either to shave or cut 
hair, or any thing that belongs to the trade, for 
five or ten pounds, to be judged by two sufficient 
men of our trade, as witness my hand this cjth 
day of November, 1/02, Jenkin Cuthbeartson, 
King-street, Westminster *." 

Fellows who pretended to calculate Nativities 
were to be met with in several parts of London at 
the same period : they sold ridiculous inventions 
which they termed Slgils ; and the possessor of 
those had but to fancy they would protect them- 
selves and property, and the object of the Con- 
jurer was accomplished. Almanack John ob- 
tained great celebrity in this art. It appears that 
he was a Shoe-maker, and resided in the Strand. 
This fellow, and others of his fraternity, preyed 
upon fools or very silly people only ; their losses 
were therefore of little moment, and the turpi- 
tude of Almanack John was not quite so great as 

* The artist against whom this advertisement was 
levelled, " was Bat Pigeon, whose sign of a Bat and 
a Pigeon once attracted much attention, and of whom 
honourable mention has been made both by Steele and 
Addison. Honest Bat had a very handsome house and 
shop on the North side of the Strand, a few doors from 
St. Clement's Church Yard." European Magazine. 

VOL. i. H that 


that of the villains who affected illness and defor- 
mity, thus to rob the charitable, whose gifts would 
otherwise have been directed to the relief of the 
real sufferer. 

The reader will presently perceive that, in one 
instance, the depravity of the community of Beg- 
gars is but too stationary since 1702. " That 
people may not be imposed upon by Beggars 
who pretend to be lame, dumb, &.c. w^hich really 
are not so ; this is to give notice, that the Presi- 
dent and Governors for the poor of London, pity- 
ing the case of one Richard Alegil, a boy of 1 1 
years of age, who pretended himself lame of both 
his legs, so that he used to go shoving himself 
along on his breech ; they ordered him to be taken 
into their workhouse, intending to make him a 
taylor, Upon which he confessed that his bro- 
ther, a boy of 1 7 years of age, about four years 
ago, by the advice of other beggars, contracted 
his legs, and turned them backwards, so that he 
never used them from that time to this, but fol- 
lowed the trade of begging ; that he usually got 
5*. a day, sometimes 10s. ; that he hath been all 
over the counties, especially the West of Eng- 
land, where his brother carried him on a horse, 
and pretended he was born so, and cut out of his 
mother's womb. He hath also given an account 
that he knows of other beggars that pretend to be 
dumb and lame, and of some that tie their arms 
in their breeches, and wear a wooden stump in 



their sleeve. The said President and Governors 
have caused the legs of the said Alegil to be set 
straight ; he now has the use of them, and walks 
upright ; they havQ ordered him to be put to spin- 
ning, ami his brother to be kept to hard labour. 
Several other able beggars are by their order ta- 
ken up and set to work, and when brought into 
the Workhouse have from 10s. to 5/. in their 

A person during the fair of 1703 had the auda- 
city to advertise, that the spoils taken at Vigo 
were to be seen for sixpence at his booth ; and 
he imposed upon the public curiosity by exhibit- 
ing fictitious representations of an Altar-piece of 
silver, with six Angels in full proportion, four 
Apostles supporting the four pillars, and four 
Angels attending them, with each a lamp for in- 
cense in their hands ; also a Crown set with valu- 
able stones, a Holy- water pot garnished with fil- 
ligree-work, &c. &c. " all brought from Figo, 
having been first lodged in the Tower, and never 
exposed before but in the Toiver" 

John Bonner, of Short's Gardens, had the bare- 
faced effrontery, in 1703? to offer his assistance, 
by necromancy, to those who had lost any thing 
at Stnrbridge Fair, at Churches or other assem- 
blies, " he being paid for his labour and ex- 
po nces." 

The Corporation of London aimed a severe 
blow, in the same year, at impostors and sturdy 

ii 2 b 


beggars, by offering a reward of one shilling each 
for such as were apprehended, and sent to the 
Workhouse in Bishopsgate-street. 

The Post-boy of July 21, 1~11, contains the 
following paragraph : " It is thought proper to 
give notice of a common notorious cheat frequently 
practised by men who pretend to be soldiers, 
and others, in a game by them called Cups and 
Balls, particularly at the wall next the Mews- 
gate, within the Verge of the Court." 

At a petty Sessions for Westminster held in 
April 1714, an account was returned from the 
proper officers of the receipt of 42/. in the pre- 
ceding six months, as penalties for profanations 
of the Sabbath, swearing, and drunkenness. 

There was a place of resort for the vicious, 
c'alled the Cave, at Highgate, which was indicted, 
and the indictment opposed by the proprietors, 
in a trial before Lord Chief Justice Parker, De- 
cember 1714 ; but the defendants lost the cause, 
and the Cave was suppressed, to the satisfaction, 
as a paragraph expresses it in the Flying Post, of 
those " who are enemies to such a nursery of pro- 
faneness and debauchery." 

A shocking instance of depravity occurred in 
March 1; 18. A Quaker potter, of the name of 
Oades, who resided in Gravel-lane, Southwark, 
had four sons, whom he admitted into partner- 
>hip with him, and at the same time sufllncd 
them to carry on business en their own account. 


This method of proceeding naturally led to jea- 
lousies and .envy on both sides, which increased 
to a degree of rancour, that the father and sons 
appear to have acted towards each other as if no 
connection subsisted between them. The imme- 
diate cause of the horrid event that renders the 
tale odious, was the arrest of Oades by his sons, 
for the violation of the peace, which they had 
bound him in a penalty to observe, and the con- 
sequent expulsion of their mother from her dwell- 
ing. This act attracted the notice of the popu- 
lace, who seldom fail to adopt the right side of a 
question of justice, and as usual they began to 
execute summary vengeance on the house. The 
sons, an attorney, and another person, secured 
themselves within it, whence they read the Riot 
Act, and fired immediately after ; a bullet entered 
the head of a woman, who fell dead ; the assault 
then became more furious, and persons were sent 
for Mr. Lade, a Justice ; that gentleman bailed 
the father, and commanded the sons to submit in 
vain : he therefore found it necessary to send for 
a guard of Soldiers, who arrived and commenced 
a regular siege, but the fortress was not stormed 
till two o'clock in the morning, when a courage- 
ous fellow scaled a palisade on the back part of 
the house, and admitted his party, who rushed 
in, and secured the garrison. The son of Oades, 
who shot the woman, was tried for the murder, 



found guilty, but pardoned on his father's inter- 
cession, provided he banished himself. 

The villain xvho occasioned the ensuing adver- 
tisement mixed cruelty with his fraud. " Where- 
as a person who went by the name of Dr. Cock, 
did about two months since come to Mrs. Robin- 
son, in Putney, being indisposed; he pretended 
to come from an acquaintance of hers from Lon- 
don to give her advice ; accordingly he applied a 
plaster to her stomach, by which she has received 
a great deal of injury. He had for his fee ten 
shillings, and demanded six shillings for his plas- 
ter ; it is supposed he took a handkerchief with 
him and a shirt. It appearing that nobody sent 
him, whoever can give notice of him, &c." 

The next Sharper upon public record worthy 
notice was Jones, a footman, who had contrived 
to attract the favours of the lady of Esquire Dor- 
mer, of Rousam, Oxfordshire, a gentleman worth 
,3f)00/. per annum ; which being discovered by 
the injured husband, an action was commenced 
for Crim. Con. against the party-coloured enamo- 
rato, and pursued to conviction ; but, just as sir 
Thomas Cross, the foreman of the Jury, was 
about to pronounce the tremendous sound of 
5000/. damages, or, in other words, imprison- 
ment for life, master Jones rushed through the 
Hall, flew to a boat, was rowed across the Thames, 
and took sanctuary in the Mint, before the Lord 
Chief Justice's Tip-staff could prevent him. 



An escape accomplished by a still greater vil- 
lain in l/l 6, was far more extraordinary : a high- 
wayman, named Goodman, had been appre- 
hended with great exertion and difficulty, and 
brought to trial at the Old Bailey, where the Jury 
pronounced him guilty ; but, at the instant their 
verdict was given, he sprang over the enclosure, 
and eluded every endeavour to arrest his progress. 

Such was the daring folly of this man, that he 
frequently appeared in public, and presuming on 
his supposed security, actually went to Mackerel's 
(Quaker Coffee-house in Bartlett's-buildings, for 
the purpose of procuring the arrest of a Carrier, 
to whom he had intrusted 161. to be conveyed to 
his wife in the country, and who, supposing 
Goodman would be hanged, had converted it to 
his own use : there he met an Attorney by ap- 
pointment, and stationed four desperadoes at the 
door armed with pistols, in order to repel any at- 
tempt at seizing him. The Attorney, aware of 
his precaution, listened to the case of the Carrier, 
and studiously avoided betraying him ; but the 
instant Goodman departed, he declared who his 
client was, upon which several persons watched 
the wretch to his place of concealment, where they 
attacked him, and he them, with the utmost re- 
solution ; after a severe conflict, in which the 
assailants were compelled to bruise him dread- 
fully, he was secured ; but, throwing himself 
down in the streets, they were at last compelled 



to bind and carry him in a cart to prison : he v, as 
hanged not long after *. 

The Mistress of Child's Coffee-house was de- 
frauded of a considerable sum, in September 17 16, 
by an artful stratagem. She received a note by 
the Penny-post, which appeared to come from 
Dr. Mead, who frequented her house ; saying, 
that a parcel would be sent there for him from 
Bristol, containing choice drugs, and begging her 
to pay the sum of 61. 11s. to the bearer of it. 
The reader will probably anticipate the denoue- 
ment ; the bundle was brought, the money paid ; 
the Doctor declared his ignorance of the transac- 
tion, the parcel was opened, and the contents 
found to be rags *. 

It is not often that thefts can be narrated which 
are calculated to excite a smile ; and yet I am 
much mistaken if the reader doth not relax his 
risible faculties, when he is informed of a singu- 
lar method of stealing wigs, practised in 1/17. 
This I present him verbatim from the Weekly 
Journal of March 30. " The Thieves have got 
such a villainous way now of robbing gentlemen, 
that they cut holes through the backs of Hackney 
coaches, and take away their wigs, or fine head- 
dresses of gentlewomen ; so a gentleman was 
served last Sunday in Tooley-street, and another 
but last Tuesday in Fenchurch-street ; wherefore, 
this may serve for a caution to gentlemen or gen- 
* Newspapers. 



tlewomen that ride single in the night-time, to 
sit on the fore-seat, which will prevent that way 
of robbing." 

The first notice of Mr. Law, the chief Director 
of the Royal Bank at Paris, that I have met with, 
was in August 1717 ; when it was said he had 
betted that the French State-bills would not fall 
10 per cent, within a year, and given 10 Louis to 
receive 100 if he won ; he offered the earl of Stair 
100 for 1000 in the same way, which was re- 
fused ; and the event proved, that the bills fell 
50 per cent. 

Gaining was dreadfully prevalent in 1718. 
This will be demonstrated by the effect of one 
night's search by the Leet Jury of Westminster, 
who presented no less than 35 houses to the Jus- 
tices for prosecution. 

The Society for the Reformation of Manners 
published the ensuing effects of their labours for 
one year, ending in December 1718. 

Prosecuted for lewd and disorderly practices, 


Keeping of bawdy and disorderly houses, 31. 

Exercising their trades or callings on the Lord's- 
day, 492. 

Profane swearing and cursing, 202. 

Drunkenness, 1 7 . 

Keeping common gaming-houses, S. 

We have now arrived at a grand aera of villainy, 
the golden harvest of scheming, in which Mr. 



La\v acted the first part in France. A person 
under the signature of Publicus, in the Thurs- 
day's Journal of December 17, 1719, very justly 
observes : " If any of the days of us or our fore- 
fathers might be called the projcc ting age, I think 
this is the time. If ever there was a nation that 
had been 23 years ruining itself and recovered in 
a moment, this is the time. If ever a govern- 
ment paid its debts without money, and ex- 
changed all the cash in the kingdom for bits of 
paper, which had neither anybody to pay them 
for, or any intrinsic fund to pay themselves, this 
is the time. If ever a credit was raised without a 
foundation, and built up to a height that not only 
was likely to fall, but indeed was impossible to 
stand, this is the time." 

Speaking of Mr. Law, he says, " First, he has 
entirely restored credit in France ; or, as it may 
be said, he has planted credit in a soil where cre- 
dit never could thrive, and never did thrive be- 
fore ; I mean in a tyrannic absolute government, 
a thing inconsistent with credit, and the very 
name of it; for when was ever credit established 
to any degree, where the Sovereign was able to 
seize upon the foundation on which it stood, by 
his absolute power, and at his pleasure. 

" 2dly, He has established such a bank, and 
so fortified it with an established settlement, and 
on such a stock, as nothing can come up to it in 



the world, except only the Banks of London and 

" 3dly, He has erected a Company immense and 
inimitable on a trifling fund, and the trifle made 
up of the most precarious things that could be 
then imagined, being State bills, Town-house 
rents, and public funds, which in their own esteem 
were not at that time to be rated at above 35 or 
40 per cent, nor would they have fetched more to 
have been sold then in open market ; and these 
has he brought up to be worth 2OOO/. per cent, in 
the same market where they were under 40 per 
cent, before. The man that has done all this was 
here but a contemptible person, a Silversmith's 
son at Edinburgh, then a rake, then a soldier, 
then a kind of bully, then a murderer ; he was 
tried at the Old Bailey for killing Mr. Wilson, 
commonly called Beau Wilson, in a duel ; he 
was condemned to be hanged, but found means 
to break out of Newgate ; some say he got out by 
a silver key, and from thence made his escape 
into France : there he lived without character 
and without employment, till entering into the 
schemes which he has since laid open, and talk- 
ing freely of them, it came to the ears of the Re- 
gent, who employing some men to talk with him, 
and they finding his head turned for great pro- 
jects, he was heard by more considerable persons, 
and finally by the Regent himself, with whom he 
established these just maxims as fundamentals ; 

namely : 


namely : That a fund of credit was equal to a fund 
of money. That credit might be raised upon 
j>ersonal funds, not upon the publick, because 
the power was absolute. Upon these foundations 
lie first erected the Royal bank ; whi^h, having 
been done by a subscription, and having a suf- 
iieient fund in specie to answer all the bills ou 
demand, began to take, and having stood several 
severe shocks from the attempts of merchants and 
others to ruin its reputation, established itself 
upon the punctual discharge of its first credit, till 
by time it increased to such a magnitude as we 
now see it, being able to pay bills as was tried by 
its enemy for a million and a quarter, sterling, 
in one day. This Bank, being thus past the first 
hazards, stands too fast for the power of art to 
shake it ; and immense sums being lodged with 
them, their payments are much safer than the 
money in any man's pocket. 

" .This raised Mr. Law's fame to the pitch it is 
now at, and set him above the power of all his 
enemies. From thence he grounded his Missis- 
sippi project, got it tilled up, joined it to the 
East-India Company; undertook the whole coin- 
age, embraced several other projects, as a Royal 
iishery, the Tobacco farm, and at last the trade 
to Norway for naval stores, deals, timber, &c. 

" It is true that a stock advanced to 2000 per 
cent, may undertake any thing; but depend upon 
it, a stock advanced to 2000 per cent, upon no 



foundation, must at last come to nothing, and 
the only use is to raise estates upon the first ad- 
vance of it ; and perhaps it may appear at last, 
that the imaginary value of the stock declining in 
the humours of the times, it will by no means 
be able to support itself, which, whenevc r it 
happens, blows it up all at once." 

Such were the prophetic reasonings of our ob- 
server, which the event fully justified by the ruin 
of thousands in England. To authenticate this 
assertion, I shall present the reader a succession 
of paragraphs from the Newspapers, pointing out 
the ramifications from the parent stock, and the 
facility with which the publick were imposed 

(( Here has been the oddest bite pat upon the 
Town that ever was heard of. We having of late 


had several new subscriptions set on foot, for 
raising gre<it sums of money for erecting Offices 
of Insurance, &c. ; at length, some gentlemen, 
to convince the world how easy it was for projec- 
tors to impose upon mankind, set up a pretended 
office in Exchange-alley, for the receiving sub- 
scriptions for raising a million of money to estab- 
lish an effectual Company cf Insurers ?.s they 
called it. Upon which, the day being come to 
subscribe, the people flocked in, and paid down 
, r ).y. for every 1000/. they subscribed, pursuant to 
the Company's proposals ; but, after some hun- 
dreds had so subscribed (that the tiling might be 



fully known), the gentlemen were at the expence 
to advertise, that the people might have their 
money again without any deductions ; and to let 
them know that the persons who paid in their 
money, contented themselves with a fictitious 
name, set by an unknown hand to the receipts 
delivered out for the money so paid in ; and that 
the said name was composed only of the first 
letters of six persons names concerned in the 
said publication." Weekly Packet, January 2, 

The original Weekly Journal immediately after 
observes : " It was the observation of a very witty 
knight many years ago, that the English people 
were something like a flight of birds at a barn 
door; shoot among them and kill ever so many, 
the rest shall return to the same place in a very 
little time, without any remembrance of the evil 
that had befallen their fellows. Thus the Eng- 
lish, though they have had examples enough in 
these latter times of people ruined by engaging in 
Projects, yet they still fall in with the next that 
appears. Thus, after NeaFs Lottery, how many 
were trumped up in a year or two's time, till the 
Legislature itself was fain to suppress them. 
Sometime after this, there was a new project set 
on foot for the prodigious improvement of small 
sums of money, in which they who put in, for 
example, 5/. must by the proposal make above 
100/. of it in a year's time. People never ex- 


amined bow they could perform this proposal; 
but, blind with the hopes of gain, threw their 
motley into the Denmark-court Office in so extra- 
vagant a manner, that, if the humour could have 
gone on, they must have had passed through their 
hands in a few months half the cash of the na- 
tion. The success of this Office begot many more 
in all parts of the Town, all which ended in the 
ruin of many families. 

" Our cunning men are now carrying on a 
cause very much like these that are past, but in- 
finitely more extravagant than all of them; 
though I believe it will prove less detrimental than 
any of them, because they are already multiplied 
to that degree, that the sharpers, alias projectors, 
are infinitely too numerous for the bubbles; since 
the Stocks they have proposed to raise amounts 
to 28,000,000/. ; above twice as much as the cur- 
rent coin of the Nation, nay more than the third- 
part of all the payments the circulation of that 
current coin performs in the whole kingdom; 
but, because the placing these projects all in one 
view must certainly be useful to your readers, I 
here send you an abstract of them. 

" For a general insurance on houses and mer- 
chandize, at the three Tuns, Swithin's-aUev. 



For building and buying ships to let or freight, 
at Garravvay's, Exchange-alley, 1,200,000/. 

To be lent by way of Loan on Stock at Garra- 
way's, 1,200,000/. 



For granting annuities by way of survivorship, 
and providing for widows, orphans, &c. at the 
Rainbow, Cornhill, 1,200,000/. 

For the raisingthegrowth of raw silk, 1 ,OOO,000/. 
For lending upon the deposit of goods, stock, 
annuities, tallies, &c. at Robin's, Exchange-alley, 

For settling and carrying on a trade to Ger- 
many, 1,200,000/. at the Rainbow. 

For insuring of houses and goods from fire, at 
Sadlers-hall, 2,000,000/. 

For carrying on a trade to German}-, 1 ,20O,000/. 
at the Virginia Coffee-house. 

For securing goods and houses from fire, at the 
Swan and Rummer, 2,000,000/. 

For buying and selling of estates, public stocks, 
government securities, and to lend money, 

For insuringships and merchandize, 2,OOO 3 000/. 
at the Marine Coffee-house, Rirchin-lane. 

For purchasing government securities, and 
lending money to merchants to pay their duties 
with, l,jOO,000/. 

For carrying on the undertaking business, for 
furnishing funerals t 1,200,000/. at the Fleece- 
tavern, Cornhill. 

For carrying on trade between Great-Britain 
and Ireland, and the Kingdoms of Portugal and 
Spain, 1,000,000/. 

For carrying on the coal-trade from Newcastle 
to London, 2,000,000/. Cooper's Coffee-house. 


For preventing and suppressing of thieves and 
robbers, and for insuring all persons goods from 
the same, 2,000,000/. at Cooper's." 

Here ceases the enumeration of the Journalist, 
but his hiatus shall be supplied faithfully from 
other original advertisements. 

A grand Dispensary, 3,000,000/. at the Buffa- 

Subscription for a sail-cloth manufactory in Ire- 
land, at the Swan and Hoop, Cornhill. 

4,000,000/. for a trade to Norway and Sweden, 
to procure pitch, tar, deals, and oak, at Wag- 

For buying lead mines and working them, 

A subscription for manufacturing Ditties or 
Manchester stuffs of thread and cotton, Mulford's. 

4,000, OOO/. for purchasing and improving com- 
mons and waste lands, Hanover Coffee-house. 

A Royal fishery, Skinners-hall. 

A subscription for effectually settling the Islands 
of Blanco and Sallortugas. 

For supplying the London-market with cattle, 
Gar raw ay's. 

For smelting lead-ore in Derbyshire, Swan and 

For manufacturing of muslins and calico, Por- 
tugal Coffee-house. 

2 5 000,000/. for the purchase of pitch, tar, and 
turpentine. Castle-tavern . 

VOL. i. I 2,000,000/. 


2,000,000/. for importing walnut-tree from Vir- 
ginia, Garraway's. 

2,OOO,000/. for making crystal mirrors, coach 
glasses, and for sash windows, Cole's. 

For purchasing tin and lead mines in Cornwall 
and Derbyshire, Half-moon Tavern. 

For preventing the running of wool, and en- 
couraging the wool manufactory, King's Arms. 

For a manufactory of rape-seed oil, Fleece- 

2,000,000/. for an engine to supply Deal with 
fresh water, &c. Black Swan. 

2,000,000/. at the Sun Tavern, for importing 
beaver fur. 

For making of Joppa and Castile soap, Castle 

4,000,000/. for exporting woollen stuffs, and 
importing copper, brass, and iron, and carrying 
on a general foundery, Virginia Coffee-house. 

For making pasteboard, packing-paper, &c. 
Montague Coffee-house. 

A Hair copartnership, permits 5*. 6d. each, at 
the Ship Tavern, Paternoster-row ; " by reason 
all places near the Exchange are so much crowded 
at this juncture." 

For importing masts, spars, oak, &c. for the 
Navy, Ship Tavern. 

" This day, the 8th instant, at Sam's Coffee- 
house, behind the Royal Exchange, at three in 
the afternoon, a book will be opened for entering 



into a joint-copartnership for carrying On a thing 
that will turn to the advantage of the concerned." 

For importing oils and materials for the woollen 
manufactory, permits 10.9. each, Rainbow. 

For a settlement in the Island of St. Crohf, 
Cross Keys. 

Improving the manufacture of silk, Sun Tavern. 

For purchasing a Manor and Royalty in Essex, 

5,000,000/. for buying and selling lands, and 
lending on landed security, Garraway's. 

For raising and manufacturing madder in Great 
Britain, Pennsylvania Coffee-house. 

2000 shares for discounting pensions, &c. 
Globe Tavern. 

4,000.000/. for improving all kinds of malt- 
liquors, Ship Tavern. 

2,500,000/. for importing linens from Hol- 
land, and Flanders lace. 

A Society for landing and entering goods at the 
Custom-house on commissions, Robin's. 

For making of glass and bottles, Salutation 

The grand American fishery, Ship and Castle. 

2,000,000/. for a friendly Society, for purchas- 
ing merchandize, and lending money, King's- 

2,000,000/. for purchasing and improving'Fens 
in Lincolnshire, Sam's. 

Improvingsoap-rmaking, Mulford's Coffee-house. 

I 2 For 


For making English pitch /and tar, Castle 

4,000,000/. for improving lands in Great-Bri- 
tain, Pope's-head. 

A woollen manufactory in the North of Eng- 
land, Swan and Rummer. 

A paper manufactory, Hamlin's Coffee-house. 

For improving gardens, and raising fruit-trees, 

For insuring Seamen's wages, Sam's Coffee- 

The North- America Society, Swan and Rum- 

The gold and silver Society. 

2,000,000/. for manufacturing baize and flan- 
nel, Virginia Coffee-house. 

For extracting silver from lead, Vine Tavern. 

1,000,000/. for manufacturing China and Delft 
wares, Rainbow. 

4,000,000/. for importing tobacco from Virgi- 
nia, Salutation Tavern. 

For trading to Barbary and Africa, Lloyd's. 

For the clothing and pantile trade, Swan and 

Making iron with pit-coal. 

A copartnership for buying and selling live 
hair, Castle Tavern. 

Insurance office for horses, dying natural deaths, 
stolen, or disabled, Crown Tavern, Smithfield. 

A rival to the above for 2,000,000/. at Robin's. 



Insurance office for servants' thefts_, &c. 3000 
shares of 1000/. each. Devil Tavern. 

For tillage and breeding cattle, Cross-keys. " 
For furnishing London with hay and straw, 
Great James's Tavern. 

For bleaching coarse sugars to a fine colour 
without fire or loss of substance. Fleece. 

1,000,000/. for a perpetual motion, by means 
of a wheel moving by force of its own weight, 
Ship Tavern. 

A copartnership for insuring and increasing 
children's fortunes, Fountain Tavern. 

4,000,000^. for manufacturing iron and steel, 
Black Swan Tavern. 

2,000,000/. for dealing in lace, &c. &c. &c. 

10,000,000/. for a Royal fishery of Great-Bri- 
tain, Black Swan. 

2,000,000/. to be lent upon pledges, Blue-coat 

Turnpikes and wharfs, Sword-blade Coffee- 

For the British alum works, Salutation. 
2,000, OOO/. forerecting salt-pans in Holy Island, 
John's Coffee-house. 

2,000,000/. fora snuff manufactory, Garraway's. 
3,000,000/. for building and rebuilding houses, 
Globe Tavern. 

The reader will find that I have given him the 
titles of ninety of these symptoms of public 



phrenzy, exclusive of the South-Sea scheme *. 
Such of the projects as have not mentioned mil- 
lions, appear to have been forlorn wights, who 
were contented perforce to receive the few loose 
pounds left in the pockets of the subscribers, by 
those whose aggregate sums amount to one hun- 
dred and ten millions. 

The sufferers in this monstrous scene of wicked- 
ness and folly could not plead ignorance or de- 
ception ; the baits were so clumsily affixed to the 
hooks, that the Journalists were continually em- 
ployed in warning the publick, sometimes seri- 
ously, and frequently piercing them with the 
keenest shafts of ridicule : Sir Richard Steele en- 
deavoured to warn the maniacs of the South-Sea 
Stock, fruitlessly, 

" Notwithstanding what has been published, 
that the annuitants would not subscribe their 
annuities in the South-Sea Stock, we find that 
they now run in crowds to subscribe them, though 
they know not how much Stock they are to have. 
Some people say as much as will make 30 years' 
purchase ; but this is uncertain. It was, indeed, 
expected that before the Company would take 
those subscriptions, they would have given notice 
of it in the Gazette, and have put up advertise- 
ments at their house and at the Royal Exchange, 

* A writer in the European Magazine says, he could 
add sixty other schemes to my list ; I should however 
imagine my readers are already satisfied. 



at least eight days before ; but it seems the Annui- 
tants have such a good opinion of the Directors., 
of the South-Sea, that without this they come 
and surrender their ALL as it were, leaving it to 
the pleasure, discretion, and honour of the Direc- 
tors, to give them as much Stock as they shall 
think fit. The like, we suppose, never was heard 
of before. It is said there has already been above 
300,000/. per annum subscribed. The reason of 
people running to it in such haste is, that it has 
been whispered the first subscribers would receive 
a greater advantage than those that shall stay lon- 
ger. A million has also been subscribed, at the 
rate of 400/. per cent, the money to be paid in 
three years' time, but they are to have the bene- 
fit of the next half year's dividend ; by this last 
subscription the Company will get 3,000,000/. of 
money ; and it is said they will shortly take ano- 
ther subscription at 500/. to pay in seven years, 
and to have the next half year's dividend ; by 
which means they will get, together with those 
before, above \ I millions of money. In all ap- 
pearance, the Company will carry every thing be- 
fore them ; for we see that, notwithstanding what 
has been said against their Stock by Sir Richard 
Steele and others, that people are as eager for it 
as if nothing had been said against it. Those 
fine writers might as well have attempted to stop 
the tide under London-bridge, as to stop the 
people from buying or subscribing in that Stock : 



as to the first of these, they know something of 
V^vhat they do, but the Annuitants run blindfold 
into the hands of the Directors, as if they should 
say: f Gentlemen, We have so many 1000/. or 
100/. per annum in the annuities for yo, years; 
we know you to be both just and honourable, 
give us as much of your South-Sea Stock as you 
please, we oblige ourselves to be content with 
whatever you shall give us ;' and this is, in short, 
the sum and substance of the case." London 
Journal, May 7, 1720. 

The Weekly Packet of the same date adds! 
" The subscriptions that were lately earned on for 
raising more millions of money than all Europe 
can afford, are not as yet quite dead, but are very 
much withered bv the breath of the Senate, or a 


nipping blast from Westminster. It is observed, 
that many of those projects are so ridiculous and 
chimerical, that it is hard to tell which is most 
to be wondered at, the impudence of those that 
make the proposals, or the stupid folly of those 
that subscribe to them ; yet many a gudgeon 
hath bee 1 !! caught in the net, though, one would 
think that, with half an eye, they might disceni 
the cheat. When these bites can no longer go 
on with their bubbles, happy will be the conse- 
quence to many honest but unthinking men that 
stand in danger to be drawn in by them ; but 
unhappy to themselves that they have been used 
to such dishonest ways of living, and hardly will 



J.ake up with any course of life that is not so ; 
insomuch that it is feared, as one says, that 
many of them will go out a marauding; then 
stand clear the Bristol Mail." 

On the 4th of June, the Newspapers intimated 
the intentions of Parliament, directed to the pre- 
vention of any farther mischief from Schemes and 
Stock-jobbing; and yet, so willing were people 
to be ruined, that the London Journal of the 1 1th 
declares : " The hurry of our Stock-jobbing bub- 
blers, especially, has been so great this week, that 
it has even exceeded all that ever was known be- 
fore. The subscriptions are innumerable ; and so 
eager all sorts of people have been to engage in 
them, how improbable or ridiculous soever they 
have appeared, that there has been nothing but 
running about from one Coffee-house to another, 
and from one Tavern to another, to subscribe, 
and without examining what the proposals were. 
The general cry has been, l For G 's sake let 
us but subscribe to something, we do not care 
what it is !' So thai, in short, many have taken 
them at their words, and entered them adventur- 
ers in some of the grossest cheats and improbable 
undertakings that ever the world heard of: and 
yet, by all these, the projectors have got money, 
and have had their subscriptions full as soon as 

The auspicious 24th of June at length arrived, 
which gave the force of law to the following 

words : 


words : <( And it is further enacted, by the au- 
thority aforesaid, that if any Merchant or Trader, 
after the 24th day of June 1 /20, shall suffer any 
particular damage in his, her, or their trade, 
commerce, or their lawful occasions, by occasion 
or means of any undertaking, or attempt, matter, 
or thing, by this Act declared to be unlawful as 
aforesaid, and will sue to be relieved therein: 
then, and in every such case, such Merchant or 
Trade*- shall and may have his remedy for the 
same, by r.n action or actions, to be grounded 
upon this Statute, against the persons, societies, 
or partnerships, or any of them, who, contrary 
to this Act, shall be engaged or interested in any 
such unlawful undertaking or attempt; and any 
such action and actions shall be heard and deter- 
mined in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record, 
wherein no Essoign shall be allowed." 

This necessary Act was faintly opposed in an 
attempt to evade its penalties, by the projectors 
terming themselves and their Subscribers co-part- 
ners; but the interposition of the Legislature 
stamped all their schemes with discredit, and the 
elopement of several principals utterly destroyed 
the contrivances of those who dared popular ven- 
geance by keeping their posts. 

" The destruction of the bubbles has been a 
very heavy blow to many families here, and some 
are entirely ruined by them. There appeared 
he utmost consternation in Exchange-alley, the 



day the Act for suppressing them took place, 
which, because of the confusion and terror it 
struck among those brethren in iniquity, they 
called the day of judgment. It might be well in- 
deed with many of them, if no future inquisition 
would be made into their conduct in this matter, 
though, if so, they would not wholly escape ; for 
many of those who have been the most assiduous 
in drawing other poor wretches in to their ruin 
have, besides their wealth, acquired an infamy 
they can never wipe off; and as the rage of those 
who have drunk deep of the delusion is at this 
time pretty great, the others do not seem fond of 
appearing too much in public for the present ; 
they being followed with the reproaches, threats, 
and bitterest curses, of the poor people they have 
deluded to their destruction. - So that if all of 
them escape the resentment of the populace, it 
must be more owing to the care of the Magistracy, 
than the want of will or desperation in the in- 
jured." London Journal, July 2. 

A waggish Scale-maker ventured, at the same 
time, into Exchange-alley, at the very height of 
business, with his right hand extended, holding 
a pair of scales, exclaiming, " Make room for 
Justice : I sell Justice, who buys Justice here ?" 
And the butchers' boys, actuated by the same, 
though less civilized principle, made a tumultuous 
sham funeral for the entertainment of the vicinity. 



Although this great point was accomplished, 
the grand fortress yet remained to be subdued. 

Applebee's Journal of August 5, says,, " Our 
South-sea equipages increase every day ; the City 
kdies buy South-Sea jewels ; hire South-Sea 
maids ; and take new country South-Sea houses ; 
the gentlemen set up South-Sea coaches, and buy 
South-Sea estates, that they neither examine 
the situation, the nature or quality of the soil, or 
price of the purchase, only the annual rent and 
the title : for the rest, they take all by the lump, 
and give 40 to 50 years' purchase. This has 
brought so many estates to market, that the num- 
ber of land-jobbers begin to increase to a great 
degree, almost equal to the Stock-jobbers we had 

On the 10th of August, the Lords Justices 
gave positive orders to the Attorney-General, to 
bring Writs of scire facias against the York- 
buildings Company, the Lustring, the English 
Copper, and Welsh Copper and Lead Companies, 
or any others that persisted in their endeavours to 
evade the Law; and the Royal proclamation issued 
in aid of it. 

Government received numberless adventitious 
aids in their exertions. Pamphlets, paragraphs, 
jmd calculations, proving the losses that must 
follow from the monstrous price of 1000 per cent. 
for South-Sea Stock; issued in shoals from the 

press ; 


press ; and, as usual, much malignity and some 
_wit composed the ingredients. One scrap of 
doggrel may be worth inserting: 

.In London stands a famous pile, 

And near that pile an alley, 
Where merry crowds for riches toil, 

And Wisdom stoops to Folly. 
Here sad and joyful, high and low, 

Court Fortune for her graces, 
And as she smiles or frowns, they show 

Their gestures and grimaces. 

Here stars and garters too appear 

Among our lords the rabble ; 
To buy and sell, to see and hear, 

The Jews and Gentiles squabble. 
Here crafty Courtiers are too wise 

For those who trust to Fortune ' 
They see the cheat with clearer eyes, 

Who peep behind the curtain. 

Our greatest ladies hither come, 

And ply in chariots daily, 
Oft pawn their jewels for a sum, 

To venture it in the Alley, 
Young harlots, too, from Drury-lane, 

Approach the 'Change in coaches, 
To fool away the gold they gain 

By their obscene debauches. 



Long heads may thrive by sober rules, 

Because they think, and drink not ; 
But headlongs are our thriving fools, 

Who only drink, and think not. 
The lucky rogues, like spaniel dogs, 

Leap into South-Sea water, 
And there they fish for golden frogs, 

Not caring what comes after. 

'Tis said that Alchemists of old 

Could turn a brazen kettle, 
Or leaden cistern, into gold, 

That noble tempting metal ; 
But if it here may be allow'd 

To bring in great with small things, 
Our cunning South-Sea, like a god, 

Turns nothing into all things. 

What need have we of Indian wealth, 

Or commerce with our neighbours, 
Our constitution is in health, 

And riches crown our labours : ' 

Our South -Sea ships have golden shrouds, 

They bring us wealth, 'tis granted ; 
But lodge their treasure in the clouds, 

To hide it till it's wanted. 

O Britain, bless thy present state, 

Thou only happy Nation, 
So oddly rich, so madly great, 

Since bubbles came in fashion. 



Successful rakes exert their pride, 

And count their airy millions ; 
Whilst homely drabs in coaches ride, 

Brought up to town on pillions. 

Few men who follow Reason's rules 

Grow fat with South-Sea diet ; 
Young rattles and unthinking fools, 

Are those that flourish by it. 
Old musty jades and pushing blades, 

Who've least consideration, 
Grow rich apace, whilst wiser heads 

Are struck with admiration. 

A race of men who f other day 

Lay crush'd beneath disasters, 
Are now by stock brought into play, 

And made our lords and masters. 
But should our South-Sea Babel fall, 

What numbers would be frowning ; 
The losers then must ease their gall, 

By hanging or by drowning. 

Five hundred millions notes and bonds, 

Our stocks are worth in value ; 
But neither He in goods or lands, 

Or money, let me tell you ; 
Yet, though our foreign trade is lost, 

Of mighty wealth we vapour ; 
W r hen all the riches that we boast, 

Consist in scraps of paper* 



October 1, South- Sea Stock had fallen to 370 ; 
on the 6th to 180. The consternation occasioned 
by this event to those who had purchased at #80, 
may readily be conceived. The Saturday's Post 
of the 1st remarks : "It is impossible to express 
the vast alterations made by the sudden and un- 
accountable fall of the South-Sea Stock, as well 
as other Stocks ; some few of the dealers in them, 
indeed, had happily secured themselves before 
the storm arose ; but the far greater number who 
are involved in this public calamity, appear with 
such dejected looks, -that a man of little skill in the 
art of physiognomy may easily distinguish them. 

" Exchange-alley sounds no longer of thousands 
got in an instant ; but, on the contrary, all cor- 
ners of the town are filled with the groans of the 
afflicted ; and they who lately rode in great state 
to that famous mart of money, now condescend 
to walk the streets on foot, and, instead of adding 
to their equipages, have at once lost their estates. 
And even those of the trading rank who talked loud- 
ly of retiring into the country, purchasing estates, 
there building fine houses, and in every thing 
imitating their betters, are now become bank-, 
rupts, and have, by necessity, shut up their shops, 
because they could not keep them open any lon- 
ger ; however, for the comfort of such whose con- 
dition will admit of a remedy, it is said, a gen- 
tleman has formed a scheme for the relief of those 


Mist's Journal contains a paragraph, said to 
have been copied from a work, intituled, ' ( The 
Lord knows what, by the Lord knows who ;" 
which seems to place the South-Sea Stock in a 
true light : " I shall make a familiar simile, which 
every reader may carry in his mind without the 
help of figures, and which, I think, has a very 
near resemblance to the South-Sea scheme, as it 
has been executed : viz. A, having 100/. Stock 
in Trade, though pretty much in debt, gives it 
out to be worth 300/. on account of many privi- 
leges and advantages to which he is entitled. B, 
relying on his great wisdom and integrity, sues 
to be admitted a partner on those terms, and ac- 
cordingly brings 300/. into the partnership. The 
trade being afterwards given out or discovered to 
be very improving, C comes in at 500/. ; and 
afterwards D, at 1100/. ; and the capital is then 
completed to 2000/. If the partnership had gone 
on no farther than A and B, then A had got and 
B had lost 100/. ; if it had stopt at C, A had got 
and C had lost 200/. ; and B had been as he was 
before. But D also coming in, A gains 400/. and 
B 200/. and C neither gains nor loses, but D 
loses 60Ql. Indeed, if A could show that the said 
capital was intrinsically worth 4,400/., there 
would be no harm done to D, and B and C would 
have been much obliged to him. But if the 
Capital at first was worth but 100/. and increased 
only by the subsequent partnerships, it must then 
VOL. i. K be 


be acknowledged that B and C have been imposed 
on in their turns ; and that unfortunate, thought- 
less D pays the piper." 

I shall conclude my notices of the money- 
making schemes of 1720, with a beautiful invo- 
cation written by Mr. Philips : " O Eunomius 
(Earl Cowper), oraculous in thy speech ! happy 
had it been for thy country if thy wisdom and 
integrity could have prevailed over the rashness 
of some, and the avarice of others ! Hereafter 
may'st thou never speak in vain ; and may thy 
counsels help to remedy those evils they might 
have prevented ! may the King hasten his return 
to his deluded, abused subjects, and the Council 
of the Nation be speedily summoned for the re- 
dress of the land ! In the mean time let us mu- 
tually bear with, and assist one another in our 
present necessities : and since we are as free, 
though not so rich, a people as we have been ; 
and still claim, as our birthright, the liberty to 
debate, to speak, to write manfully for the public 
good ; let us not be dejected like our neighbours, 
after whose inventions we have gone astray, not 
sorrow, even as others who have no hope. 

" Have we been delivered from the curse of 
arbitrary power ; have we been preserved from the 
destruction of the sword, the rage of fire, the 
scourge of pestilence, and the ghastly terrors of 
famine, to suffer by the mean artifices of money- 
changers ? O my fellow citizens, you have joined 



with the spoilers ; yet have you not added to your 
stores. Let me print the remembrance of your 
past inadvertency upon your hearts, that it may 
abide as a memorial to you and to your children ; 
that deceivers may not hereafter inherit your pos- 
sessions. And whereunto shall I liken our past 
inadvertency, that it may abide as a memorial to 
us and to our children? O my fellow-citizens, 
we have waged a civil war throughout the land ; 
who hath not committed hostilities against his 
neighbour, and what hath it profited ? The 
wealth, the inheritance of the Island, are trans- 
ferred to the meanest of the people ; those chiefly 
have gained who had nothing to lose : the nobi- 

O o 

lity, the gentry, the merchants, have been a prey 
to the idle, the licentious, the spendthrifts ; men 
whose habitations were not known. All the cala- 
mities have we felt of a civil war, bloodshed only 
excepted : they who abounded suffer want. The 
industry, the trade of the Nation, has been sus- 
pended, and even arts and sciences have languished 
in the general confusion : the very women have 
been exposed to plunder, whose condition is the 
more deplorable, because they are not acquainted 
with the methods of gain to repair their broken 
fortunes. Some are driven from their country, 
others forced into confinement, some are weary 
of life ; and others there are who can neither be 
comforted nor recovered to the use of reason. 
Had his Majesty been present to see the wild 
K. 2 proceeding^ 


proceedings of the people, his goodness would 
have saved us from these extremities ; for though 
a King can, in his absence, delegate his power 
and authority, yet can he not delegate his wis- 
dom and his justice." 

Immediately after the disclosure of the shock- 
ing villainy practised hy Stock-johbers and the 
South-Sea Directors, another impostor was ex- 
posed to public view, and the Charity that had 
voluntarily flown into his potrkets turned to more 
worthy channels. It is true, the fellow was a 
little villain, but his arts may serve as a beacon to 
the unwary. This wretch pretended to be sub- 
ject to epileptic fits, and would fall purposely into 
some dirty pool, whence he never failed to be 
conveyed to a dry place, or to receive handsome 
donations ; sometimes he terrified the spectators 
with frightful gestures and convulsive motions, as 
if he would beat his head and limbs to pieces, 
and, gradually recovering, receive the rewards of 
his performance ; but the frequency of the exploit 
at length attracted the notice of the Police, by 
whom he was conveyed in a dreadful fit to the 
Lord Mayor, in whose presence the symptoms 
continued with the utmost violence ; that respec- 
table Magistrate, undertaking the office of physi- 
cian, prescribed the Compter, and finally the 
Workhouse, where he had no sooner arrived, than, 
finding it useless to counterfeit, he began to amend, 
and beat his hemp with double earnestness. 

A brother 


A brother in iniquity went to as many as twenty 
taverns in one afternoon, the landlords of which 
were ordered by him to prepare a supper for three 
officers of the guards, and to pay him a shilling 
for his trouble, and charge it to the officers. 

The following Report of a Committee was made 
to his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the 
County of Middlesex, in their General Quarter 
Sessions, assembled 1725. 

" In pursuance of an order made in the last 
Quarter Sessions held for this County ; whereby 
it was referred to us, among others, to enquire 
into the number of houses and places within such 
parts of this town and county as are therein men- 
tioned, where Geneva and other strong waters are 
sold by retail, and the mischiefs occasioned there- 
by : We, whose names are subscribed, do hereby 
certify, that by the returns of the high and petty 
constables, made upon their oaths, it appears 
there are within the weekly Bills of Mortality, 
and such other parts of this County as are now 
by the contiguity of buildings become part of this 
Town, exclusive of London and South wark, 6 18 7 
houses and shops, wherein Geneva or other strong- 
waters are sold by retail. And, although this 
number is exceeding great, and far beyond all 
proportion to the real wants of the inhabitants 
(being in some parishes every tenth house, in 
others every seventh, and in one of the largest 
every fifth house), we have great reason to believe 



it is very short of the true number, there being 
none returned but such who sell publicly in shop? 
or houses, though it is known there are many 
others who sell by retail, even in the streets and 
highways, some on bulks and stalls set up for 
that purpose, and others in wheelbarrows, who 
are not returned ; and many more who sell pri- 
vat^ly in garrets, cellars, back-rooms, and other 
places not publicly exposed to view, and which 
thereby escaped the notice of our officers ; and yet 
there have been a considerable number lately 
suppressed, or obliged to leave off, by the Justices 
within their parishes, though it has proved of no 
effect, having only served to drive those who be- 
fore were used to these liquors into greater shops, 
which are now to be seen full of poor people from 
morning to night. 

" But in this number of 6187 are included such 
victuallers who sell Geneva or other strong waters, 
as well as Ale and Beer : though it is highly pro- 
bable, from the great and sudden decay of the 
brewing-trade, without any diminution in the 
number of victuallers, that the quantities of strong 
waters now drank in Alehouses is vastly increased 
of late beyond what was usual ; and it appears 
by the constables' returns, where they are dis- 
tinguished, that the number of Geneva and other 
strong water shops are fully equal to the num- 
ber of Alehouses, and rather exceed than other- 


*' It is with the deepest concern your Com- 
mittee observe the strong inclination of the infe- 
rior sort of people to these destructive liquors ; and 
yet, as if that were not sufficient, all arts are used 
to tempt and invite them. All Chandlers, many 
Tobacconists, and several who sell fruit or herbs 
in stalls or wheelbarrows, sell Geneva ; and many 
inferior tradesmen begin now to keep it in their 
shops for their customers ; whereby it is scarce 
possible for soldiers, seamen, servants, or others 
of their rank, to go any where without being 
drawn in, either by those who sell it, or by their 
acquaintance they meet with in the streets, who 
generally begin with inviting them to a dram, 
which is every where near at hand ; especially 
where, of all other places, it ought to be kept at 
the greatest distance ; near churches, work-houses, 
stables, yards, and markets. 

" Your Committee, after having informed them- 
selves as well as they were able of the numbers of 
those houses, proceeded to enquire according to 
your directions into the mischiefs arising from 
them, and from the immoderate use of these 
liquors, and more especially Geneva ; and those 
appear to be endless and innumerable, affecting 
not only particular persons and families, but also 
the trade of the Nation and the public welfare. 

" With respect to particular persons ; it de- 
prives them of their money, time, health, and 
understanding, weakens and enfeebles them to 



the last degree ; and yet, while under its imme- 
diate influence, raises the most violent and out- 
rageous passions, renders them incapable of hard 
labour, as well as indisposes them to it, ruins 
their health, and destroys their lives ; besides the 
fatal effects it has on their morals and religion. 
And among the women (who seem to be almost 
equally infected) it has this farther effect, by in- 
flaming their blood, and stupifying their senses, 
to expose them an easy prey to the attacks of 
vicious men ; and yet many of them are so blind 
to these dismal consequences, that they are often 
seen to give it to their youngest children, eveu 
to such whom they carry in their arms. 

" With regard to their families, this pernicious 
liquor is still more fatal : whilst the husband, and 
perhaps his wife also, are drinking and spending 
their money in Geneva-shops, their children are 
starved and naked at home, without bread to eat, 
or clothes to put on, and either become a burden 
to their parishes, or, being suffered to ramble 
about the streets, are forced to beg while they are 
children, and learn as they grow up to pilfer and 
steal ; which your Committee conceive to be one 
of the chief causes of the vast increase of thieves 
and pilferers of all kinds, notwithstanding the 
great numbers who have been transported by vir- 
tue of the excellent law made for that purpose. 
Under this head may also be added, the common 
practice of pawning their own and children's 



clothes (which exposes them to all the extortions 
of pawnbrokers), and their running in debt, and 
cheating by all the ways and means they can de- 
vise, to get money to spend in this destructive 
liquor, which generally ends in the husband's 
being thrown into a gaol, and his whole family on 
the parish. And this your Committee conceive 
to be one of the principal causes of the great in- 
crease of beggars and parish poor, notwithstand- 
ing the high wages now given to all sorts of work- 
men and servants. 

" And lastly, with regard to trade, and the 
public welfare, the consequences are yet more 
ruinous and destructive. It has been already ob- 
served, that the constant use of strong- waters, and 
particularly of Geneva, never fails to produce an 
invincible aversion to work and labour ; this, by 
necessary consequence, deprives us of great num- 
bers of useful hands, which would otherwise be 
employed to the advantage of the publick. And 
as to those who yet do work sometimes, or follow 
any employment, the loss of their time in fre- 
quent tippling, the getting often drunk in the 
morning, and the spending of their money this 
way, must very much cramp and straiten them, 
and so far diminish their trade, and the profit 
which would accrue from thence to the publick, 
as well as to themselves. But it is farther to be 
observed, that although the retail trade of wine 
and ale is generally confined to Vintners and 



Victuallers, this of Geneva is now sold, not onh 
by Distillers and Geneva-shops, but by most 
other inferior traders, particularly by all chand- 
lers, many weavers, and several tobacconists, 
dyers, carpenters, gardeners, barbers, shoemakers, 
labourers, and others, there being in the hamlet 
of Bethnal-green only above 40 weavers who sell 
this liquor ; and these and other trades which 
make our manufactures, generally employing 
many journeymen and artificers under them, who 
having always this liquor ready at hand, are easily 
tempted to drink freely of it, especially as they 
may drink the whole week upon score, and per- 
haps without minding how fast the score rises 
upon them, whereby at the week's end they find 
themselves without any surplusage to carry home 
to their families, which of course must starve, or 
be thrown on the parish. And as this evil 
(wherein the masters may perhaps find their own 
account, by drawing back the greatest part of 
their workmen's wages) will naturally go on in- 
creasing, and extend to most other trades where 
numbers of workmen are employed, your Com- 
mittee apprehend, it may (if not timely pre- 
vented) affect our manufactures in the most sensi- 
ble manner, and be of the last consequence to our 
trade and welfare. 

" Under this head it may be proper also to 
take some notice of the pernicious influence, the 
permitting of chandlers, and other inferior trades, 



to deal in this destructive liquor, or any other 
strong-waters, has in this town, on the servants 
of the nobility and gentry ; it being too common 
a practice among chandlers and others, where 
servants are continually going on one occasion or 
other, to tempt and press them to drink, and 
even to give them drams of this liquor, which 
we may reasonably suppose must be paid for by 
the masters, either in the price, weight, or mea- 
sure of the goods they are sent for, and which, 
besides the immediate damage, encourages them 
to wrong their masters in greater matters, and, as 
we conceive, may be one cause of the great com- 
plaints that are made against servants. 

" And if we may judge what will happen in 
other workhouses now erecting, by what has al- 
ready happened by that of St. Giles's in the 
Fields, we have reason to fear, that the violent 
fondness and desire of this liquor, which unac- 
countably possesses all our poor, may prevent in 
great measure the good effects proposed by them, 
and which in all other respects seem very hope- 
ful and promising; it appearing by the return 
from Holborn division, wherein that workhouse 
is situate, that notwithstanding all the care that 
has been taken, Geneva is clandestinely brought 
in among the poor there, and that they will suf- 
fer any punishment or inconveniences rather than 
live without it, though they cannot avoid seeing 
its fatal effects by the death of those amongst 


them who had drank most freely of it ; and it is 
found by experience there, that those who use 
this liquor are not only the most lazy and unfit 
for work, but also the most turbulent and un- 
governable, and on that account several of them 
have been turned out, and left to struggle with 
the greatest wants abroad, which they submit to, 
rather than they will discover who brought in the 

* O 

Geneva to them, though they have been offered 
to be forgiven on that condition. 

" Your Committee, having thus laid before you 
the numbers of the houses and places wherein 
Geneva and other strong-waters are sold, as also 
some of the many mischievous effects derived 
from them, submit to the consideration and 
judgment of the Sessions, how far it is in their 
power, and by what means, to suppress this great 
nuisance ; or whether any, and what application 
to superiors may be proper in order to a more 
effectual remedy. 
" Jan. 13, 1725. 


The Society for the Reformation of Manners 
published a Statement of their proceedings al- 
most immediately after, by which it appears, 
they had prosecuted from December 1, 1724, to 



December 1, 1J25, 2506' persons for keeping 
lewd and disorderly houses, swearing, drunken- 
ness, gaming, and proceeding in their usual Oc- 
cupations on Sundays. The total amount oF their 
prosecutions for 34 years amounted to tha- amaz- 
ing number of 91,8#,9 *. 

A grand masqued ball, given at the Opera- 
house in February 1726", commenced at 12 
o'clock on Monday night the 13th ; deep play at 
Hazard succeeded, when one of the company 
threw for 50/. and lost ; and still holding the 
box. without paying, threw a second time for 
150/. with no better success ; the winners then, 
insisted upon a deposit of the money, which was 
complied with in four supposed roleaus, of 50 
guineas each ; but, some suspicions arising, they 
were opened and found to be rolls or parcels of 
halfpence; the sharper was immediately seized 
and committed to the custody of an officer of the 
guard, whom he soon terrified into a release, by 
declaring he was a lawyer thoroughly acquainted 
with the acts concerning unlawful games at 
Hazard, and, at the same time, advising him 
not to incur the penalties usually inflicted on 
those who committed trespasses on the liberty of 
the subject by false imprisonment. When car- 
ried to a Magistrate, he obliged that respectable 
guardian of the public peace to acknowledge that 

* This amount seems impossible ; but the authority 
from which it was taken is correctly copied. 



he could do nothing with him, and he was dis- 
charged accordingly. 

The King directed the following note 
" To the Right Honourable the Lord De la 
Warr, Chairman of the Session for the City 
and Liberty of Westminster ; or, in his Lord- 
ship's absence, to the Deputy Chairman. 

Windsor Castle, Oct. 8, 1728. 


(C His Majesty, being very much concerned 
at the frequent robberies of late committed in the 
streets of London, Westminster, and parts adja- 
cent ; and being informed, that they are greatly 
to be imputed to the unlawful return of felons 
convict who have been transported to his Ma- 
jesty's Plantations, has been graciously pleased, 
for the better discovering and apprehending of 
such felons, to give orders to the Lords Com- 
missioners of his Majesty's Treasury, to cause to 
be paid to any person or persons, who, before 
the first day of March next, shall discover any of 
them, so as they may be apprehended and 
brought to justice, a reward of 40/. for each felon 
convict returned, or that shall return from trans- 
portation before the expiration of the term for 
which he or she was transported ; who shall, by 
the means of such discovery, be brought to con- 
dign punishment. 

" And it having been farther represented to 
his Majesty, that such felons and other robbers, 



and their accomplices, are greatly encouraged 
and harboured by persons who make it their bu- 
siness to keep night-houses, which are resorted 
to by great numbers of loose and disorderly peo- 
ple ; and that the gaming-houses, as also the 
shops where Geneva and other spirits and strong- 
liquors are drank to excess, much contribute to 
the corruption of the morals of those of an infe- 
rior rank, and to the leading them into these 
wicked courses : His Majesty has commanded 
me to recommend it, in his name, in the strong- 
est manner, to his Majesty's Justices of the Peace 
for the City and Liberty of Westminster, to em- 
ploy their utmost care and vigilance, in the pre- 
venting and suppressing of these disorders ; and 
that they do, in their several parishes or other 
divisions, hold frequent petty Sessions for this 
purpose, and call before them the High Consta- 
ble, Petty Constables, and other proper officers 
under their direction, and give them the strictest 
orders and warrants, from time to time, as there 
shall be occasion, to search for and apprehend 
rogues, vagabonds, idle and disorderly persons, 
in order to their being examined and dealt with 
according to the statutes and laws in that behalf; 
and the said Justices are also to proceed accord- 
ing to law, as well against all persons harbouring 
such offenders in their houses, as against those 
that sell Geneva or other spirits and strong li- 
quors, who shall suffer tippling in their houses 



or shops, contrary to law; and against such as 
keep common gaming-houses, or practise or en- 
courage unlawful gaming. And his Majesty, 
having very much at heart the performance of 
this service, wherein the honour of his govern- 
ment, the preserving of the peace, and the safety 
of his Majesty's subjects are so much concerned, 
does further require the said Justices, in their 
respective Sessions, to draw up in writing, from 
time to time, an account of their proceedings 
herein, inserting the names of the Justices of the 
Peace attending such meetings, and of the Peace- 
officers whom they shall employ, taking particu- 
lar notice of the zeal and diligence of each of 
them in the performance of his duty ; which ac- 
counts are to be transmitted from the said several 
Sessions to one of his Majesty's principal Secre- 
taries of State, to be laid before his Majesty ; 
who, being himself informed of their behaviour, 
may bestow marks of his Royal bounty upon 
such of the said officers as shall remarkably dis- 
tinguish themselves by the faithful and diligent 
execution of their office ; his Majesty not doubt- 
ing but the said Justices, on their part, will take 
care to punish with rigour, as by law they may, 
those who shall appear to have been guilty ot 
corruption or negligence therein. 

" Your Lordship will be pleased to acquaint 
the Justices of the Peace for the said City and 
Liberty, and all others whom it may concern, 



with this his Majesty's pleasure ; that the same 
may be duly and punctually complied with. 
" I am,, c. T^WNSHEND.'* 

When Government issues such notices as the 
preceding, it authenticates the paragraphs of 
Newspapers, which might otherwise be doubted ; 
indeed, they abound at this period with the most 
horrid tales of murders, beatings, and robberies, 
in every direction. 

The Post-man of October 19, observes : " The 
persons authorized by Government to employ 
men to drive Hackney-coaches have made great 
complaints for the want of trade, occasioned by 
the increase of street- robbers ; so that people, 
especially in an evening, choose rather to walk 
than ride in a coach, on account that they are in 
a readier posture to defend themselves, or call 
out for help if attacked. Mean-time it is appa- 
rent, that whereas a figure for driving of an 
Hackney-coach used lately to be sold for about 
Go/, besides paying the usual duties to the Com- 
missioners for licensing, they are at this time, 
for the reasons aforesaid, sold for 3/. perjigure 

The year 1730 introduced a new and dreadful 
trait in the customs of thieves and other villains, 
which seems to have originated in the lazy con- 
stitutions of some predatory wretches in Bristol ; 
where they sent a letter to a Ship's Carpenter, 

VOL. i. L threat- 


threatening destruction to himself and property, 
if he did not deposit a certain sum in a place 
pointed out hy them. As that unfortunate per- 
son neglected to do so, his house was burnt in 
defiance of every precaution ; and the practice 
was immediately adopted throughout the King- 
dom, to the constant terror of the opulent. Lon- 
don' had a threefold share of incendiaries ; indeed, 
the letters inserted in the newspapers, received 
by. various persons, are disgraceful even to the 
most abandoned character. The King was at 
length induced to issue his Proclamation, for- 
bidding any person to comply with demands for 
money, and offering 300/. reward for the appre- 
hension of such as had, for four months previous 
to the date of the Proclamation, sent incendiary 
letters, or maimed or injured his subjects for 

A female of tolerable appearance, and between 
30 and 40 years of age, was the cause of much 
alarm in 1731, by pretending to hang herself' in 
different parts of the town, lier method was 
thus : she found a convenient situation for the 
experiment, and suspended herself; an accom- 
plice, always at hand for the purpose, immedi- 
ately released her from the rope, and after rous- 
ing the neighbourhood absconded. Humanity 
induced the spectators sometimes to take her into 
houses, and always to relieve her, who were told, 
when sufficiently recovered to articulate, that she 



had possessed 1500/. ; but that, marrying an 
* Irish Captain, he robbed her of every penny, 
and fled, which produced despair, and a deter- 
mination to commit suicide. 

According to the Report of Thomas Railton, 
Esq. eldest Justice of the Peace, in April 1731, 
it appeared that a Committee appointed for the 
suppression of night-houses, night-cellars, and 
othei* disorderly Bouses, had bound over to the 
Quarter Sessions 58 persons charged with keep- 
ing houses of the above description, and com- 
mitted 1 6' to prison for the same offence ; besides 
24 who were indicted, and their neighbours 
bound to prosecute them ; 26 houses were utterly 
suppressed, and their landlords absconded. In 
addition to this laudable reformation, the Com- 
mittee sent 127 vagabonds to the House of Cor- 
rection, and convicted 11 persons for profane 

I have too frequently had occasion to notice 
the general depravity of the publick, which must 
have had its origin from the same indifference 
towards religion, observable in the Cathedral of 
St. Paul, where unthinking people walked and 
talked as much at their ease as if they trod the 
Mall in St. James's-park. One wretched family, 
neglecting those precepts which are aimed against 
despondency and suicide, reasoned themselves 
into a contempt of death. Pernicious and detest- 
able as the doctrine is, and contrary to every 

L 2 visible 


visible operation of nature placed in our view by 
the Divinity; too many, I am afraid, still che- 
risk an idea that the soul perishes with the body. 
As an antidote for such persons, let them read the 
horrid murders committed by Richard Smith and 
his wife in April 1732. This wretched pair were 
found in their lodgings, within the Liberties of 
the King's-bench, hanged, and their infant child 
shot to death in its cradle. The following letters 
will explain the opinions entertained by them, 
which, if adopted, would soon render the world 
a desert. It is the essence of cowardice to fly 
from misfortunes. 


" SIR, 

" The necessity of my affairs has obliged me 
to give you this trouble ; I hope I have left more 
than is sufficient for the money I owe you. I 
beg of you that you will be pleased to send these 
inclosed papers, as directed, immediately by 
some porter, and that without shewing them to 
any one, &c. RICHARD SMITH." 

" I have a suit of black clothes at the Cock, 
in Mint-street, which lies for 17*. 6d. If you 
can find any chap for rny dog and antient cat, it 
would be kind. I have here sent a shilling for 
the porter." 




" It is now about the time I promised pay- 
ment to Mr. Brooks, which I have performed in 
the best manner I was able. I wish it had been 
done more to your satisfaction ; but the thing 
was impossible. I here return you my hearty 
thanks for the favours which I have received ; it 
being all the tribute I am able to pay. There is 
a certain anonymous person whom you have some 
knowledge of, who, I am informed, has taken 
some pains to make the world believe he has 
done me services: I wish that said person had 
never troubled his head about my affairs ; 1 am 
sure he had no business with them ; for it is en- 
tirely owing to his meddling that I came penny- 
less into this place ; whereas, had I brought 20/. 
in with me, which I could easily have done, I 
could not then have missed getting my bread 
here, and in time have been able to come to 
terms with my plaintiff; whose lunacy, I believe, 
could not have lasted always. I must not here 
conclude, for my meddling friend's man Sancho 
Panca would perhaps take it ill, did I not make 
mention of him ; therefore, if it lies in your way, 
let Sancho know that his impudence and inso- 
lence was not so much forgotten as despised. I 
shall now make an end of this epistle, desiring 
you to publish* the inclosed ; as to the manner 
how, I leave it entirely to your judgment. 

" That 


ft That all happiness may attend you and 
yours, is the prayer of, your affectionate kins,- 
man even to death, RICHARD SMITH. 

" If it lies in your way, let that good-natured 
man Mr. Duncome know that I remembered him 
with my latest breath." 

t( These actions, considered in all their cir- 
cumstances, being somewhat uncommon, it may 
not be improper to give some account of the 
cause, and that it was an inveterate hatred we 
conceived against poverty and rags ; evils that, 
through a train of unlucky accidents, were be- 
come inevitable ; for we appeal to all that ever 
knew us, whether we were either idle or extrava- 
gant, whether or no we have not taken as much 
pains to our living as our neighbours, although 
not attended with the same success. We appre- 
hend that the taking our child's life away, to be 
a circumstance for which we shall be generally 
condemned ; but for our own parts, we are per- 
fectly easy upon that head. We are satisfied it 
is less cruel to take the child with us, even sup- 
posing a state of annihilation (as some dream of) 
than to leave her friendless in the world, exposed 
to ignorance and misery. Now in order to obvi- 
ate some censures, which may proceed either 
from ignorance or malice, we think it proper to 
inform the world, that we firmly believe the ex- 
istence of Almighty God; that this belief of ours 
is not an implicit faith, but deduced from the 



nature and reason of things. We believe the ex- 
istence of an Almighty Being, from the consider- 
ation of his wonderful works ; from a considera- 
tion of those innumerable celestial and glorious 
bodies, and from their wonderful order and har- 
mony. We have also spent some time in view- 
ing those wonders which are to be seen in the 
minute part of the world, and that with great 
pleasure and satisfaction ; from all which particu- 
lars, we are satisfied that such amazing things 
could not possiWy be without a first mover, 
without the existence of an Almighty Being ; and 
as we know the wonderful God to be Almighty, 
so we cannot help believing but that he is also 
good, not implacable ; not like such wretches as 
men are, not taking deligUfc in the miseries of his 
creature ; for which reason we resign up our 
breaths unto him without any terrible apprehen- 
sions, submitting ourselves to those ways, which 
in his goodness he shall please to appoint after 
death. We also believe the existence of unbodied 
creatures, and think we have reason for that be- 
lief; although we do not pretend to know their 
way of subsisting. We are not ignorant of those 
laws made in terrore.m, but leave the disposal of 
our bodies to the wisdom of the Coroner and his 
Jury ; the thing being indifferent to us where 
our bodies are laid ; from whence it will appear 
how little anxious we are about a Hicjacet; we 
for our parts neither expect nor desire such 



honours, but shall content ourselves with a bor- 
rowed epitaph, which we shall insert in this 
paper : 

Without a name, for ever silent, dumb ; 
Dust, ashes, nought else is within this tomb ; 
Where we were born or bred it matters not, 
Who were our parents, or hath us begot ; 
We were, but now are not ; think no more 

of us, 
For as we are, so you'll be turn'd to dust. 

tf It is the opinion of naturalists, that our 
bodies are, at certain stages of life, composed of 
new matter ; so that a great many poor men have 
new bodies oftener than new clothes ; now, as 
Divines are not able to inform us which of those 
several bodies shall rise at the resurrection ; it is 
very probable that the deceased body may be for 
ever silent as well as any other. 


Smith was pronounced by the Coroner's Jury, 
Jelo de se, and guilty of murder with respect to 
the child : his wife they declared a lunatic. 

At a Sermon preached at Bow-church in 1734, 
before eight Bishops, many Magistrates, and a 
numerous auditory, by the Rev. Mr. Bedford, 
on the Anniversary of the Society for the Refor- 
mation of Manners ; it was stated, that the So- 
ciety had prosecuted, between December 1732 



and December 1J33, 80, persons for disorderly 
and lewd practices ; 1 3 for keeping disorderly 
houses, and for exercising their trades on Sun- 
days 395. 

Three different sets of sharpers infested the 
Metropolis in the following winter, who went 
from house to house with counterfeited letters of 
request from the Magistrates and Rectors of Tid 
St. Mary's, Lincolnshire, and Outwell and Ter- 
rington, Norfolk ; representing, that dreadful fires 
had almost desolated those places ; when, in 
truth, no such events had happened. 

The Weekly Register of December 8, 1733, 
declares : " Those honest City Tradesmen and 
others, who so lovingly carry their wives and 
mistresses to the neighbouring villages in chaises 
to regale them on a Sunday, are seldom sensible 
of the great inconveniencies and dangers they are 
exposed to ; for besides the common accidents of 
the road, there are a set of regular rogues kept 
constantly in pay to incommode them in their 
passage, and these are the drivers of what are 
called waiting jobs, and other Hackney travelling 
coaches, with sets of horses, who are commis- 
sioned by their masters to annoy, sink, and de- 
stroy all the single and double horse chaises they 
can conveniently meet with, or overtake in their 
way, without regard to the lives or limbs of the 
persons who travel in them. What havock these 
industrious sons of blood and wounds have made 



within twenty miles of London, in the compass 
of a Summer's season, is best known by the arti- 
cles of accidents in the newspapers ; the misera- 
ble shrieks of women and children not being suf- 
ficient to deter the villains from doing what they 
call their duty to their masters ; for, besides their 
daily or weekly wages, they have an extraordi- 
nary stated allowance for every chaise they can 
reverse, ditch, or b?*ing by the road, as tl> term 
or phrase is. 

<c J heard a fellow, who drove a hired coach 
and four horses, give a long detail of a hard chace 
he gave last Summer to a two-horse chaise which 
was going with a gentleman and three ladies to 
Windsor. He said he first came in view of the 
chaise at Knightsbridge, and there put on hard 
after it to Kensington ; but that being drawn by 
a pair of good cattle, and the gentleman in the 
seat pretty expert at driving, they made the 
town before him ; and there stopping at a tavern- 
door to take a glass of wine, he halted also ; but 
the chaise not yet coming on, he affected another 
delay, by pretending that one of his horses had 
taken up a stone, and so dismounting, as if to 
search, lay by till the enemy had passed him ; 
that then they kept a trot on together to Turn- 
ham-green, when the people suspecting his de- 
sign, again put on ; that he then whipped after 
them for dear blood, thinking to have done their 
business between that place and Brentford. But 



here he was again disappointed, for the two horses 
still kept their courage, till they came between 
Longford and Colnbrook, where he plainly per- 
ceived them begin to droop or knock-up, and 
found he had then a sure game of it. He went 
on leisurely after them, till both parties came 
into a narrow road, where there was no possibility 
of an escape, when he gave his horses a sudden 
jerk, and came with such violence upon the people, 
that he pulled their machine quite over. He 
said, the cries of the women were so loud, that 
the B s might be heard to his Majesty's garden, 
Piccadilly ; that, there being nobody near to as- 
sist the people, he got clear off with two or three 
blind old women his passengers some miles be- 
yond Maidenhead, safe both from pursuit and 

" I have been credibly informed, that many 
of the coachmen and postillions belonging to the 
gentry, are seduced by the masters of the travel- 
ling-coaches to involve themselves in the guilt of 
this monstrous iniquity, and have certain fees for 
dismounting persons on single horses, and over- 
turning chaises, when it shall suit with their con- 
venience to do it with safety (that is, within the 
verge of the law) ; and in case of an action or in- 
dictment, if the master or mistress will not stand 
by their servant, and believe the mischief was 
merely accidental, the offender is then defended 
by a general contribution from all the Stage-coach 
masters within the Bills of Mortality. 

" Those 


' Those Hackney gentlemen who drive about 
the City and suburbs of London, have by their 
overgrown insolence obliged the Government to 
take notice of them, and make laws for their regu- 
lation ; and as there are Commissioners for re~ 
reiving the Tax they pay to the publick, so those 
Commissioners have power to hear and determine 
between the drivers and their passengers upon any 
abose that happens : and yet these ordinary 
coachmen abate very little of their abusive con- 
duct ; but not only impose in price upon those 
that hire them, but refuse to go this or that way 
as they are called ; whereas the Law obliges them 
to go wherever they are legally required, and at 
reasonable hours. This treatment, and the par- 
ticular saucy impudent behaviour of the coach- 
man, in demanding the other twelver or tester 
above their fare, has been the occasion of innu- 
merable quarrels, fighting, and abuses ; affronting 
gentlemen, frighting and insulting women ; and 
such rudenesses, that no Civil Government will, 
or, indeed, ought to suffer ; and above all, has 
been the occasion of killing several coachmen, by 
gentlemen that have been provoked by the vil- 
lainous tongues of those fellows beyond the ex- 
tent of their patience. Their intolerable be- 
haviour has rendered them so contemptible and 
odious in the eyes of all degrees of people what- 
ever, that there is more joy seen for one Hack- 
ney-coachman's going to the gallows, than for a 
dozen highwaymen and street-robbers. 

" The 


*' The driver of a Hackney-coach, having 
misfortune to break a leg and an arm by a fall 
from his box, was rendered incapable of following 
that business any longer; and therefore posted 
himself at the corner of one of the principal ave- 
nues leading to Covent-garden, with his limbs 
bound up in the most advantageous manner to 
move the passengers to commiseration. He told 
his deplorable case to all, but all passed without 
pity ; and the man must have inevitably perished, 
had it not come into his head to shift the scene 
and his situation. The transition was easy ; he 
whipped on a leather apron, and from a Coach- 
man became a poor Joiner, with a wife and four 
children, that had broke his limbs by a fall from 
the top of a house. Showers of pence poured 
daily into his hat, and in a few years he became 
able to purchase many figures as well as horses ; 
and he is now master of one of the most consider- 
able Livery-stables in London. 

" The next are the Watermen ; and indeed 
the insolence of these, though they are under 
some limitations too, is yet such at this time, 
that it stands in greater need than any other of 
severe Laws, and those Laws being put in speedy 
execution. A few months ago, one of these very 
people being steersman of a passage boat between. 
Queenhithe and Windsor, drowned fifteen people 
at one time ; and when many of them begged of 
him to put them on shore, or take down his sails, 



he impudently mocked them, asked some of the 
poor frighted women if they were afraid of going 
to the Devil, and bid them say their prayers ; 
then used a vulgar water-phrase, which such fel- 
lows have in their mouths, ' Blow, Devil, the 
more wind the better boat? A man of a very 
considerable substance perishing with the rest of 
the unfortunate passengers, this villain, who had 
saved himself by swimming, had the surprising 
impudence to go the next morning to his widow, 
who lived at Kingston-upon-Thames. The poor 
woman, surrounded by a number of sorrowful 
friends, was astonished to think what could be 
the occasion of the fellow's coming to her ; but 
thinking he was come to give some account of her 
husband's body being found, at last she conde- 
scended to see him. After a scurvy scrape or two, 
the monster very modestly ' hoped his good mis- 
tress would give him half a-crown to drink her 
health, by way of satisfaction for a pair of oars 
and a sail he had lost the night before, when her 
husband was drowned.' 

" I have many times passed between London 
and Gravesend with these fellows ; when I have 
seen them, in spite of the shrieks and cries of the 
women, and the persuasions of the men-passen- 
gers, and indeed, as if they were the more bold 
by how much the passengers were the more afraid ; 
I have seen them run needless hazards, and go 
as it were within an inch of death, when they 



have been under no necessity of it ; and if not in 
contempt of the passengers, it has been in mere 
laziness, to avoid their rowing. And I have been 
sometimes obliged, especially when there have 
been more men in the boat of the same . lind, so 
that we have been strong enough for tSaem, to 
threaten to cut their throats, to make them hand 
their sails, and keep under shore, not to fright, 
as well as hazard the lives of the passengers, when 
there was no need of it. But I am satisfied, that 
the less frighted and timorous their passengers are, 
the more cautious and careful the Watermen are, 
and the least apt to run into danger. Whereas, 
if their passengers appear frighted, then the 
Watermen grow saucy and audacious, show them- 
selves venturous, and contemn the dangers they 
are really exposed to. 

" Set one knave to catch another, is a prover- 
bial saying of great antiquity and repute in this 
kingdom. Thus the vigilant Vintner, notwith- 
standing all his little arts of base brewings, abrido- 

O - o 7 S 

ing his bottles, and connecting his guests together, 
does not always reap the fruits of his own care 
and industry. Few people being aware of the 
underhand understandings, and petty partner- 
ships these sons of Benecarlo and Cyder .have 
topped upon them ; and the many other private 
inconveniences that they, in the course of their 
business, are subjected to. Now, to let my rea- 
ders into this great arcanum or secret, I must 



acquaint them, that nothing is more certain and 
frequent, than for some of the principal customers 
to a tavern to have a secret allowance, by way of 
drawback, of 6d. or fd. ; nay, sometimes I have 
heard of Sd. on every bottle of port-wine that 
themselves shall drink, or cause to be drank in 
the house, and for which they have seemingly 
paid the price of 2*. ; and so are a sort of Vint- 
ners in vizards and setters of society. Those are 
mostly sharping Shopkeepers, who, by being con- 
siderable dealers, hold numbers of other inferior 
tradesmen in a state of dependency upon them ; 
officers of parishes, old seasoned soakers, who, by 
having served an age to tippling, have contracted 
a boundless acquaintance ; house-stewards, clerks 
of kitchens, song-singers, horse-racers, valets-de- 
chambre, merry story-tellers, attorneys and soli- 
citors, with legions of wrangling clients always at 
their elbows. Wherefore, as they have got the 
lead upon a great part of mankind, they are for 
ever establishing clubs and friendly-societies at 
Taverns, and drawing to them every soul they 
have any dealings or acquaintance with. 

" The young fellows are mostly sure to be their 
followers and admirers, as esteeming it a great 
favour to be admitted amongst their seniors and 
betters, thinking to learn to know the world and 
themselves. One constant topic of conversation 
is, the civility of the people, the diligent atten- 
dance, together with the goodness of the wines 



and cheapness of the eatables, with a side-wind 
reflection on another house. And, if at any time 
the wine is complained of, it is answered with 
' People's palates are not at all times alike ; my 
landlord generally hath as good, or better, than 
any one in the town.' And often the poor inno- 
cent bottle, or else the cork, falls under a false 
and heavy accusation. 

" In a morning there is no passing through any 
part of the town without being hemmed and yelped 
after by these locusts from the windows of Ta- 
verns, where they post themselves at the most 
convenient views, to observe such passengers as 
they have but the least knowledge of; and if a 
person be in the greatest haste, going upon ex- 
traordinary occasions, or not caring to vitiate his 
palate before dinner, and so attempts an escape, 
then, like a pack of hounds, they join in full cry 
after him, and the landlord is detached upon his 
dropsical pedestals, or else a more nimble-footed 
drawer is at your heels, bawling out ' Sir, Sir, it 
is your old friend Mr. Swallow, who wants you 
upon particular business.' 

" The sums which are expended daily by this 
method are really surprising. I knew a clerk to 
a vestry, a half-pay officer, a chancery solicitor, 
and a broken apothecary, that made a tolerable 
good livelihood, by calling into a tavern all their 
friends that passed by the window in this manner. 
Their custom was, to sit with a quart of white 

voj,. i. M port 


port before them in a morning; every person 
they decoyed into their company for a minute or 
two never threw down less than his sixpence, and 
few drank more than one gill ; and, if two or 
three glasses, he seldom came off with less than 
one shilling. The master of the house constantly 
provided them with a plain dinner, gratis. All 
dinner-time they kept their room, still in full 
view of the street, and so sat catching gudgeons 
(as they used to call it) from morning till night ; 
when, besides amply filling their own carcases, 
and discharging the whole reckoning, they seldom 
divided less than seven or eight shillings per man, 
per diem. 

" Some people, unacquainted with this fellow- 
feeling at Taverns, often wonder how such-a-one 
does to hold it; that he spends a confounded deal 
of money, is seldom out of a Tavern, and never 
in his business : when, in reality, he is thus never 
out of his business, and so helps to run away with 
the chief profits of the house. 

" Nor are these all the hardships many of the 
Vintners lie under; for, besides, their purses 
must too often stand a private examination behind 
the bar, when any of these sort of customers 
necessities shall require it. 

(< It is such dealings drives the poor Devils to 
all the little tricks and shifts imaginable. I went 
one day into a Tavern near Charing-cross, to en- 
quire aftc/ a person whom I knew had once used 



the house. The Mistress being in the bar, cried 

out, * What an unfortunate thing it was, Mr. 

being that instant gone out of the house, and was 
surprised I did not meet him at the door, but 
that he had left word he expected a gentleman to 
come to him, and would return immediately.' I 
staid the sipping of two or three half pints, and 
began to shew some uneasiness that he did not 
come according to her expectation, when she 
again wondered at it, saying, ' it was one of his 
times of coming ; for that he was a worthy good 
gentleman, and constantly whetted four or five 
times in a morning.' At length being out of all 
patience, I paid, and went to my friend's house, 
about twenty doors farther; where his wife in- 
formed me, he had been gone about three months 
before to Jamaica. 

" The bankruptcies so frequently happening 
among the sons of Bacchus, are doubtless to be 
attributed chiefly to such leeches as I have been 
describing, lying so closely upon them ; and then 
an innocent industrious man is to be called for- 
sworn rogue, villain, and what not: and to be 
told that he affected a failure, to sink a dozen or 
fourteen shillings in the pound upon his creditors, 
when, in reality, he hath not a single shilling left 
ia the world, and shall oftentimes be obliged to 
become a common waiter to a more fortunate fel- 
low, and one perhaps too that he once had 
thoughts of circumventing in his business and 

M 2 trade. 


trade, by no other means than a more humble 
and tractable behaviour. 

" A Vintner, who has been looked upon by 
all mankind to have been a 20,000/. man at least, 
hath died not worth eigh teen-pence ; and then 
the poor wretch has been worried to his grave, 
with the character of a private gamester." 

Colonel De Veil, as celebrated for his address 
and the number of his commitments as Sir John 
Fielding afterwards was, had two legal culprits 
brought before him for examination, in 1737, 
who were a Counsellor and an Attorney, and as 
rare bucks and swindlers as ever disgraced the 
annals of turpitude.. These gentlemen were 
charged with defrauding Mrs. Eddowes, keeper 
of a Bagnio in St. James' s-street, and two other 
persons, of 12/., by proceeding to the Bagnio in 
the characters of country gentlemen just arrived ; 
the Attorney styling himself Sir John Peering, 
and the Counsellor plain Tom. After remaining 
a short time with Mrs. E. they sent a porter for 
ladies, and one kind soul even left her bed to 
visit them ; they then proposed to hire a coach 
and four, in order to make an excursion for plea- 
sure, and promised the woman a velvet cap and 
riding habit if she would make one of the party ; 
this she consented to do, provided they would 
permit her to go home to dress ; but Sir John 
and Tom, entertaining doubts whether she would 
return, demanded, and received, and kept two 



guineas as a pledge. The coach was hired and 
used, and two days and two nights were passed 
at the Bagnio ; but when the charges were to be 
discharged, the Knight and Tom had nothing to 
produce but a valuable box carefully corded, con- 
taining the writings of Sir John's vast estates and 
several bank notes. This they offered to leave as 
security till their return ; but Mrs. E. suspecting 
a fraud, had them immediately conveyed to the 
Magistrate, in whose presence the following writ- 
ings were taken from the box : a parcel of rags 
and some hay, an empty bottle, an earthen pip- 
kin, an earthen candlestick, and a japanned tin 
box. They were bound over for trial. 

While the unthinking part of the community 
fled from place to place, rather in search of amuse- 
ment than the means of preserving their health, 
the Police of the City appointed Beadles and 
Watchmen as follows, under the then recent Act, 
for better regulating the night watch of London : 

^. *. 

In Aldersgate ward, one beadle at 30/. 
per annum, 25 watchmen at 13/. per 
annum. To be raised, for defraying 
the charges 415 O 

In Aldgate ward, one beadle at 40/. 31 

watchmen 13/. each, charge 501 

In Bassishaw ward, one beadle at 40/. 

6 watchmen at 13/. 131 



A . 

In Billingsgate ward, two beadles at 70/. 

20 watchmen at l%l. 38! 

In Bishopsgate ward, two beadles at 100/. 

49 watchmen at 13/. 794 o 

In Bread-street ward, one beadle at 50/. 

12 watchmen at 13/. 220 

In Bridge ward, one beadle at go/. 22 

watchmen at 13/. 360 

In Broad-street ward, one beadle at 50/. 

38 watchmen at 13/. 634 

In Candlewick ward, one beadle at 25 /. 

16 watchmen at 13/. 293 8 

Castle- Bay nard ward, one beadle at 50/. 

24 watchmen at 13/. ; - 442 

Cheap ward, one beadle at 50/. 26 

watchmen at 13/. 430 

Coleman-street ward, one beadle at 40/. 

24 watchmen at 13/. 407 

Cordwainer's ward, one beadle at 45 1- 

1$ watchmen at 13/. 318 14 

Cornhill ward, one beadle at 50^ 18 

watchmen at 13/. * 305 

Cripplegate Within, one beadle at 50/. 

26 watchmen at 13/. 430 

-- -r Without, one beadle at 

28 watchmen at 13/. 550 O 

Dowgate ward, one beadle at 50/. 16 

watchmen at 13/. 300 



. s. 

Farringdon Within, two beadles at 85/. 

49 watchmen at 13/. 764 10 
Without, four beadles at 

100/. 89 watchmen at 13 / 1550 O 

Langbourn ward, one beadle at 40/. 23 

watchmen at 13/. - - 450 

Lime-street ward, one beadle at 50/. 10 

watchmen at 13/. - - 200 

Portsoken ward, one beadle at 50/. 28 

watchmen at 13/. - 474 5 

Queenhithe ward, one beadle at 30/. 

10 watchmen at 13/. 202 

Tower ward, one beadle at 40/. 32 

watchmen at 13/. 571 

Vintry ward, one beadle at 40/. l6 

watchmen at 13/. 312 

Wallbrook ward, one beadle at 50/. 18 

watchmen at 13/. 349 

By this arrangement, the guardianship of the 
City was intrusted to 32 beadles and 913 watch- 

The wretches, kept in some degree of awe by 
the above members of the Police, when nothing 
occurred to set their passions afloat, or to assem- 
ble them from all parts of the town to one point, 
committed horrid excesses at Tyburn this year, 
by the brutal practice of throwing stones and 
x dirt ; besides which they had one ludicrous con- 
trivance that will force a smile, though disgust 



and abhorrence must succeed, when it is recol- 
lected it was performed at the hour of execution. 
The mob dug two large holes in the fields, and 
filled them with soil : those they carefully covered 
with turf; the populace of course walked into the 
filth, from which they were ushered amidst loud 
huzza' s and laughter, while every effort was made 
to entice or force others into them. 

The extreitie misery of the lowest description 
of Londoners received some amelioration, about 
J750 a through the commendable inquiries and 
remedies made and applied by the Legislature, 
relating to their monstrous excesses in drinking 
ardent spirits. The evidence given before a Com- 
mittee is too interesting to be omitted ; yet it is a 
disgusting and melancholy picture of London, as 
it was at that date. 

An eminent Physician to one of our Hospitals 
gave the following information : " That the in- 
crease of patients in all the hospitals from 1704 to 
1718, being 14 years, the total increase was from 
5612 to 8189, which was somewhat above one- 
fourth ; that from 17 1 8 to 1734, being 16 years, 
the total increase was from 8189 to 1 2,7 10, or 
perhaps 13,000, which was above one-third; 
but that from 1734 to 1749, being 15 years, the 
total increase was from 12,710 to 38,147, which 
was near three times the number." Being asked 
his opinion, whence he apprehended so great an 
increase could arise, he answered from the me- 


lancholy consequences of Gin-drinking princi- 
pally ; which opinion he enforced with such strong 
reasons (in which he was supported by another 
eminent Physician to one of the Hospitals) as 
gave full conviction to the house. 

It appeared by the evidence of John Wyburn, 
of Whitechapel, and John Rogers, of Trinity- 
lane, both of whom had followed the trade of 
bakers for 30 years : " that the consumption of 
bread amongst the poor was greatly diminished 
since the excessive drinking of Gin, which would 
proportionably increase again as that vice abated ; 
that the poor laid out their earnings in gin, which 
ought to purchase them bread for themselves and 
families ; and that, in many of the out-parts, the 
bakers were obliged to cut their loaves into half- 
penny-worths, a practice unknown to the trade 
till gin was so universally drank by the poor." 

It appeared " that one house in seven, from 
the Hermitage to Bell-wharf, was a gin-shop : it 
appeared there were about 16,000 houses in the 
City of London, and that there were about lOfiO 
licences granted yearly to victuallers, which was 
about one house to fifteen." 

" It appeared by the evidence of the High 
Constable of Westminster, that there were in that 
City about 17,000 houses, of which 1.300 licenced, 
and 900 unlicenced that sold liquors, which was 
about one house in eight. 



" It appeared by the evidence of the High 
Constable of Holborn, that there -were in his di- 
vision 7066 houses, of which 1350 licenced and 
unlicenced, being about one house in five and a 
quarter. That in St. Giles's there were about 
2000 houses and 506 gin-shops, being above one 
house in four; besides about 82 twopenny-houses 
of the greatest infamy, where gin was the prin- 
cipal liquor drank." 

Hateful as the subject is, its ramifications 
spread, though rather softened, into higher scenes 
of life. Cordials, alias drams, were not quite 
unknown to the ladies ; it was almost noon 

! ere Celia rose, 

But up she rear'd, and rang her bell, 
When in came dainty Mistress Nell ; 
" Oh dear, my lady, e'ent you well ?" 
"Well! yes why what's o'clock? Oh 


" A little bit a-past eleven." 
" No more ! why then I '11 lay me down 
No, I'll get up Child, bring my gown ; 
My eyes so ache I scarce can see ; 
Nelly, a little Ratifia*r 

A vile impostor was detected in January 1757, 
and committed to Bridewell by John Fielding, 
Esq. This wretch had a practice of lying upon 

* Poems for Children six feet high, H57. 



his back in some court or narrow passage, and 
feigning insensibility; at other times he would 
appear in the habit of a countryman just arrived 
in London, where he knew no person, and would 
declare that, being destitute of money, he had 
not eaten for four days : another trick represented 
him as an old worn-out and pennyless Soldier, 
just arrived from Jamaica; but the repetition of 
the first performance proved fatal to hisjinesse. 
A physician found him in the fainting scene, 
conveyed him to a comfortable bed, and gave him 
money ; but meeting Master Anthony Needham 
a second time, to all appearance breathing his last, 
he adopted a new prescription, which procured 
the healthful exercises of Bridewell. Cash and 
provisions were found in his pockets when he ar- 
rived at the Police-office, though he had just de- 
clared he had fasted four days. 

When an author is to be found who disinter- 
estedly examines into any particular abuse, ano- 
ther writing on the same subject cannot surely do 
amiss in quoting such facts from his publication 
as may suit his purpose. A person who assumed 
the signature of Philanthropes exposed the vil- 
lainy of Register-offices, as they were in 1757? 
in the following forcible manner : " I come now 
to the article of places under the Government, 
&c. to be sold, which we see frequently adver- 
tised from Register-offices in these or such like 
terms, and which you generally find in their 



hand-bills : ' A place to be disposed of for 1 00 
guineas, which brings in 100/. per annum. A 
public office to be sold, where nothing less than 
gold is taken for any business transacted, &c.' 

" I have the happiness to assure the publick, 
that most of the advertisements that have ap- 
peared within these twelve months past have been 
carefully perused, and an impartial enquiry made 
after several of the places to be disposed of (which 
are not confined to private life, but comprehend 
Church and State), by a public-spirited gentle- 
man, who has been at the expence of applying 
to the offices from whence they were advertised, 
and was so kind as to furnish me with the re- 
marks 1 offer to the publick, on the exposing to 
sale public offices and employments. The result 
of an enquiry after the place which brought in 
lOOl. per annum, and might be purchased for 
100 guineas, was, that the proprietor of the of- 
fice took one shilling for answering to the ques- 
tion, ' What is the place?' notwithstanding it 
was so publicly advertised ; and then told the 
gentleman, that it was a place in the Custom- 
house, and that he must apply for particulars to 

Mr. , at a certain Coffee-house. This the 

gentleman patiently submitted to ; but when he 
came there, on enquiring for the person he was 
directed to, he was told at the bar, that he was 
just gone, and the place sold ; and, notwithstand- 
ing the most diligent enquiry, the gentleman 



could never find out either who bought, or who 
sold the place. On his return to the Register- 
office, he naturally demanded his shilling again ; 
but was told it was only the customary fee of the 
Office, that it was a pity he had not applied 
earlier (it was then only three o'clock on the very 
day the advertisement appeared in the paper) ; 
and if the place had not been gone, perhaps it 
would not have suited the gentleman's talents, 
as accompts were requisite ; and if that had been 
the case, it was no fault of the Office ; thus inti- 
mating, let what would be the success attending 
the enquiry, the Office-keeper was intitled to one 
shilling. It is highly probable that eight or ten 
more might have paid for the same enquiry." 

Sir John Fielding received an involuntary pre 
sent, in November 1~5 7, from a number of Pub- 
licans, consisting of Billiard-tables, Mississippi- 
tables, Shuffle-boards, and Skittles, which the 
worthy Magistrate caused to be piled in a pyra- 
midal form, near thirty-feet high, at the end ot 
Bow-street near the Police-office, where they 
were consumed. A good hint for the Magistrates 
at present, as the word Billiards is really very 
conspicuous in various parts of the Metropolis 
every night, and, indeed, may be found not an 
hundred doors from the facetious Knight's old 

One of the most wicked impositions practised 
by knaves in London, is the adulteration of 



Bread. The wretch who improves his circum- 
stances by this detestable method of increasing 
his profits, is an assassin, full as wicked as the 
celebrated Italian Tophana: that human fiend 
poisoned her victims by degrees, suited to the 
malice of her employers ; the Baker who throws 
slow poisons into his trough does worse, for he 
undermines the constitutions of his supporters, 
his customers. He that eats bread without butter 
or meat, throughout London, at the present mo- 
ment, and afterwards visits a friend in the coun- 
try who makes his own, cannot fail of perceiving 
the delicious sweetness which the mercy of our 
Creator hath diffused through the invaluable grain 
that produces it ; the inducement held out to us, 
to preserve life by the most innocent means, is 
thus in a great measure lost to the inhabitants of 
London. I once broke a piece of alum with my 
teeth, which lay in the depth of a slice of bread, 
when at breakfast, as large as a pea ; and was 
only deterred from prosecuting the baker by the 
dread of that obloquy which attends the least in- 
terested informers. At another time I lodged a 
week at a baker's house in a country -town, and 
during a lazy fit, strolled into the bake-house 
where bread was mixing ; in an instant my land- 
lord's countenance changed, and I was rudely 
desired to leave the place, as he would allow no 
one to pry into his business. This conduct from 
a man who had before behaved with the utmost 



civility, convinced me all was not right, and that 
other materials were within view than simple 
flour, yeast, and a little inoffensive salt. 'Let 
me not, however, be understood to apply this 
censure indiscriminately ; it is aimed only at the 
guilty ; the honest baker will adopt my senti- 
ments, which are merely an echo of a little work 
published in 1757, intituled, " Poison detected: 
or, Frightful Truths, and alarming to the Bri- 
tish Metropolis.," &c. The Author asserts that, 
" Good bread ought to be composed of flour 
well kneaded with the slightest water, seasoned 
with a little salt, fermented with fine yeast or 
leaven, and sufficiently baked with a proper fire ; 
but, to increase its weight, and deceive the buyer 
by its fraudulent fineness, lime, chalk, alum, &c. 
are constituent parts of that most common food 
in London. Alum is a very powerful astringent 
and styptic, occasioning heat and costiveness ; 
tlie frequent use of it closes up the mouths of the 
small alimentary ducts, and by its corrosive con- 
cretions, seals up the lacteals, indurates every 
mass it is mixed with upon the stomach, makes 
it hard of digestion, and consolidates the faeces in 
the intestines. Experience convinces me (the 
Author was a physician) that any animal will live 
longer in health and vigour upon two ounces of 
good and wholesome bread, than upon one pound 
of this adulterated compound ; a consideration 



which may be useful, if attended to in the times 
of scarcity." 

After explaining many deleterious effects pro- 
duced by alum, the Author proceeds, " But it 
is not alum alone that suffices the lucrative ini- 
quity of bakers : there is also added a considera- 
ble portion of lime and chalk ; so that if alum be 
prejudicial alone, what must be the consequences 
of eating our bread mingled with alum, chalk, 
and lime? Obstructions, the causes of most di- 
seases, are naturally formed by bread thus abused. 
1 have seen a quantity of lime and chalk, in the 
proportion of one to six, extracted from this kind 
of bread ; possibly the baker was not so expert at 
his craft as to conceal it, the larger granules 
were visible enough : perhaps a more minute 
analysis would have produced a much greater 
portion of these pernicious materials." 

An Author cannot be suspected of wishing to 
restrain the inoffensive liberty of the press ; but 
he may, without fear or resentment, venture to 
reprobate the turpitude which it too often pro- 
motes. There have been, and still are, persons 
who will take a few facts, and compound them 
with many falsehoods, and, thus prepared, pre- 
sent them to some hungry printer or editor, to 
answer their own base purposes ; the unsuspect- 
ing read them with avidity, and public bodies 
and individuals suffer without remedy; an in- 
stance of this description produced the following 



address to the community from John Fielding, 
Esq. in November I/ 59. 

" About twelve months ago a very salutary 
law took place, to the great benefit of a large 
and useful body of men, commonly called Coal- 
heavers. By this law they were not only relieved 
from the impositions they then complained of, 
and the profits of their severe labour secured to 
themselves ; but a provision was made for the in- 
firm, sick, and disabled coal-heavers, and their 
dead buried, by their paying tvyo shillings in the 
pound out of their earnings into an office esta- 
blished by the said law, and under the inspec- 
tion of so worthy and so able a magistrate in the 
City, that it is impossible for any coal-heaver to 
be deprived of any advantage, privilege, or sup- 
port, that the nature of this institution entitles 
them to. On Sunday the 28th of last month, 
one Patrick Crevey, a coal-heaver, chairman, and 
an Irishman, was buried according to the usual 
custom of burying coal-heavers, and was carried 
from Gravel-lane to St. Pancras church-yard ; his 
corpse being preceded, as is customary, by the 
beadle of the coal-heavers' office, with a lono- 


staff in his hand, the common ensign of his of- 
fice ; the pall was supported by six chairmen, 
and eight others followed the corpse as mourners 
in black cloaks ; for whenever a chairman is bu- 
ried, he is constantly attended by as many of his 
brethren as can be got together : these mourners 
VOL. i. N were 


were followed by a considerable number of coal- 
heavers, who walked two and two. This pro- 
cession gave rise to that extraordinary paragraph 
in the London Chronicle, on the 3Uth day of 
October last, wherein it is confidently asserted, 
that a Rom an- catholic was carried through the 
streets of London to be buried at St. Pancras, 
and that the Host was carried, and Priests walked 
publicly before the corpse ; and that the numerous 
attendants that followed, insulted and knocked 
down all who did not pay due obedience to their 
foreign foppery, and beat many persons whom 
common curiosity excited to ask any questions 
relative to the said procession. Should any part 
of this alarming account be true, the offenders 
cannot be punished with too much severity ; but 
should it be a misrepresentation of facts, the pub- 
lick would be equally pleased to be undeceived, 
and he who indiscreetly or wickedly propagated 
the report without foundation will be the only 

" In order therefore to get at the real truth of 
this matter, a few days ago, the informations on 
oath of the beadle of the said coal-heavers office, 
of the pall-bearers, mourners, undertaker, his 
servant, the landlord of the house from whence 
the corpse was carried, and some other inhabi- 
tants who followed the corpse (several of whom 
were Protestants), were taken before John Field- 
ing, Esq. ; and they all positively declared that 



at, or from the house, whence the man was car- 
ried to the grave in Pancras church-yard, no 
Host, representation of Host, crucifix, or other 
visible and external mark of the deceased Patrick 
Crevey being a Roman-catholick, was carried ei- 
ther before or after the said corpse ; and that no 
Catholic Priest of any sort, to their knowledge, at- 
tended the said burial ; but that the said Crevey 
(though a Roman-catholic) was buried by a Cler- 
gyman of the Church of England, and strictly con- 
formable to the ceremonies of the said Church . 
And the aforesaid beadle, pall-bearers, mourners, 
and undertaker, further declare, that they them- 
selves during their passage from the house to the 
grave, neither met with, nor were witnesses to 
any obstruction whatever ; but that they after- 
wards heard that some of the coal-heavers who 
were at farther distance from the corpse behind 
had some dispute, which occasioned blows, with 
some persons who imitated the Irish howl, and 
called out Paddy, by way of derision to the de- 
ceased and his attendants, &c. &c. 



There is something so absurd and ridiculous in 
the terrors spread by Miss Parsons, that I think 
it hardly fair to class her operations with really 
serious offences against the laws of morality ; but, 
recollecting that her blockings indicated a charge 
N2 of 


of poisoning, my scruples are removed, and I 
proceed to sketch the principal outlines of an in- 
cident that agitated the public mind till 176*2, 
when all who had " three ideas in continuity'' 
were convinced that the spirit possessed no su- 
pernatural powers. 

For two years previous to the above date, 
knockings and scratchings had frequently been 
heard during the night in the first floor of a per- 
son named Parsons, who held the office of Clerk 
to St. Sepulchre's-church, and resided in Cock- 
lane, near West Smithfield. This man, alarmed 
at the circumstance, made several experiments to 
discover the cause, and at last had the amazing 
good fortune to trace the sounds to a bedstead, 
on which two of his children reposed after the 
fatigues of the day ; the eldest of whom, though 
a most surprising girl of her age, had numbered 
but twelve winters. Justly supposing the chil- 
dren might suffer some dreadful injury from the 
knocker, this affectionate parent removed them a 
story higher ; but, horror upon horror, the tre- 
mendous noise followed the innocents, and even 
disturbed their rest for whole nights. But this 
was not all : a publican, resident in the neigh- 
bourhood, was frightened into serious illness by 
the form of a fleeting female ghost, which saluted 
his vision one fatal evening when in Parsons's 
house; nay, that worthy Clerk saw it himself 
about an hour afterwards. 



Facts of this description cannot be concealed : 
reports of the noises and of the appearance of the 
phantom spread from the lane into a vast circle 
of space ; number? visited the unfortunate house, 
and others sat the night through with the tor- 
tured infant, appalled by sounds terrific; at 
length a Clergyman determined to adjure the 
Spirit, and thus obtain direct replies to the fol- 
lowing questions : " Whether any person in that 
house had been injured ? ?1 The answer, expressed 
by the number of knocks (as the ghost was de- 
nied the power of speech, and of shewing herself 
within reach), was in the affirmative. " Was 
she a woman?" " Yes ; the Spirit then explained, 
that she had been kept by Mr. , who poi- 
soned her when ill of the Small-pox, and that 
her body was deposited in the vault of St. John's- 
church, Clerkenwell." During this examination, 
the girl exhibited a considerable deal of art, but 
betrayed herself decidedly in several instances. 
The result was, that the Spirit ardently desired 
the murderer might be punished for her alleclged 
death. A wise-acre, who narrated the above par- 
ticulars in a newspaper of the time, observes, 
with wonderful sagacity, " What is remarkable 
is, that the Spirit is never heard till tlie children 
are in bed. This knocking was heard by the 
supposed woman when alive, who declared it 
foretold her death." Another account of the af- 
fair asserts that the person accused had married 


two -sisters, and that Fanny, the daughter of Par- 
sons, had slept with the lady that appeared by 
knocking and scratching during her husband's 
absence at a wedding ; but the knocking the de- 
ceased heard, was declared by the girl to be 
caused by the Spirit of the previously deceased 
sister; if so, the girl's infernal acts may have 
caused the death of the woman, as it is well 
known the agitation of a mind under the terrors 
of supposed supernatural visitation must have a 
fatal tendency in such a disorder as the small- 

As an astonishing proof of the folly of certain 
persons on this occasion, I shall quote the follow- 
ing paragraphs from the London Chronicle, vol. 
XL p. 74> which conclude a string of questions 
and answers, put to, and received from the hor- 
rid girl, who, young as she was, richly deserved 
hanging, with her prompters. fc What must oc- 
casion credulity is, the afflicting an innocent 
child, whom this Spirit acknowledges to be so, 
and that it is not the part of a good Spirit so to 
do, while, she knocks that she is, and permitted 
by God, not by Satan, to appear. H 7 hat is more 
Astonishing , that she will not cease troubling the 
child after satisfaction had. There is such a. 
mixture of truth and contradictions, that a perT 
son cannot help doubting of the veracity of this 
knocker. It is, we humbly presume, fit to be 
Enquired into, for the satisfaction of the publick, 



and to bring to exemplary punishment the im- 
postor or impostors, if any, to relieve a distressed 
family, to preserve the reputation of the inncfcent, 
or to vindicate the cause of the injured. The 
publick are desired to rest satisfied, as the fraud, 
if any, will be discovered soon; of which they 
may rest assured. 

" The gentleman intended to be accused in 
this affair, of perpetrating upon two wives the 
most atrocious of all crimes, was married about 
six months since, to a very agreeable young lady, 
with a fortune of 3000/. The unhappy situation 
in which they must both be, from so horrid an 
aspersion upon the former, may be more easily 
conceived than expressed." 

This shameful affair terminated in the manner 
described in the ensuing words, extracted from 
one of the newspapers published in February 
176*2. " February 1. On this night many gen- 
tlemen, eminent for their rank and character, 
were, by the invitation of the Rev. Mr. Aldrich, 
of Clerkenwell, assembled at his house, for the 
examination of the noises supposed to be made 
by a departed Spirit, for the detection of some 
enormous crime. About ten at night, the gen- 
tlemen met in the chamber, in which the girl 
supposed to be disturbed by a Spirit had, with 
proper caution, been put to bed by several ladies. 
They sat rather more than an hour, and hearing 
nothing went down stairs; when they interro- 


gatedphe father of the girl, who denied, in the 
strongest terms, any knowledge or belief' of fraud. 
Tne Supposed Spirit had before publicly pro- 
mised, by an affirmative knock, that it ivould 
attend one of the gentlemen into the vault, un- 
der the Church of St. John's Clerkenwell, where 
the body is deposited, and give a token of her 
presence there, by a knock upon her coffin. It 
was therefore determined to make this trial of 
the existence or veracity of the supposed Spirit. 

tf While they were enquiring and deliberating, 
they were summoned into the girl's chamber by 
some ladies, who were near her bed, and who 
had heard knocks and scratches. When the 
gentlemen entered, the girl declared that she felt 
the Spirit like a mouse upon her back, and was 
required to hold her hands out of bed. From 
that time, though the Spirit was very solemnly 
required to manifest its existence, by appearance, 
by impression on the hand or body of any pre- 
sent, by scratches, knocks, or any other agency, 
no evidence of any preter-natural power was ex- 

" The Spirit was then very seriously adver- 
tised, that the person to whom the promise was 
made, of striking the coffin, was then about to 
visit the vault, and that the performance of the 
promise was then claimed. The company, at 
one, went into the Church ; and the gentleman 
to whom the promise was made went with one 



more into the vault. The Spirit was solemnly 
required to perform its promise ; but nothing 
more than silence ensued. The person supposed 
to be accused by the Spirit then went down with 
several others, but no effect ivas perceived. Upon 
their return, they examined the girl, but could 
draw no confession from her. Between two and 
three she desired, and was permitted to go home 
with her father. 

" It is therefore the opinion of the whole as- 
sembly, that the child has some art of making or 
counterfeiting particular noises *, and that there 
is no agency of any higher cause" 

Completely exasperated at the base methods 
adopted by his enemies to ruin his character, if 
not to affect his life, the injured party at length 
had recourse to the justice of his Country ; and 
exactly one year after the exposure of this ridicu- 
lous as well as wicked imposture, the principals 
made him pecuniary satisfaction, to avoid worse 
consequences ; but Parsons received sentence of 
imprisonment for two years, and to be pilloried 
three times ; his wife imprisonment one year, 
and their servant six months. Thus ended the 
serio-comedy of Fanny the phantom, which af- 
forded fine sport for the wits of the day ; nay, 
Parsons shared in the joke, for the populace 
pitied his unmerited Bufferings, and, instead of 

* In other words a Ventriloquist. 



pelting, cherished him when on the pillory, and 
even gathered money for him. 

The Mayoralty of William Beckford, Esq. was 
distinguished by the trial of a greater number of 
felons than had occurred for many preceding 
years : 508 were placed at the bar of the Old Bai- 
ley; 58 received sentence of death; 187 were 
ordered to be transported ; 1 5 to be branded in 
the hand; and five to be whipped. 

Amongst the mal-practices of the Century may 
be included the Private Mad-houses. At first 
view such receptacles appear useful, and in many 
respects preferable to Public ; but the avarice of 
the keepers, who were under no other controul 
than they; own consciences, led them to assist in 
the most nefarious plans for confining sane per- 
sons, whose relations or guardians, impelled by 
the same motive, or private vengeance, some-* 
times forgot all the restraints of nature, and im- 
mured them in the horrors of a prison, under a, 
charge of insanity. 

Turlington kept a private Mad-house at Chel- 
sea * to this place Mrs. Hawiey was conveyed by 
her mother and husband, September 5, 1762, 
under pretence of their going on a party of plea- 
sure to Turnham-green. She was rescued from 
the coercion of this man by a writ of Habeas cor- 
pus, obtained by Mr. La Fortune, to whom the 
lady was denied by Turlington and Dr. Riddle ; 



but the latter having been fortunate enough to 
see her at a window, her release was accomplished. 
It was fully proved upon examination, that no 
medicines were offered to Mrs. Hawley, and that 
she was perfectly sane. This fact might be sup- 
ported by the cases of Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Du- 
rant, &c. 

(( Mr. Turlington having, in defence of the 
proceedings of this house, referred himself to Mr. 
King as the person entrusted and employed by 
him, the Committee of the House of Commons 
thought it necessary to summons him. Mr. King 
said he had been in the Wool-trade, but for six 
years past he had been employed by Mr. Tur- 
lington to keep his Mad-house: that he had re- 
ceived no written directions from Mr. Turling- 
ton ; that he found several patients in the house 
on his being employed, and all lunatic ; that 
since his being employed he had admitted several 
for drunkenness, and for other reasons of the 
same sort alledged by their friends or relations 
bringing them, which he had always thought a 
sufficient authority. As to the treatment of the 
persons confined, he said, that they had the li- 
berty of walking in the garden, and passing from 
one room to another ; and as to their diet and 
apartments, he said, it was according to the al- 
lowance they paid, which was from 6ol. to 20/. a 
year. He admitted that he knew Mrs. Hawley ; 
that she was confined at the representation, of a 



woman who called herself her mother ; and that 
the reason alledged by her for the confinement of 
her daughter was drunkenness. He said, that he 
did not remember that she was refused pen, ink, 
and paper ; but at the same time acknowledged it 
was the established order of the house, that no 
letter should be sent by any of the persons con- 
fined to their friends and relations." 

Dr. Battle celebrated for his knowledge in cases 
of insanity, related the case " of a person whom 
he visited in confinement for Lunacy, in Mac- 
donald's Mad- house, and who had been, as the 
Doctor believes, for some years in this confine- 
ment. Upon being desired by Macdortald to at- 
tend him by the order, as Macdonald pretended, 
of the relations of the patient, he found him 
chained to his bed, and without ever having had 
the assistance of any physician before ; but some 
time after, upon being sent for by one of the re- 
lations to a house in the City, and then told, 
Macdonald had received no orders for desiring the 
Doctor's attendance, the Doctor understood this 
to be a dismission, smd he never heard any thing 
more of the unhappy patient, till Macdonald told 
him some time after that he died of a fever, with- 
out having had any farther medical assistance ; 
and a sum of money devolved upon his death to 
the person who had the care of him." 

Upon those and other instances of wickedness 
and inhumanity, leave was given to bring in a 



Bill f< for the regulation of Private Mad-houses in 
this Kingdom." 


The report of a Committee of the House of 
Commons, appointed in 1770, will illustrate this 
subject from undoubted facts. . ff Sir John Field- 
ing, being asked what number of houses have 
been broken open in and about the cities of Lon- 
don and Westminster, and. whether it is a grow- 
ing evil, said, that all robberies, with the cir- 
cumstances attending them, and particulars of 
goods stolen, are registered at his office ; and from 
that register informations are grounded, .and offen- 
ders are detected several years after the offences 

are committed ; and he delivered in lists of houses 
broken into, with computation of the goods stolen. 

From Michaelmas 1766 to 14 March 1770, -in 
half-yearly periods, by which it appeared that 
from Michaelmas 1766* to Lady-day 1767, 13 
houses had been broken open, and goods stolen 
to the value of 28Ql. 

From Lady-day 1767 to Michaelmas IfGj, 36 

houses, value 627 1. 

3 ' 

From Michaelmas 1767 to Lady-'day 1768, 52 
houses, value 5(>9/. 

From Lady-day 1768 to Michaelmas 1768, 48 
houses, value 1332/. 

From Michaelmas 1768 to Lady-day 176*9, 35 
houses, value 1448 L l$s. 



From Lady-day 1769 to Michaelmas 1769, (>3 
houses, value l6l6Y. 

From Michaelmas 1769 to 14 March 17/0, 104 
houses, value 424 1 

He farther informed the Committee, that it is 
supposed the last 104 houses were broken open by 
a number of house-breakers not exceeding 20, 
and few of them more than 20 years of age, 16 or 
17 of whom are in custody with little probability 
of their being convicted : that the evil increases 
amazingly, and never was at so great a height as 
since last Michaelmas. Being asked, what is the 
cause of this increase of housebreaking ; he said, 
that felons formerly carried their goods to pawn- 
brokers ; but by the present method of quick no- 
tice to pawnbrokers, silversmiths, and others, that 
plan is defeated, and the housebreakers now go to 
Jews, who melt the plate immediately, and de- 
stroy other things that might be evidence, which in 
burglary can be nothing but the goods, though in 
other cases the person may be sworn to ; that they 
disguise jewels by knocking them out of the sock- 
ets, so that they cannot be sworn to ; that the 
present gang of house-breakers are sons of unfor- 
tunate people, and of no trade ; that they began 
when boys as pick-pockets, but turned house- 
breakers when they grew up, in order to procure 
a greater income to supply their increased ex- 
pences. And he informed the Committee, that 
for 20 years a footpad has not escaped ; that high- 
waymen cannot escape, upon account of the early 



Information given to the aforesaid office, and the 
great number of prosecutors who always appear 
against them, which he thinks must in time put 
an end to that evil *. He then said, he had de- 
tected several persons in Duke's-place with plate, 
and has offered a reward of five guineas for appre- 
hending one person in the same place. Being 
asked what he thought of the present method of 
watching the town; he said, the watch is in- 
sufficient, their duty too hard, and their pay too 
small ; that he has known Serjeants in the guards 
employed as watchmen ; that the watchmen are 
paid eightpence halfpenny in St. Margaret's 
parish, and a gratuity of two guineas a year, out 
of which they find their own candle ; that as they 
are paid monthly, they borrow their money of an 
usurer once a week ; that in other parishes the 
watch are paid from tenpence to one-shilling per 
night ; that the watch in Westminster is in every 
parish under the direction of a separate commis- 
sion, composed of persons who have served the 
offices of Churchwarden and Overseer ; that Com- 
missioners of the respective parishes appoint the 
beats of their watchmen without conferring toge- 
ther, which leaves the frontiers of each parish in 
a confused state ; for that, where one side of a 
street lies in one parish, and the other side in 

* The worthy Magistrate was right in his conjec- 
ture, for highway robbery is very uncommon at pre- 
sent in the neighbourhood of London. 



another parish, the watchmen of one side cannot 
lend any assistance to persons on the other side, 
other than as a private person, except in cases of 

James Sayer, Esq. Deputy High -steward of 
Westminster, confirmed the above evidence ; and 
added, that St. Margaret's parish has a select ves- 
try, the majority of which is composed of trades- 
men ; that they will pay no more than eightpence 
halfpenny a night to their v/atclimen, and have 
no way of punishing them for neglect of duty than 
by dismissing them, which in fact is not a punish- 
ment, for they find it difficult to get men to serve 
in that office; and he further said, that their, 
number is not sufficient. Being asked the reason 
for changing the constables from being parochial 
to be constables for the whole City and Liberty, 
he said, that before 29 George II. constables were 
parochial ; that he apprehended the reason for the 
change was, that a constable could not execute 

O ' 

any official act out of his parish without being 
specially authorised so to do. He mentioned an 
instance of a constable's being killed when he was 
serving a warrant out of his parish ; that the per- 
son who killed him was tried and found guilty of 
manslaughter only, though he would have been 
guilty of murder, if it had happened in the parish, 
to which the constable belonged. 

Sir John Fielding being asked what remedies 
he could suggest 'to prevent the above evils ; he 



produced two papers relating to constables, watch- 
men, and other officers, which were read to and 
confirmed by him, and are as follows : 

" Watchmen too old should be from 25 to 
50 ; their beats too extensive should not exceed 
20 houses on each side of the way. Watchmen 
too few, the sum raised for the watch too little, 
being only fourpence in the pound should be 

" Ward-officers to be chosen out of those inhabi- 
tants that have served the office of constable, and 
to have a good salary. One half of the constables 
to be discharged within the year, so that one half 
remaining two years will be able to instruct the 
new officers, and the whole duty will be well 
done. If the new provisions for the watch can. 
be established by the Commissioners remaining 
where they are, it will save trouble ; for then the 
money may be raised by them as it now is, and 
every parish may pay and clothe their own watch- 
men ; so that the appointment, distribution, di- 
rection, wages, number, and punishment of the 
watch, may be in the Magistrates by a new com- 
mission, and the paying and clothing be in the 
present Commissioners. 

"The words ' A Constable of the City and Liber- 
ties of Westminster,' to be placed over the Con- 
stable's doors ; the words ' Ward-officer,' over 
the Ward-officers' doors. Beadles by name to 
be discharged ; arid the necessary part of their 

VOL. i. o duty 


duty they now do, to be performed by the Ward- 
officers. That it would be right to confine the 


intended improvement and constables to West- 
minster only, as the watch in the adjoining 
parishes of Middlesex remain on the same footing 
as originally settled by the Statute of Winchester." 

Second Paper. " The watch of Westminster 
is extremely defective ; the number ought to be 
increased, their pay augmented, and the whole 
direction of them put under one Commission, and 
that Commission should be Magistrates of the' 
City and Liberty of Westminster ; the watch 
should be attended by ward-officers and relieved 
in the night, a whole night's duty being too hard. 
The round-houses should be capacious, no liquor 
should be sold in them ; publicans should be 
punished for permitting watchmen to tipple 
during their duty, and watchmen should be par- 
ticularly rewarded for diligence, and punished for 
neglect, by the civil power. High Constables 
should not quit their office at the end of three 
years. Constables should be increased, half the 
number only discharged annually. The constable 
of the night should be considered for his attendance 
on that duty, and punished for neglect. 

" The power for raising money at present for 
the watch is tod confined ; it should be enlarged, 
raised by the present Commissioners, the watch- 
men paid by them, but their number, direction, 
and appointment, be by the new Commission of 



Magistrates. Receivers of stolen goods, especially 
of those taken by burglary or high way- robbery, 
should be made principals, with a power of miti- 
gation in the Judge." 

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, ap- 
proved of Sir John Fielding's plan ; and added, 
that the beadles are an unnecessary set of men, 
advanced in years, and servants to the Church- 
wardens and Overseers, are forty in number over 
the whole City and Liberty ; they have an allow- 
ance of 2Ql. per annum apiece, which they make 
up 30/. ; that he apprehends, if the number was 
increased to sixty, and the City and Liberty di- 
vided into so many divisions, a beadle to each 
division, and the object of their duty to take up 
vagrants, they might be of great service : that, if 
the beadle was to have two shillings for every va- 
grant he took up, and four shillings was given to 
any other person who should apprehend one, the 
one-half to be deducted out of the beadle's salary 
of that district where the vagrant was appre- 
hended, it would have a good effect. 

Mr. T. Rainsforth, High-constable of West- 
minster, being examined, said, he had been in 
office twelve months ; that he had visited the dif-* 
ferent night watch-houses in the City and Liberty 
of Westminster frequently from twelve to three 
in the morning, found many of the peace-officers 
upon duty, some were not. That there is a 
general complaint of peace-officers neglecting 

o 2 thejr 


their duty, to which neglect it is owing, that 
the watchmen and beadles are not present ; and 
this general neglect he, apprehends is the reason 
why so many houses are robbed ; that he has fre- 
quently found seven or eight watchmen together 
in an alehouse; he thinks, that the High-consta- 
ble should visit the round-house in the night-time, 
once a month at least, or oftener if required. 

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, said, 
that Constables are appointed under Acts 29 and 
31 George II. which Acts are in many articles de- 
fective ; that 80 constables, which is the number 
limited, are not sufficient ; that they are ap- 
pointed by the Leet-jury, which has been at- 
tended by great partialities; for the Leetjury 
being composed of the Overseers of the several 
parishes of the preceding year, they protect each 
other from serving the office of Constable ; that 
in general opulent inhabitants are excused, and 
young tradesmen returned ; that, if a rich man is 
now and then returned, he is generally got off by 
pleading age and infirmities; that deputies are 
generally hired men, and though they cannot be 
appointed unless approved of by the Deputy High 
Steward, yet, as it is impossible for him to get a 
true character of the person nominated, he finds 
many unfit persons are appointed, who, he is in- 
formed, make a trade of serving the office ; for 
remedy of which he proposed, that the number 
of constables should be increased to 120. He 



thinks the burthen of serving the office of consta- 
ble should not lay wholly on the trading inhabi- 
tants, as it does by the late Act ; that, by com- 
mon law, every person able and fit is liable to 
serve : that the fine for not serving the office 
should be enlarged from 8/. to 20l. which fine 
should be distributed among those that do serve: 
and he added, that twelve being obliged to attend 
dailv during the Session of Parliament, as lonsj as 

j o 

either House sits, the duty comes round to each 


individual every sixth day, eight being excepted, 
who may be sick, or kept in reserve ; during 
which attendance the constables must necessarily 
neglect their own business. With respect to the 
High-constable, he said, it is an office of great 
burthen and trust ; that, by law, he the witness 
is obliged to appoint a substantial tradesman to 
that office ; that the person appointed is not to 
continue in office above three years, and is liable 
to a penalty of 20 1. for refusing to serve, which 
penalty goes to the poor of the parish ; upon 
which he observed, that the High-constable should 
not be a tradesman, because his power enables 
him to oblige the keepers of public-houses to deal 
with him, or those with whom he is concerned 
in his way of trade; that the penalty on persons 
refusing to serve the office should be increased ; 
that the High-constable should have a reward for 
his service, and that the constables of the night 
should have a reward also. 



Sir John Fielding being again examined, said, 
that ballad-singers are a greater nuisance than 
beggars, because they give opportunity to pick- 
pockets by collecting people together; that the 
songs they sing are generally immoral and ob- 
scene ; the people themselves capable of work, 
and of the lowest and most abandoned order of 
people ; for remedy of which, he proposed that 
all ballad-singers should be considered as vagrants, 
and made liable to the same punishments, no 
person being a, vagrant now but who comes within 
some one of the descriptions of vagrancy in the 
Vagrant Act. And the High-constabje being 
again examined, informed the Committee that 
he has often had warrants for taking up ballad- 
singers ; that he has apprehended a great many, 
notwithstanding which their numbers increase, 
and they are become a very great nuisance*; that 
they have often been dispersed, but still continue 
the practice. 

Sir John Fielding, being again examined, said, 
that the City of Westminster is a franchise under 
the Dean and Chapter of Westminster ; that the 
common gaol thereof is called the Gatehouse, to 
which offenders of every kind, apprehended 
within the Liberty of Westminster, have been 
usually committed for several years back, to the 
number of 600 or 700 annually ; that in this 
gaol there is little or no allowance or provisions 
for the prisoners but what arises from the charity 



of passengers, seldom amounting to more than 
five or six shillings a-week, the greatest part of 
which is given to the beggar at the window for 
the day. That the said gaol appears, from ex- 
perience of the Magistrates, to be too small for 
the number, and too weak for the safe custody 
of prisoners ; that to this gaol persons for execu- 
tion in debts recovered in the Court of Conscience, 
are committed ; and he said, he believed this is 
the only gaol in England where there is not 
some provision for the poor and distressed prison- 
ers ; and he added, that when a Magistrate com- 
mits a man to that gaol for an assault, he does 
not know but he commits him there to starve. 
For these reasons, as well upon the principles of 
humanity as of civil policy, this ought to be re- 
medied ; and that, on account of the vast increase 
of inhabitants, property, and number of offen- 
ders, there ought to be in Westminster a strong, 
capacious, and useful gaol, and there is no such 
thing at present ; that the said gaol, called the 
Gatehouse, is a very old building, subject to be 
repaired by the said Dean and Chapter, who ap- 
point the Gaoler ; that the supposed original use 
of this gaol was for the purposes of committing 
Clerks convict. The commission of Magistrates 
is not later than Charles the First's reign ; they 
began first to commit offenders to this gaol, ra- 
ther by sufferance that by right ; and he observed 
that, however proper it may have been for its 



original purposes, it is unequal to the present oc- 
casions, and, as he apprehends, cannot oe altered 
without a Law. And he further informed the 
Committee, that the Magistrates of Westminster 
have represented this matter to the Dean and 
Chapter, who acknowledge it, are willing to pull 
it down, and to give a piece of ground in their 
Royalty in Tothill-fields to build a new gaol 
upon, and to subject the same, with every thing 
thereunto belonging, to the Magistrates of West- 
,minster, under such regulations as the Legisla- 
ture shall think proper, provided a sum be granted 
by the publick for building the same; and he 
added, that estimates have been made, by which 
it appears that a very effectual gaol may be built 
for the sum of 2500/. In order, therefore, to 
remedy the inconveniences above-mentioned, he 
proposed that such gaol should be built and kept 
in repair out of the County rate, which he said 
may be done without injury to the County at 
large, for this reason, that there is but one rate 
at present for Middlesex and Westminster, near 
one-third of which is paid by the latter since the 
increase of buildings there; that this proportion 
is much greater than the expences requirtd by 
the Act for County rates would 'subject Westmin- 
ster to ; and he added, that the gaol, called the 
House of Correction, Westminster, is repaired 
by the Magistrates of Westminster, and the ex- 
pence is paid by virtue of their orders on the 



County Treasurer ; that the same thing, if al- 
lowed by Parliament for the repairs of the pro- 
posed new gaol, will answer the purpose without 
separating the rate. 

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, con- 
curred with Sir John Fielding in every particular. 

Sir John informed the Committee, that about 
six or seven years ago the Magistrates of West- 
minster had no other Court-house but a place at 
the bottom ot the stairs leading to the House of 
Commons, called Hell, to keep their Sessions in. 
The increase of business and of offences in West- 
minster made it impracticable to carry on the 
business there. The nuisance was represented 
by the Magistrates to the Lord Lieutenant, Lord 
Northumberland, who said, he had then applied 
for redress, and told the Chairman it could not 
be taken up by Government then, but would be 
in future considered : in the mean time, at his 
own expence, amounting to SOO/. he directed- 
the Chairman to prepare a large house in King- 
street Westminster, which was formerly a tavern, 
to be made proper for a Court-house ; that the 
Magistrates for their Sessions, the Burgesses for 
their Courts, the Lieutenancy for the Militia, 
Commissioners of Sewers for their business, 
Grand Juries for the County of Middlesex, Writs 
of Enquiry for the Sheriffs, and meeting of in- 
habitants for nominating their Representatives, 
should use the said building ; for all which pur- 


poses it has been constantly, effectually, and con- 
veniently used ; that it is scarce possible for the 
above business to be transacted without it, and 
the establishment of it is as essential to the Civil 
Power as any thing that has been mentioned. 
That the purchase of the said building and fitting 
it up, .cost the Duke of Northumberland near 
4000/. ; and he added, that this building also 
might be kept in repair by the County rate, at an 
average of 30 or 40/. a year. 

Sir John Fielding said, he thinks the acting 
part of the Magistrates in Westminster is in as 
good a state as it ever was, and more free from 
imputation of or neglect of duty ; that it would 
be useful to have some persons of rank and con- 
dition in the Commission of the Peace for West- 
minster, who would attend at the Quarter Ses- 
sions, where they would become acquainted with 
the conduct of the Magistrates in general, give a 
dignity to the Commission, support the acting 
Magistrates on great occasions, and give encourage- 
ment to such of them as discharged their trust 
becoming the honour of the Commission, and dis- 
countenance those who did not ; and he added, 
that for the last two or three years the Magistrates 
of Westminster have gone through very painful 
duty, and have been very diligent in it ; and 
having been sensible of the necessity of their at- 
tendance, have mutually agreed to attend at any 



time or place upon the least notice from their 

James Sayer, Esq. being again examined, ad- 
mitted that the Magistracy at present is com- 
posed in general of persons of character, and that 
justice is administered with activity, diligence, 
and skill, but alledged that it has been otherwise 
formerly, and may be the case hereafter; and 
therefore, he was of opinion that a regulation in 
the Magistracy of Westminster is necessary. That 
there should be a qualification of Justices, thaf 
they should have a reward for acting, as the 
most part of their time will be devoted to the 
public service ; that the fees to be taken by 
their clerks should be devoted to some public 
service ; such as a vagrant hospital ; that there 
should be certain Rotation-offices established by 
Law; that, as he apprehends, one such office 
might be sufficient if properly regulated; that 
the Rotation-office should do all the business ex- 
cept in emergent cases, and that the private of- 
fice of Justice of the Peace should be abolished, 
because it sometimes happens, that a man com- 
mitted for a notorious bailable offence is carried, 
to another Justice, who bails him without know- 
ing the enormity of his offence ; and Sir John 
Fielding said, that in criminal offences, that 
nearly regard the publick, it is impracticable to 
use a Rotation-office as there are many things 
necessary to be kept secret ; and, though the 
whole of the circumstances must be known to the 


acting Magistrate, yet they cannot be known by 
a fresh Magistrate who attends in rotation ; and 
he added, that the great number of brothels and 
irregular taverns carried on without licence from 
the Magistrates, are another great cause of rob- 
beries, burglaries, and other disorders, and also 
of neglect of watchmen and constables of the 


night in ther respective duties. That these ta- 
verns are kept by persons of the most abandoned 
characters, such as bawds, thieves, receivers of 
stolen goods, and Marshalsea-court and Sheriffs 
officers who keep lock-up houses. The principal 
of these houses are situate in Covent-garden, 
about thirty in St. Mary-le-Strand, about twelve 
in St. Martin's, in the vicinity of Co vent-garden, 
about twelve in St. Clement's, five or six at Char- 
ing-cross, and in Hedge-lane about twenty ; that 
there are many more dispersed in different parts 
of Westminster, in Goodmau's-fields, and White- 
chapel, many of which are remarkably infamous, 
and are the cause of disorders of every kind, shel- 
ters for bullies to protect prostitutes, and for 
thieves, are a terror to the watchmen and peace- 
officers of the night, a nuisance to the inhabitants 
in the neighbourhood, and difficult to be sup- 
pressed by prosecution for want of evidence, and, 
in short, pregnant with every other mischief to 
Society ; that any person desirous of gaining a 
livelihood by keeping a place of public entertain- 
ment, who is of good reputation, can obtain a 
licence with ease from the Magistrates to keep 



such house, when a public-house in any neigh- 
bourhood happens to be vacant that has been li- 
censed before ; the Magistrates of Middlesex and 
Westminster having long held it to be a rule 
essential to the public good, rather to diminish 
than increase the number of public-houses. That 
persons of abandoned characters, by applying to 
the Commissioners of the Stamp office, may ob- 
tain a licence for selling wine ; by virtue of such 
licences it is that the taverns above described are 
kept open, for the aforesaid Commissioners are 
impowered by law to grant such licences to whom 
they shall think fit ; that licences for selling spi- 
rituous liquors by retail are not granted by the 
Commissioners of Excise, unless the parties pro- 
duce to them a licence under the hands and seals 
of two Justices of the Peace to sell ale. That 
Magistrates cannot by Law authorise any person 
to sell ale, without a certificate of such person's 
being of gnod fame and sober life and conversa- 
tion, so that producing this licence to the Com- 
missioners establishes their character with them, 
and takeg away the necessity of any enquiry ; for 
remedy of which, he proposed that Wine-licences 
should be placed by Law under the same restraint 
as the licences for selling spirituous liquors now 
are. This remedy, he apprehended, might pro- 
bably reduce the Revenue of Wine-licences ; if 
confined to the Bills of Mortality, it would in 
his opinion diminish it no more than 400/.; but 



if extended to Portsmouth, Plymouth, Chatham, 
and other Dock-yards, it might lessen it 200/. 
more ; he added, that he thinks it more neces- 
sary to correct the evil in those parts, as it has a 
direct tendency to corrupt and destroy the very 
vitals of the Constitution, the lives of the useful 
seamen, who by means of these houses become 
the objects of plunder as long as they have any 
money, and are induced to become robbers when 
thev have none ; and he informed the Committee 


that there is another great evil which is the cause 
of these disorders, namely, the immense number 
of common prostitutes, who, mostly from neces- 
sity, infest the streets of the City and Liberty of 
Westminster and parts adjacent, attended by 
common soldiers and other bullies to protect them 
from the civil power ; these prostitutes, when they 
have secured the unwary customers, lead them to 
some of the aforesaid taverns, from whence they 
seldom escape without being robbed. The .cause 
of this evil, as he apprehends, is the great diffi- 
culty, as the Law now stands, to punish those 
offenders, they being, as common prostitutes, 
scarce, if at all, within the description of any 
Statute now in being; and he added, that this 
subjects watchmen, round-house keepers, con- 
stables, and even the Magistrates themselves to 
prosecutions from low Attorneys ; that the reme- 
dy in his opinion should be to declare, that per- 
sons walking or plying in die said streets for 



lewd purposes after the watch is set, standing at 
the doors, or appearing at the windows of such 
taverns in an indecent manner for lewd purposes, 
shall be considered as vagrants, and punished as 
such. That as to the circumstance of street-beg- 
gars, it never came to his knowledge that they 
are under contribution to the beadles. 

Mr. Rainsforth the High-constable being called, 
delivered in a paper called " The State of the 
Watch in Westminster;" which paper is here- 
unto annexed : and said, that all the watchmen 
being^ assembled at Guildhall on Saturday, March 
24, to see the housebreakers, they appeared to 
him in general very infirm and unfit to execute 
that office. 

Mr. Thomas Heath, a Burgess of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, being examined, said, that both the 
constables and watch within the said Duchy are 
very insufficient and defective." 

The Committee concluded their Report with 
thirteen resolutions, exactly corresponding with 
the evidence received, which were all agreed to 
by the House, and a Bill or Bills ordered to be 
brought in for carrying them into effect. 

The High Constable's remarks : 
St. Margaret's. 

" Three quarters past 11. Constable came 
after I was there, house-man and beadle on duty ; 
41 watchmen, with St. John's united, at eight- 
pence halfpenny per night, with one guinea at 



Christmas, and one guinea at Lady-day, and 
great coats as a present ; their beats large ; was 
obliged to take a soldier into custody for being 
out of his quarters, and very insolent, with seve- 
ral more soldiers, in the streets at 12 o'clock; 
called out " Watch," but could get no assistance 
from them. 

St. Georges. 

Half-past 12. Constable and four house-men 
on duty; 57 watchmen at one shilling per night, 
and great coats ; ..two men had attempted to break 
into Lady Cavendish's house, but were pre- 

St. James's. 

One o'clock. Constable and beadle on duty, 
streets very quiet, meeting with no disorders ; 
56 watchmen at one shilling per night for five 
months, and eight-pence for seven months, with 
coats, lanterns, and candles. 
St. Anne's. 

Half-past 1. Constable gone his rounds; 23 
watchmen at one shilling per night for six months, 
and nine-pence the other six, with candles ; no 

St. Martins. 

Two o'clock. Constable, regulator, and bea- 
dle on duty ; 43 watchmen at 14l> per ann. can- 
dles and great coats, every thing quiet, beats 



St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 

Ifalf-past 2. Constable, house-keeper, and 
beadle on duty ; 22 watchmen at one shilling 
per night, down to eightpence halfpenny ; no 

St. Clement's Danes. 

Past 3. No constable on duty, found a watch- 
man there at a great distance from his beat ; from 
thence went to the night-cellar facing Arundel- 
street in the Strand, which is in the Dutchy, and 
there found four of St. Clement's watchmen, 
drinking; St. Clement's watchmen 22 at one 
shilling each. 

St. Mary-le-Strand. 

No attendance, having only two constables 
which only attend every other night ; 3 watch- 
men, Dutchy included, at one shilling each ; a 
very disorderly cellar near the New-church for 
selling saloop, &c. to very loose and suspected 

The number of felons who had been imprisoned 
in Newgate during the year 1772, amounted to 
the amazing number of 1475 ; from 1747 to 17" 6*4, 
the number had never exceeded 1300 ; from the 
year 1763 to 1772, the greatest number of pri- 
soners who died in Newgate within twelve months 
was 36, and the least 14- 

Impressed with the melancholy consequences 
to Society from this shocking increase of depra- 
vity, Sir John Fielding thus emphatically ad- 

VOL. i. p dressed 


dressed the Grand Jury at the Quarter-sessions 
for Westminster, October 12, 17/3- 

" Gentlemen of the Grand Jury, 
" By virtue of the trust now reposed in you, 
as a Grand Jury for the City and Liberty of 
Westminster, you are become the temporary 
guardians of the lives, liberty, property, and re- 
putation of your fellow-citizens ; nor can a higher 
trust than this be placed in man. And in order 
that it may be discharged with a conscientious 
regard to truth, and a fidelity becoming its im- 
portance, you are bound by the solemn tie of an 
oath to execute this office without malice, with- 
out resentment, without favour, and without af- 
fection. Under this sacred obligation, your fel- 
low-subjects have reason to hope and expect that 
you will hear with patience, enquire with dili- 
gence, judge with candour, and present with 

" I am sorry to inform you, Gentlemen, that 
it appears from our Calendar, that there are a 
number of persons in confinement charged with 
felonies of different degrees, but it is a melan- 
choly truth ; probably some of these unfortunate 
fellow-creatures may suffer ignominious punish- 
ments ; but, as prevention is far superior to pu- 
nishment, permit me to call forth to your atten- 
tion some of those public offences which first 
corrupt, and then precipitate the unwary to in- 
famy and destruction. I mean the keeping of 



gaming-houses, disorderly houses, bawdy-houses, 
for it is these seminaries of vice, these polluted foun- 
tains, that first poison the moral spring of our youth, 
and consequently make footpads, highwaymen, 
and housebreakers, of those who might otherwise 
have been useful, nay, perhaps honourable mem- 
bers of society ; and although I am convinced it 
is in the power of many of the inhabitants of this 
City and Liberty to remove, by prosecution, 
some of these nuisances ; yet I am aware that 
they are deterred from it by the hateful idea in- 
discriminately annexed to the name of an in- 
former; and thus, gentlemen, the parties injured, 
by a criminal cowardice, neglect their duty to 
the publick, whilst the ignorant and abandoned 
slanderer unjustly reviles the Magistrate for the 
continuation of these evils ; but, if public spirit 
should produce any prosecutors of the keepers of 
such houses, I hope you will do your utmost to 
bring such miscreants to condign punishment, 
that the publick may have a fair opportunity of 
judging in what a detestable light the Magis- 
trates of this Bench consider such offenders 
and offences. Let the inhabitants but com- 
plain, and if the Justice neglect his duty, may 
contempt and confusion overtake him ! But till 
then, place confidence, and pay respect to that 
authority where confidence and respect are due. 

" And now, gentlemen, give me leave to take 

notice of one public offence, so alarming in its 

P 2 nature. 


nature, and so mischievous in its effects, that, 
like a pestilence, it does not only stand in need 
of your immediate assistance, but that of all good 
men, to stop its corroding progress ; I mean the 
exposing to sale, and selling such indecent and 
obscene prints and books as are sufficient to put 
impudence itself to the blush. Surely, gentle- 
men, Providence has placed too strong propen- 
sions in our nature to stand in need of such in- 
flammatory aids as these ; on the contrary, in 
this particular, we rather require restraints than 
encouragements ; but, if at that period of life 
when our children and apprentices stand in need 
of a parent to advise, a master to restrain, or a 
friend to admonish and check the first impulse of 
passion, pictures like these are held forth to 
meet their early feelings, what but destruction 
must be the event ? Indeed, by care, you may 
prevent youth in some degree from frequenting 
bad company ; you may accustom them to good 
habits, afford them examples worthy imitation, 
and by shutting your doors early, may oblige 
them to keep good hours ; but, alas ! what doors, 
what bolts, what bars, can be any security to 
their innocence, whilst Vice in this deluding 
form counteracts all caution, and bids defiance 
to the force of precept, prudence, and example, 
by affording such foul but palatable hints as are 
destructive to modesty, sobriety, and obedience? 
But, what is still more shocking, I am informed 



that women, nay mothers of families, to the dis- 
grace of their sex, are the cruel dispensers of this 
high-seasoned mischief; but, if duty or huma- 
nity should spirit up any one to prosecute such 
offenders, I conjure you as fathers, masters, and 
subjects, to afford them the best assistance in 
your power, to put a stop to this shameful and 
abominable practice. 

" I am very sensible that I have already tres- 
passed much on your time, but cannot take my 
leave without acquainting you that our Courts of 
Judicature of late have abounded with prosecu- 
tions for wilful and corrupt perjury dreadful of- 
fence ! But, as oaths are the foundation of all 
our judicial proceedings, and the negligent ad- 
ministration of these oaths is one great cause of 
perjury, I do earnestly recommend it to you, 
Mr. Foreman, not to permit any witness to give 
his testimony without reminding him that he is 
about to speak under the sacred influence of an 
oath, and that he has called the great God him- 
self to witness that he is speaking truth." 

An Act, passed in 1774? has operated through 
the following clause, in suppressing some of the 
enormities which lead to the crimes Sir John de- 
precated. " That every watchman, as well pa- 
troles as others, and every beadle, shall, during 
his respective time of watching, to the utmost of 
his power endeavour to prevent as well all mis- 
chiefs happening by fire, as all murders, burgla- 


ries, robberies, affrays, and other outrages and 
disorders ; and to that end, during the time of 
watching, each and every of them shall and 
may, and are hereby authorised and impowered 
to arrest and apprehend all night-walkers, male- 
factors, rogues, vagabonds, and other loose, idle, 
and disorderly persons, and all persons lying or 
loitering in any street, square, court, mews, lane, 
alley, or elsewhere ; to apprehend and bring 
them as soon as convenient before the constable 
of the night. And if any person or persons shall 
assault or resist any watchman in the execution 
of his office, they shall pay any sum not exceeding 
five pounds." 

The publication of obscene prints and books 
(though so justly reprobated by Sir John Field- 
ing) had proceeded with very little interruption, 
almost through the space of time which elapsed 
between his charge and the termination of the 
century. A few prosecutions were instituted, 
but nothing systematic in opposition took place, 
till the Society for the Suppression of Vice at- 
tacked the enemies of virtue and decency with 
vigour, and obtained almost a complete victory. 
For this essential service rendered to the commu- 
nity they deserve every praise ; and, however 
the publick may be divided in opinion as to their 
methods of proceeding, and the propriety of some 
of their operations, all will agree that vending 
obscene books and prints, riotous and disorderly 



houses, lotteries, and little-goes, and cruelty to 
animals, ought to be finally prevented. I shall 
close this article with a summary of their con- 
victions during the first year of their establish- 
ment, ending in April 1803. 

Profanation of the Sabbath. 




Some convicted in the full 
penalty, with costs, and 
others in costs only. 
Before the Magistrates. 

Two hundred and twenty- 
two Shop-keepers, for 
pursuing their ordinary 
callings ; and two hun- 
dred and eighteen Publi- 
cans, for suffering Tip- 
pling during Divine Ser- 
vice, (having disregarded 
the warning previously 
delivered them). 

. Vending Obscene Books and Prints. 





GAINER, an Itinerant 

HARRIS, a Vender of Bal- 
lads and Obscene Books 
and Prints, at Whitehall. 

BERTAZZI *, an Italian Iti- 
nerant Hawker. 

BERTAZZI, on two other 

ANN AITKIN, Printseller, 
Castle-street, Leicester- 

BAINES, Keeper of a Stall, 
Skinner-street, Snow-hill. 

Six Months Imprisonment. 

Middlesex Sessions. 
Two Years Imprisonment 

and Pillory . Westmin- 
ster Sessions. 
Six Months Imprisonment. 

Middlesex Sessions. 
Six Months Imprisonment 

for each offence, and 

twice Pillory. Court of 

King's Bench. 
One Year's Imprisonment 

and hard Labour. Court 

of King's Bench. 
One Year's Imprisonment. 

Old Bailey Sessions. 

* N. B. This man, in connection with many others, went 
about the City selling obscene books and prints, at boarding- 
pchools of both sexes. 



Riotous and Disorderly Houses, &c. 


Four Keepers of Houses 
where unlawful Dances 
were held, two on Sun- 
days; three Keepers of 
Public-houses, and two 
of Private Theatres be- 
ing all receptacles for dis 
orderly and abandoned 
characters, and places for 
the seduction of youth of 
both sexes ; and two 
Keepers of Brothels, 
where practices of the 
grossest prostitution were 
carried on. 


All suppressed in a summary 
way. Before the Magis 



Lotteries and Little Goes. 


Twenty-five Persons for 
illegal Insurances, &c. 
some principals, and some 

SAMUEL BEST, a Fortune- 
teller and Impostor. 


From Two to Six Months 
I mprisonment each. Be- 
fore the Magistrates. 

Committed as a Vagrant. 


Cruelty to Animals. 


Two Drovers. 

.Several persons guilty of 
Bear and Badger baiting, 
in Black-boy- alley, Chick- 
lane, where the most 
shocking scenes of bar- 
barity had been practised 
for twenty-two years, even 
on Sundays. 


Imprisonment One Month 
each. Before the Magis- 

Suppressed by the Magis- 



Total Convictions. 

^Profanation of the Sabbath 440 

Vending Obscene Books and Prints 7 

Riotous and Disorderly Houses, &c. 1 1 

Lotteries and Little Goes - 26 

Cruelty to Animals * 3 

48 7 

Mr. Carlton, Deputy Clerk of the Peace, and 
Clerk to the Justices for Westminster, stated to 
;a Committee of the House of Commons in 1782, 
that E-O tables were very numerous ; that one 
house in the parish of St. Anne, Soho, contained 
five, and that there were more than 300 in the 
above parish and St. James's ; those were used 
every day of the week, and servants enticed to 
them by cards of direction thrown down the 

I have hitherto noticed those general circum- 
stances of depravity, which ever have and ever 
will prevail in a greater or legs degree in every 
Metropolis ; and shall conclude the black list 
with mentioning the monster, who terrified the 
females of London in 1790? by cutting at their 
clothes with a sharp instrument, and frequently 
injuring their persons. Renwick Williams was 
at length apprehended, tried, and convicted, for 



cutting the garments and person of Miss Anne 
Porter ; and the horrid acts were never repeated. 

QUACKS 1700. 

The man who, without experience or educa- 
tion, undertakes to compound drugs, and, when 
compounded, to administer them as remedies for 
diseases of the human body, may justly be pro- 
nounced a dishonest adventurer, and an enemy 
to life and the fair proportions of his fellow-citi- 
zens. Quackery is an antient profession in Lon- 
don. Henry VIII. despised them, and endea- 
voured to suppress their nostrums by establishing 
Censors in Physick ; but I do not profess to med- 
dle with them before 1700. 

" At the Angel and Crown, in Basing-lane, 
near Bow-lane, lives J. Pechey, a Graduate in 
the University of Oxford, and of many years 
standing in the College of Physicians, London ; 
where all sick people that come to him may have, 
for sixpence, a faithful account of their diseases, 
and plain directions for diet and other things they 
can prepare themselves ; and such as have occa- 
sion for medicines may have them of him at rea- 
sonable rates, without paying any thing for ad- 
vice ; and he will visit any sick person in Lon- 
don or the Liberties thereof, in the day-time, 
for 2*. 6V/. and any where else within the Bills 
of Mortality for $s. ; and if he be called by any 



person as he passes by in any of these places, he 
will require but Is. for his advice." 

The ridiculous falsehoods of Quacks have long 
been detested by the sensible part of the Com- 
munity ; but every thing that has been said and 
written against them avails nothing : thousands 
of silly people are yet duped, nay, are bigoted 
in their belief of the efficacy of nostrums. Be it 
my task to shew the reader a few of the con- 
trivances and schemes of a Century, and to bring 
before him genuine effusions of impudence which 
have daily insulted and deceived the inhabitants 
of London. 

" April 12, 1700. 
A satisfactory experiment for the curious. 

" If you please to pour one part of Sal volatile 
oleostim, or any other oily salts into a narrow- 
bottomed wine-glass, and near the like quantity 
of Stringer's Elixir, jebrifugittm mortis , there 
will be a pleasant conflict : the elixir will imme- 
diately make a preparation of and precipitate 
those oily volatile salts into a fixed armoniac salt 
in the bottom, and receive the spirituous aromatic 
oily parts into itself, and yet retain its own vir- 
tues, colour, and taste. There is no other true 
and genuine elixir but Mr. Stringer's that is ex- 
posed to sale ; for those called Elixir proprietatu 
and Elixir salutis, &c are mere tinctures drawn 
by brandy or nasty spirits ; but this is a perfect 
elixir or quintessence, whose perfect principles 



of spirits, oil, and salt, are so inseparably united, 
that it can neither decay, putrefy, nor die, no 
wore than the glass that contains it ; and is so 
far from being a harsh corrosive, that it feels like 
oil, yet dries like a spirit, cleanses the skin like 
soap, and not only allays all putrefactive ferments 
in a moment, but immediately cures the most 
malignant fevers, takes away all sorts of corns 
and hardness in the skin, and makes the rough- 
est hands smooth and white, only by anointing 
with it morning and night for a month together : 
which medicine with his other calle'd Salt of Le- 
mons, in despite of all oppose rs, will approve 
themselves nearest of affinity to an universal me- 

In this admirable medicine the Londoner of 
1700 had an internal and an external application, 
and materials to cleanse and soften the hands, 
which would at the same time enable him to 
v/alk the streets in comfort and ease, in defiance 
of corns and horny excrescences. Happy Lon- 
doners ! possessing such men as Dr. Pechey and 
Mr. Stringer, aided by Dr. Case, whose unguen- 
tum panchrestum, prepared by the Spagyrick 
art, might justly be called the Golden Mine. 
This wonderful preparation cured by its sympa- 
thetical powers ; in short, the Doctor found " it 
more infallible than the Zenexton of Paracelsus." 
This great Doctor was the means of informing us 
that Quacks were then in the habit of employing 



persons to thrust bills into the hands of passengers 
in the streets. For example : " Your old friend, 
Dr. Case, desires you not to forget him, although 
he has left the common way of bills.''' 

A brother Quack this year issued the following 
notice : " John Poley, at Broken-wharf, over- 
against the Water-mill in Thames- street, next 
door to the Bell, will undertake to cure anv 

' * 

smokey chimneys. No cure, no money? 

I very much doubt whether even the lowest 
class of ignorants would be deceived at present by 
the ensuing impudent falsehood. " Whereas it 
has been industriously reported, that Doctor 
Herwig, who cures madness and most distempers 
by sympathy, has left England, and returned to 
Germany : This is to give notice, that he lives at 
the same place, viz. at Mr. Gagelman's, in Suf- 
folk-street, Charing-cross, about the middle of 
the street, avfr-against the green balcony." 

The reader will undoubtedly admire the mo- 
desty of Mr. Bartlett, who, in 1704, advertised, 
" Bartlett's inventions of Steel Trusses, Instru- 
ments, Medicine*, and methods to cure Ruptures 
and other faults of those parts, and to make the 
weak strong, and crooked strait, most of which I 
could help with the twentieth part of the trouble 
and charge occasioned only by delay. I reduce 
desperate ruptures in a few minutes, though 
likely to be mortal in a few hours, and have 
made the only true discovery of cause and cure, 



Infants and others born so, and to men of fifty 
or sixty years, in a few weeks cured. I sell 
strait stockings, collars, and swings, and such 
like things. Advice and medicines to the poor 

Of all the inventions for the amendment and 
recovery of the human frame from disease and 
death, none equals the Dutch stiptick, seriously 
mentioned in the Supplement, printed by John 
Morphew, April 27, 1709; but which I suspect 
proceeded from the waggish pen of Mr. Bicker- 
staff, or some other wit, who sent their effusions 
to the publisher of the Tatler. " There is pre- 
pared by a person of quality in Holland a stiptick 
water ; for the receipt of which, exclusive of all 
others, the French King has offered 150,000 pis- 
toles ; but the proprietor refused to take the 
same. It was tried upon a Hen, before his 
Grace the Duke of Maryborough, on board the 
Peregrine galley. The feathers being all plucked 
from her head, a large nail was drove through 
her brains, gullet, tongue, &c. and fastened her 
head to a table, where it was left near a minute ; 
after which, drawing out the nail and touching 
the part immediately with the aforesaid stiptick, 
she was laid upon the deck, and in half an hour's 
time recovered, and began to eat bread. Several 
as extraordinary experiments have been made 
upon dogs, cats, calves, lambs, and other animals, 
by cutting their guts in several places, the nut 



of the thigh, and other parts ; and it is affirmed, 
that this stiptick cures any part of the body, ex- 
cept the heart or bladder." 

John Marten, with his " Attila of the Gout," 
and specifick, seemed determined in 1/12, to 
expel that disorder from every human body in 
the Kingdom. Those who in 1807 read his ad- 
vertisement, and are not thenceforward converts, 
must be stubborn unbelievers indeed. " I should 
be wanting (saith Mr. Marten) as well to the 
publick as myself, did I not reveal the stupen- 
dious effects of my specifick in the gout, which 
daily experience more and more confirms. And 
whatever mean opinion any who are strangers to 
its excellency may entertain of it, either through 
unbelief, or being prejudiced by those whose in- 
terest it is to explode % it; let them remember, / 
tell them (as will many reputable people I will 
refer them to who have tried it), that if they 
ever expect certain and speedy relief, without the 
least detriment to their healths, they must have 
it. I say they must, because the surprising be- 
nefit all receive by it indicates that nothing else 
can more intimately dilute, and friendly and in- 
stantly obtrude and subdue by its soft balmy al- 
terative nature, the acrimony of the humours 
that distend and torture the joints, and gently 
lead them away by urine, the only sensible ope- 
ration it has. And as it is a medicine that will 
make its own way, it . cannot but come (by de- 


grees) to be as universally used and approved of 
in that distemper, as the Jesuits' bark is for 
agues, if not more ; for none that shall drink it 
in time will ever be confined a day with the gout, 
nor others continue in pain an hour after drink- 
ing it, though they have lain for weeks together 
upon the wreck. Any may be further satisfied, 
and have all objections answered, by word of 
mouth, or by consulting the book I lately pub- 
lished, intituled, " The Attila of the Gout," 
being a peculiar account of that distemper, in 
which the vanity of all that has hitherto been 
writ and practised to remove it, and an infallible 
method to cure it, are demonstrated ; with ample 
testimonies of patients cured by John Marten^ 
Surgeon, in Hatton -garden." 

I have before observed, that every profession has 
its Quacks, or persons who deviate from established 
rules. Such was the Quack writer who inserted 
the ensuing advertisement in the Evening Post of 
January 22, 17 IT- " Whereas a certain preten- 
der to Penmanship has, in an illeterate manner, 
fell upon my late performance, let him know / 
look down upon him, yet thus give him his an- 
swer: if I did keep monsters for my diversion, 
that does not affect me in my art ; and it is well 
known that I have not now a deformed creature 
in my house, which is more than he can say 
while he is within doors. I pass by the unworthy 
reflections on my N and O 3 which I could return 



upon his R and T ; but his own ink will blacken 
him enough, while it appears in his own irregu- 
lar scrawls. 

While Cross of Paul's shines in the middle sky, 
Thy name shall stink, but mine shall never die." 
The above elegant production has a parallel in 
the following modest notice of August 1717. 
" This is to give notice, that Dr. Benjamin 
Thornhill, sworn servant to his Majesty King 
George, seventh son of the seventh son, who has 
kept a stage in the Rounds of West-Smithfield 
for several months past, will continue to be ad- 
vised with every day in the week, from eight in 
the morning till eight at night, at his lodgings at 
the Swan Tavern, in West-Smithfield, till Mi- 
chaelmas, for the good of all people that lie lan- 
guishing under distempers, he knowing that 
Talenta in agro non est ahscondita, that a talent 
ought not to be hid in the Earth ; therefore he 
exposes himself in public for the good of the poor. 
The many cures he had performed has given the 
world great satisfaction, having cured 1500 peo- 
ple of the King's evil, and several hundreds that 
have been blind, lame, deaf, and diseased. God 
Almighty having been pleased to bestow upon 
him so great a talent, he thinks himself bound in 

o 3 

duty to be helpful to all sorts of persons that are 
afflicted with any distemper. He will tell you 
in a minute what distemper you are troubled 
with, and whether you are curable or not ; if not 
VOL. i. a curable^ 

curable, he will not take any one in hand, if he 
might have 5 00 A for a reward. 

" N. B. The Doctor has an infallible cure for 
the Gout, which in a few hours gives ease, and 
in a short time makes a perfect cure ; likewise a 
never-failing; remedy for the wind colic in the 


stomach and bowels." 

The Original Weekly Journal of December 28 r 
1723, contains a set of queries, which seem bet- 
ter suited to the ideas of a person despising Quacks 
than to have been written by one. " An appeal 
to the judicious part of mankind, if it is not the 
grossest imposition imaginable to cram the public 
prints in so fulsome a manner with infallible spe- 
cificks, arcana's, Italian boluses, and innumera- 
ble Quack-medicines put to sale at Toy-shops 
and other places, only to hide the shame, and 
screen from the resentment of injured people, the 
preparers of such notorious cheats. Are the best 
physicians or most eminent surgeons ashamed of 
their prescriptions ? Can men of sense be gulled 
0\i't of their money by the severe affliction of ano- 
ther's pocket (though, in his own words, of their 
body), because his pretended charity to their de- 
plorable circumstances has induced him to pub- 
lish what he does not own ? Are not the degrees 
of distempers and the constitutions of men vari- 
ous ? Was ever any one thing infallible ? Can 
all people eat the most innocent food with equal 
advantage? Have we not ingenious Physicians 



and Surgeons, \Vho act in public, not only t6 
their own honour, but that of their country, and 
are, by their transcendant skillj become inimita- 
ble in all the world ? Are not some disappointed 
in the success of a prescription from the most ju- 
dicious hand ? and will they depend upon what 
has no known author, and who refers them to 
the advice of some able Surgeori after cheating 
them himself? Shall any man's misery prevail 
upon his credulity to make him more miserable ? 
or will any Surgeon expose his patient? For 
your own sake, apply to some man of ingenuity 
and probity, who appears to justify his practice 
by his success ; one of which invites you to his 
house, at the Golden-heart and Square-lamp, in 
Crane-court, near Fetter-lane. Ask for the Sur- 
geon, who is to be advised with every morning 
till 1 1 o'clock, and from two till nine at night, in 
any distemper.'* 

After the above interrogatories, it would be 
absurd to attempt the application of any argu- 
ment against Quackery. The queries of this ex- 
traordinary Quack are absolutely unanswerable ; 
but it will be necessary to add, for the informa- 
tion of posterity, that the daily papers are still 
filled with false advertisements and false testimo- 
nies of cures performed ; and that the angles of 
the streets, walls, and fences of London, are co- 
vered with bills issued by Quacks, while, per- 
haps, upwards of an hundred persons obtain a 
o. 2 livelihood 


livelihood by handing them to passengers in every 

This method of proceeding may be pronoun- 
ced one of the customs which distinguish Lon- 
don ; and, as I purpose tracing those, the rea- 
der will forgive my entering upon the subject 
without any other preliminary observation, than 
that I am afraid he will find some of the number 
trench very closely upon the rights of the articles 
under the head of Depravity. 





A WEEKLY Paper, intituled " The Dutch Pro- 
phet," was published at the commencement of the 
Century. The Author, in one of those, gives 
the outlines of each day in the week as employed 
by different persons ; it is a filthy publication, 
and the following is almost the only decent part. 
" Wednesday, several Shop-keepers near St. 
Paul's will rise before six, be upon their knees at 
chapel a little after ; promise God Almighty to 
live soberly and righteously before seven ; take 
half a pint of Sack and a dash of Gentian before 
eight; tell fifty lies behind their counters by 
nine ; and spend the rest of the morning over 
Tea and Tobacco at Child's Coffee-house." 

" Sunday, a world of women, with green 
aprons, get on their pattens after eight; reach 



Brewers-hall and White-hart court by nine ; are 
ready to burst with the Spirit a minute or two 
after, and delivered of it by ten. Much sighing 
at Salters-hall about the same hour; sreat frown- 

7 o 

ing at St. Paul's while the service is singing, toler- 
able attention to the Sermon, but no respect 
shewn at all to the Sacrament," &c. &c. 

These extracts inform us that Tradesmen were 
in the habit of attending Matins, which is cer- 
tainly not the case at present ; that they break- 
fasted upon sack and the root Gentian, and drank 
tea and chewed tobacco at the Coffee-house. 
Mark the change of 100 years : they now break- 
fast upon tea, and never chew tobacco ; nor do 
many of them enter the Coffee-house once in a 

The Halls of the different Companies appear 
to have been used at the above period for almost 
every public purpose, bqt particularly for the 
sighings of grace and over-righteousness, and to 
reverberate in thrice dissonant thunder the voices 
of the Elect, who saved themselves, and dealt eter- 
nal misery to all around them. Here again is a 
change : I believe not one Hall is now used for 
such purposes. The Cathedral service is admired, 
the Sermon neglected, and the Sacrament re- 
ceived with awe and devotion. 

The effect of the Queen's proclamation agajnst 
Vice and Debauchery in 1703 is thus noticed by 
Ob?ervator in his ,92d number; some of the cus- 


toms of the lower classes may be collected from 
the quotation. He says, the Vintners and their 
wives were particularly affected by it, some of 
the latter of which " had the profit of the Sun- 
day's claret, to buy them pins, and to enable 
tli em every now and then to take a turn with the 
Wine-merchant's eldest 'prentice to Cupid's* 
garden, or on-board the Polly -\~. The Whetters 
are very much disobliged at this Proclamation, 
who used on Sundays to meet on their parade at 
the Quaker's meeting-house, in Gracechurch- 
street, and adjourn from thence through the 
Tavern back-door to take a whet of white and 
wormwood, and to eat a bit of the Cook-maid's 
dumpling, and then home to their dinner with 
their dear spouses, and afterwards return to the 
Tavern to take a flask or two for digestion. They 
tell me, all the Cake-houses at Islington, Step- 
ney, and the suburbane villages, have hung their 

* " This should be Cupels gardens, formerly the 
Bear Garden." European Magazine. 

f " This should be the Folly ; a very large vessel, 
said to have been the hulk of a ship of war or frigate, 
which was moored on the Surrey-side of the Thames, 
nearly opposite Hungerford stairs, and, consequently, 
abreast of Cw/wVgardens. It was used as a floating 
tavern and bagnio. The proprietors had an idea, that 
a licence was not necessary for a place of this descrip- 
tion on the river, and it was continued many years un- 
restrained, till at length its enormities became so noto- 
rious, that its suppression was deemed a most neces- 
sary object of Police." Ibid. 



signs in mourning : every little kennel of debau- 
chery is quite dismantled by this Proclamation ; 
and the beaux who sit at home on Sundays, and 
play at piquet and back-gammon, are under 
dreadful apprehension of a thundering prohibi- 
tion of stage-playing." 

The Grand Jury, impanneled July 7, 1703, 
renewed their presentment against the Play-houses, 
Bartholomew-fair, &c. and clearly demonstrated 
that the elasticity of Vice had recovered from its 
temporary depression by the weight of Justice. 
Upon this presentment, Heraclitus Ridens made 
the following observations, which will point out 
a new scene in the customs of the Londoners : 

" Earnest. But the Grand Jury tell you, in 
their presentment, that the toleration of these 
houses corrupts the City youth, makes them dis- 
solute and immoral, and entices them to take 
lewd courses. 

" Jest. I am sorry to hear the Citizens' in- 
structions bear so little weight with them, and 
am apt to think they are not so exemplary in 
their lives and conversations as they have been 
suppo'sed to be. Would their masters keep a 
strict hand over them, there would be no reasons 
for complaints ; and I dare be persuaded, there 
is more debauchery occasioned by pretending to 
eat Custards towards Hampstead, Islington, and 
Sir George Whitmore's *, in a week, than is pos- 

* At Hoxton. 



sible to be brought about by a Playhouse in a 

The reader of this work who has visited St, 
Paul's or Westminster-abbey within the present 
Century, will subscribe to the faithful represen- 
tation of the manners of a certain class of Citi- 
zens, that seem to have survived the usual period 
of life, or have scrupulously transmitted them to 
their posterity, in a dialogue between Jest and 
Earnest, 1703*. 

" Jest. Certainly you have never been at St. 
Paul's. The flux of people there would cause 
you to make use of your handkerchief; and the 
largest Meeting-house in London bears no pro- 
portion to it. 

" Earnest. And what should I do there, 
where men go out of curiosity and interest, not 
for the sake of religion ? Your shop-keepers as- 
semble there as at full 'Change, and the buyers 
and sellers are far from being cast out of the 
Temple. The body of the Church every Lord's- 
daij contains three times the number of the choir ; 
and when the organ has done playing an adieu 
to devotion, the greatest part of the audience 
give you their room rather than their company." 

If an advertisement frequently published about 
this time may be credited, Dram-drinking pre- 
vailed rather more than a sound moralist would 

* Heraclitus Ridens, 



have approved of. Mr. Baker, a bookseller at 
Mercers Chapel, offered his Nectar and Ambro- 
sia, " prepared from the richest spices, herbs, 
and flowers, and done with right French Brandy ;" 
and declares that, " when originally invented, it 
was designed only for ladies' closets, to entertain 
visitors with, and for gentlemen's private drink- 
ing, being muck used that way ," but, becoming 
more common, he then offered it in two-penny 
dram glasses, which, were sold, inclosed in gilt 
frames, by the gallon, quart, or two-shilling 

One of the customs of the Police of 1/oS, was 
the sending a Constable through the streets at 
night, with proper assistants, to apprehend of- 
fenders of all descriptions, but particularly idle 
men, who were immediately dispatched to the 
receptacles of this species of recruits for her Ma- 
jesty's service ; but it was a hazardous employ- 
ment; and one of those peace-officers, named 
Dent, lost his life in endeavouring to convey a 
woman to Covent-garden watch-house, by the 
cuts and stabs of three soldiers, -who were all 
seized, and committed to Newgate. The above 
Mr. John Dent was buried at St. Clement's 
Danes, March 24, l/08-o,, when a Sernion was 
pronounced by Thomas Bray, D. D. Minister of 
St. Botolph, Aldgate, and afterwards published 
under the title of " The good Fight of Faith, in 
the cause of God, against the Kingdom of Satan,'* 


by desire of the Justices and the Societies for the 
Reformation of Manners, who were present at the 

Mrs. Crackenthorpe, the Female Tatler of 
1709* justly reprehends the practice of pew- 
opening for money during Divine service ; and 
thus describes " A set of gentlemen that are 
called Sermon-tasters : They peep in at 20 differ- 
ent churches in a service, which gives disturbance 
to united in devotion ; where, instead of 
attention, they stare about, make some ridiculous 
observations, and are gone " And the same lady 
informs us that the fashionable young men were 
quite as much at a loss how to kill time as those 
of the present day ; they played at quoits, nine- 
pins, threw at cocks, wrestled, and rowed upon 
the Thames. Nor were ridiculous wagers un- 
known : they betted upon the Walking Dutch- 
man ; and Mrs. C. adds, that " four worthy Se- 
nators lately threw their hats into a river, laid a 
crown each whose hat should swim first to the 
mill, and ran hallooing after them ; and he that 
won the prize was in a greater rapture than if he 
had carried the most dangerous point in Parlia- 

To this voluble Tatler I am indebted for an il- 
lustration of the manners of the male shopmen of 
l/9 > an d I will consent to be accounted an ig- 
noramus if it can be proved that the shopmen of 
1809 are not an improved race. " This after- 


noon some ladies, having an opinion of my fancy 
in clothes, desired me to accompany them to 
Ludgate-hill, which I take to be as agreeable an 
amusement as a lady can pass away three or four 
hours in. The shops are perfect gilded theatres, 
the variety of wrought silks so many changes of 
fine scenes, and the Mercers are the performers 
in the Opera ; and, instead of vivitur 'ingenio, 
you have in gold capitals, f No trust by retail.' 
They are the sweetest, fairest, nicest, dished-out 
creatures ; and, by their elegant address and soft 
speeches, you would guess them to be Italians. 
As people glance within their doors, they salute 
them with Garden silks, ladies Italian silks, 
brocades, tissues, cloth of silver, or cloth of gold, 
very fine mantua silks, any right Geneva velvet, 
English velvet, velvet embossed. And to the 
meaner sort Fine thread satins both striped and 
plain, fine mohair silk, satinnets, burdets, Per- 
sianets, Norwich crapes, anterines, silks for hoods 
and scarves, hair camlets, druggets^ or sagathies, 
gentlemen's night-gowns ready made, shallons, 
durances, and right Scotch plaids. 

" We went into a shop which had three part- 
ners : two of them were to flourish out their silks ; 
and, after an obliging smile and a pretty mouth 
made, Cicero like, to expatiate on their good- 
ness ; and the other's sole business was to be gen- 
tleman usher of the shop, to stand completely 



dressed at the door, bow to all the coaches that 
pass by, and hand ladies out and \ ;. 

" \]e saw abundance of gay fancies, fit for 
Sea-captains' wives, Sheriffs' feasts, and Taunton- 
dean ladies. This, Madam, is wonderful charm- 
ing. This, Madam, is so diverting a silk. This, 
Madam my stars ! how cool it looks ! But this, 
Madam ye Gods! would I had 10,000 yards of 
it ! Then gathers up a sleeve, and places it to 
our shoulders. It suits your Ladyship's face 
wonderfully well. When we had pleased our- 
selves, and bid him ten shillings a-yard for what 
he asked fifteen ; ' Fan me, ye winds, your Lady- 
ship rallies me ! Should I part with it at such a 
price, the Weavers would rise upon the very 
shop. Was you at the Park last night, Madam ? 
Your ladyship shall abate me sixpence. Have 
you read the Tatler to-day ?' &c. 

" These fellows are positively the greatest fops 
in the Kingdom ; they have their toilets and 
their fine night-gowns ; their chocolate in the 
morning, and their green tea two .hours after ; 
turkey-polts for their dinner; and their per- 
fumes, washes, and clean linen, equip them for 
the Parade." 

It is not improbable that many of those effe- 
minate drivelers composed part at least of the 
various Clubs held at different Taverns : the 
Beaux was an attractive title for them ; and if 
they were jiot Virtuoso's, the Beefsteak had irre- 

sistible charms; besides, they had the choice 
of many others, such as the Kit-cat, Knights of 
the Golden-fleece, Florists, Quacks, Sic. &c. 
which were supplied by no less than fifty-five 
newspapers weekly. 

The Fashionables of 1 709 dined by candle-light, 
and visited on Sundays; and their footmen an- 
nounced them in the same ridiculous manner 
upon the doors of their friends as at present. A 
quotation from the Tatler will confirm this asser- 
tion : " A very odd fellow visited me to-day at 
my lodgings, and desired encouragement and re- 
commendation from me for a new invention of 
knockers to doors, which he told me he had 
made, and professed to teach rustic servants tke 
use of them. I desired him to shew me an ex- 
periment of this invention ; upon which he fixed 
one of his knockers to my parlour-door. He. 
then gave me a complete set of knocks, from the 
solitary rap of the dun and beggar, to the t hun- 
derings of the saucy footmen of quality, with 
several flourishes and rattlings never yet per- 
formed. He likewise played over some private 
notes, distinguishing the familiar friend or rela- 
tion from the most modish visitor, and directing 
when the reserve candles are to be lighted. He 
has several other curiosities in this art. He waits 
only to receive my approbation of the mam de- 
sign. FJe is now ready to practise to such as 



shall apply themselves to him ; but I have put 
oft' his public licence till next Court-day. 

u N. B. He teaches under ground" 

It appears from the lucubrations of Mr. Bicker- 
^taflf, that the idea of obtaining a wife by adver- 
tisement was not unknown in 17 10; there is a 
specimen in the Tatler of September 23. It will 
be remembered that the hint has been pretty well 
improved upon. 

There was a paper published in 1/11, called 
The Growler. True to the assumed character, 
this modern Diogenes snarled at the vices and 
follies of the day. One of his subjects was the 
Mercers, who are thus introduced : " Alas ! a 
handsome young Mercer cannot carry on his 
business with any reputation without an em- 
broidered coat to stand at the shop- door in, in- 
stead of a sign or a footman in a laced livery, to 
invite in his customers." 

The Tatler of May 1, 1711, speaks of the 
strange infatuation then and at present prevalent, 
of walking in the Park during the Spring. He 
says that " No frost, snow, nor East wind, can 
hinder a large set of people from going to the 
Park in February ; no dust ( nor heat in June. 
Artd this is come to such an intrepid regularity, 
that those agreeable creatures that would shriek 
at an hind- wheel in a deep gutter, are not afraid 
in their proper sphere of the disorder and danger 
of seven rings." 



Perfumes scented the air, and rendered the 
paths of fashion delightful and inviting, long be- 
fore the period at which I date my review* The 
votaries of this fickle Goddess distributed their 
money so liberally amongst the inventors and 
combiners of sweets, that they had become very 
conspicuous persons by the reign of Queen Anne ; 
as Mr. Charles Lillie will serve to prove, who 
had the good fortune to be celebrated by Sir Ri- 
chard Steele in his Tatlers, and by the authors of 
the original numbers of the Spectator. But, that 
this gentleman may not monopolize all the fame 
of his day, I shall proceed to exhibit the flowing 
periods of another retailer of essences, who points 
out in which way they were generally used by 
the belles and beaux of the time. " Incomparable 
perfuming drops for handkerchiefs, and all other 
linen, clothes, gloves, &c. being the most excel- 
lent for that purpose in the Universe ; for they 
stain nothing that is perfumed with them any 
more than fair water ; but are the most delecta- 
ble, fragrant, and odoriferous perfume in nature, 
good against all diseases of the head and brain. 
By their delicious smell, they comfort, revive, 
and refresh all the senses, natural, vital, and 
animal, enliven the spirits, cheer the heart, and 
drive away melancholy ; they also perfume rooms, 
beds, presses, drawers, boxes, &.c. making them 
smell surprizingly fine and odoriferous. They 
perfume the hands excellently, are an extraordi- 



nary scent for the pocket, and, in short, are so 
exceeding pleasant and delightful, so admirably 
curious* and delicate, and of such general use, 
that nothing in the world can compare with them. 
Sold only at Mr. Payn's Toy-shop, at the Angel 
and Crown in St. Paul's Church-yard, near 
Cheapside, at 2*. 6V/. a bottle, with directions." 

One of the most inconsiderate and provoking 
customs prevalent in the lower classes of the com- 
munity was the peal rattled in the ears of a new- 
married pair on the morning after their nuptials. 
The Spectator mentions drums on such occasions ; 
those, though they were continued till within 
these very few years, are not now used ; and 1 
believe the practice is confined to the procession of 
Butchers' men and boys, who ring their discor- 
dant cleavers with leg-bones of oxen in a sort of 
chime, which may be prevented by a few pence, 
and is always a day-light operation. 

Another of the customs of the Londoners is 
thus accidentally noticed in the British Mercury, 
October 1/12, " who plied there to be hired, 
like Chimney-sweepers, at Cheapside Conduit." 

The Peace of 1713 gave great satisfaction to 
the Citizens ; and the Proclamation of it was ho- 
noured with the usual State ceremonies, the re- 
sponses of shouts and bonfires, and with general 
illuminations. Although many eccentric me- 
thods may have been taken by individuals to ex- 
press their joy, one only of those has been re- 

VOL. i, R corded, 


corded, which was the thought of the keeper of 
the Spread Eagle Inn, in Gracechurch-street, 
who advertized one shilling tickets for a Peace 
Pudding, nine feet in length, twenty inches in 
breadth, and six inches deep. 

The ingenuity of Mr. Winstanley, exhibited 
at his Winter Theatre by his widow on the same 
occasion, may be worthy notice. That lady ad- 
vertised, as a specimen of their skill in Hydrau- 
licks, " six sorts of wine and brandy coming out 
of the famous barrel, to drink the Queen's health, 
and Peace. Being enlarged, there will be an 
addition of claret, pale ale, and stout, playing; out 
of the head of the barrel when it is in the pully, 
and water at the same time, &c. &c." 

" A Coach-maker, of Long-acre, actuated by 
mistaken zeal, provided the effigies of Dr. Bur- 
geSj just then deceased, which he placed in an 
old chariot, with a pipe in the mouth, and two* 
tapers before him. Thus represented, as if in 
his pulpit, he gave the whole to the mob to burn, 
which they did in due time, much to his shame.** 

The tenth number of the Lover, published 
March 18, 1/14, treats on the absurdity of fil- 
lino- the best rooms of the houses of fashionable 

o * 

females with china. The author says, that the 
venders of articles of this description usually bar- 
tered them for rejected clothing, a custom now 
faintly discernible amongst certain Jews, who 
exchange with servants glass, earthen-ware, and 

a little 


a little china, for old clothes. Mr. Addison, 
who wrote the paper, adds, that he remembered 
when the largest article of china was a coffee- 
cup ; but that it had then swelled to vases as 
large as a half-hogshead, and that those useless 
jars were accompanied by a variety of absurd re- 
presentations, arranged, I suppose, in cupboards 
and on mantle-pieces, as the reader may have 
seen in some old-fasliloned apartments of the 
present day : indeed, I believe some of the jars 
may be found in corners yet ; but it would per- 
haps puzzle the owners to designate their use, or 
to prove in what respect they are even orna- 

The year 1714 gave rise to the practice of a 
contrariety of customs. The Queen died, and 
the Nation outwardly mourned in black habits. 
Custom was thus complied with in relation- to 
Death. But the joyful entry of George the First 
required the gayest apparel and the appearance 
of happiness. Surely the publick must have been 
puzzled how to express these opposite feelings ; 
to-day all grief and sables, to-morrow all splen^ 
dour, laces, scarlet, gold, and jewels ; and the 
third, a recurrence to mourning, 

As the public entry of this King undoubtedly 
secured the succession in the Protestant line, I 
shall be diffuse upon the ceremonies attending it ; 
and those will be best explained by the ensuing 
original orders, published by the Earl of Suffolk. 

R 3 "A Cere- 


" A Ceremonial for the Reception of his most 
sacred Majesty GEORGE, by the grace of God, 
King of Great Britain, &c. upon his arrival 
from Holland to his Kingdom of Great Britain. 

<f The King being arrived at Greenwich, and 
the day fixed for his Majesty's Royal Entry; 
public notice thereof is to be given by the Lord 
Marshal of the times and places where the No- 
bility, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens 
of London, &c. are to meet, in order to attend 
his Majesty. And some of the Officers of Arms, 
being appointed by the Lord Marshal, to go to 
Greenwich early that morning, to rank the 
coaches of the Great Officers, the Nobility, and 
others, in order, the juniors first, which are to 
assemble by ten of the clock in the morning in 
the Park there, in order to precede the King's 
coach: And notice being given to the Officers 
of Arms when his Majesty is ready 10 set out : 
His Majesty, preceded as aforesaid, and attended 
by his guard du corps, is to proceed from thence 
in his coach towards London, in the following 
order ; viz. 

Four of the Knight Marshal's Men on 

Coaches. * of Esquires with six horses each. 

* No Coaches to be admitted but with six horses, 
nor any Coach to come into the Park after ten of the 
clock in the morning. 



Coaches of Knights Bachelors. 
Baronets of Ireland, Nova Scotia, and 

Great Britain. 

The King's Solicitor. The King's Attorney. 
Younger Sons of Barons of Ireland and 

Great Britain. 
Younger Sons of Viscounts of Ireland and 

Great Britain. 

Barons of the Exchequer and | according to their 
Justices of both Benches J Seniority. 
Lord Chief Justice of the Common-Pleas 

(may go as a Baron.) 
Master of the Rolls, 




i n- f T ^ as 

Lord Chief Justice or the > ^ 


Privy Counsellors not Peers. 
Eldest Sons of Barons of Ireland and 

Great Britain. 
Younger Sons of Earls of Ireland and 

Great Britain. 
Eldest Sons of Viscounts of Ireland and 

Great Britain. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Barons of Ireland and Great Britain. 

Bishops of England. 

Younger Sons of Marquisses. 

Eldest Sons of Earls of Ireland and Great Britain. 

Viscounts of Ireland and Great Britain. 

Younger Sons of Dukes of Great Britain. 

Eldest Sons of Marquisses of Great Britain. 



Earls of Ireland and Great Britain. 

Earl Poulet Lord Steward of the King's Houshold. 

Earl of Suffolk and Bindon, as exercising the 

Office of Earl Marshal of England. 
Eldest Sons of Dukes of Great Britain. 

Marquisses of Great Britain. 
Marquis of Lindsey, Lord Great Chamberlain 

of England. 

Dukes of Ireland and Great Britain. 

The Lord Chamberlain (who appears asl'reasurer.) 

The Great Officers, viz. 

The Lord Privy Seal. 

The Lord President of the Council, 

The Lord High Treasurer. 
The Lord Archbishop of York. 

Lord Chancellor. 

Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

His Royal Highness the Prince, (if not in the 

Coach with his Majesty.) 

The KING'S Majesty in his Coach. 

The King's Guards of Horse, commanded by 
the Captains of the Guards. 

In this manner his Majesty, preceded by the 
Nobility and others in their Coaches as aforesaid, 
is to be attended from the Queen's House in the 
Park through Greenwich and Deptford to Kent- 
street end, and from thence to St. Margaret's-hill 


in Southwark, where the Lord Mayor of London 
and others wait his -arrival. 

And upon notice that the Nobility, &c. are 
arrived near to St. Margaret Vhill in their coaches, 
the Officers of Arms are to begin to draw out the 
grand proceeding, in the following order ; viz. 
A detachment of the Artillery Company 

in buff-coats, &e. 
The two City Marshals on Horseback, with their 

men on foot to make way. 

Two of the City Trumpets on horseback. 

The Sheriffs' Officers on foot, with javelins in 

their hands. 
The Lord Mayor's Officers in black gowns, on 

foot, two and two. 

Two more of the City Trumpets on horseback. 
The City Banner borne by the Water-bailiff on 
horseback, with a servant on foot in a coloured 

Then the City Officers on horseback, in their 
proper gowns, each attended by a servant on 
foot in coloured liveries. 

The four Attorneys, two and two. 

The Solicitor, and the Remembrancer, 

The two Secondaries. 

The Comptroller. 

The four Common Pleaders. 

The two Judges. 

The Town-clerk. 

The Common Serjeant, and the Chamberlain. 



Two more of the City Trumpets on horseback. 

The King's Banner, borne by the Common Hunt 
on horseback, with a servant on foot in a co- 
loured livery. 

The Common Cryer in his gown, and the City 
Sword-bearer in his black damask gown and 
gold chain, both on horseback, each having a 
servant on foot in coloured liveries. 

Then those who have fined for Sheriff or Alder- 
man, or served the office of Sheriff or Alder- 
man, in scarlet gowns on horseback, according 
to their seniorities, two and two, the juniors 
first, each attended by two servants on foot in 
coloured liveries. 

The two Sheriffs in scarlet gowns on horseback, 
with their gold chains, and their white staves 
in their hands, each attended by two servants 
on foot in coloured liveries. 

The Aldermen below the Chair on horseback in 
scarlet gowns, two and two, each attended by 
his beadle and two servants on foot in coloured 

Then the Recorder in a scarlet gown on horse- 
back, attended by two servants on foot. 

Then the Aldermen above the Chair in scarlet 
gowns, on horseback, wearing their gold chains, 
attended by their beadles, and two servants 
each, in coloured liveries. 

Then the coaches of the Nobility, Great Officers, 
&c. in the order they come from Greenwich. 


The Knight Marshal's Men on horseback, 

two and two. 

The Knight Marshal, or his Deputy, on horseback. 
The King's Kettle-drums. 

The Drum-major. 
The King's Trumpets, two and two. 
The Serjeant Trumpet with his i" ^.JS 

-. o ~ &' 

mace. JL. ~ ? 

Pursuivants of Arms uncovered, 

two and two. 

Heralds of Arms, as before. 
Kings of Arms, as before. 

>j <o 

flj *- "3 

jS'2 o 


f 5T 

*" ^* 

rod, on his left- 
hand, uncover- 

The PRINCE in his Coach. 

Gentleman Usher The Lord-mayor Garter King 
of the Black- of London in his of Arms, or 
Crimson Velvet his Deputy, 
Gown on horse- on the right 
back, wearing his hand, un- 
rich collar and covered, 
jewel, uncovered, 
bearing the City- 
sword by his 
Majesty's per- 
mission, with 
only four ser- 
vants on foot, 
bareheaded, in 
coloured liveries. 



The KING in his Coach. w 



y " vT- S 

His Majesty's Horse-guards as before, 
to close the proceeding. 

Thus the KING is to pass from St. Margaret's* 
hill (after the Recorder bas made his speech, 
and the Lord Mayor received the City sword 
from his Majesty) to his Royal-palace of St. 

The Trained-bands of South wark, by order of the 
Lord-Lieutenant of Surrey, are to line the way 
from Kent-street end, to the foot of London- 

Three regiments of the City Trained-bands are to 
make a guard from the Bridge to the Stocks- 

The several Companies of London, with their 
Ensigns, are to line the streets on both sides, 
from the Stocks-market to St. Paul's Church- 
yard ; at the East-end whereof, the Children 
of Christ's-hospital are to stand, and one of the 
King's boys makes a speech to his Majesty. 

And the other three regiments of the City Trained- 
bands are to guard the way from St. Paul's 
Church-yard to Temple-bar. From Temple- 
bar, the Steward, High-bailiff, and Burgesses 
of Westminster, in their gowns, attended by 
all the Constables and Beadles with their re- 



. spective staves : and the High-bailiff's officers, 
with their ensigns of office, are to line the 
way : and next to them the Militia of West- 
minster make a guard, leaving a space between 
them and his Majesty's Foot-guards (who line 
the way from St. James's into the Strand) for 
the Artillery-company to draw up in. 

Against St. Alban's-street in the Pall-mall, the 
Sheriffs' officers and Lord Mayor's officers are 
to make a stand on the right-hand. 

Those who have served, or fined for Sheriffs or 
Aldermen of London, are to make their stand 
between the passages into St. James's-square. 

The Sheriffs and Aldermen make their stand to- 
wards the upper-end of the Pall-mall, on the 
right-hand leading to St. Jaines's-gate. 

The Nobility, and others who go in their coaches, 
are to alight at St. James's-gate ; and the 
coaches to pass by St. James's Meuse into St. 
James's-park, and go out again at the upper 
gate by Hyde-park. 

The Knight-marshal's men, kettle-drums, trum- 
pets, and serjeant-trumpet, are to make a 
stand on the right-hand side from the end of 
the Pall-mall, by the Gloucester- tavern. 

The Officers of arms and Serjeants at arms are to 
pass on to the second gate-way, and there 

The Lord-mayor, with Garter, and the Gentle- 
man-usher of the Black-rod, are to attend his 



Majesty into St. James's, to the foot of the 
stairs leading up to the Guard-chamber ; where 
they alight, and the Lord Mayor humbly takes 
his leave of his Majesty. 

During the whole proceeding from St. Margaret's- 
hill, the Conduits at Stocks-market and other 
parts of the City are to run with wine as usual. 
And the great guns at the Tower are to be 
twice discharged : first, at his Majesty's taking 
coach at Greenwich ; and secondly, after his 
passing over London-bridge. And at his Ma- ' 
jesty's arrival at his Royal Palace, the foot- 
guards in the Park fire three volleys, and the 
cannon in the Park are to be discharged." 

Such was the eagerness evinced on this occa- 
sion, that seats were erected in every situation 
where it was possible the King could be seen, 
and the balconies in Cheapside, Cornhill, &c. 
were let for 20 and 30 guineas each. It must, 
however, be acknowledged to have been a superb 
spectable, to grace which the publick provided 
prudently and amply. Coaches, carts, &c. were 
forbid to enter the streets, and those were lined 
by six regiments of Trained bands ; the Conduits 
ran with wine ; the Charity-children, assembled 
on a vast range of seats, sung Hymns ; the Livery 
Companies exhibited their persons and costume ; 
and a number of aged gentlemen, whose hairs 
were silvered by time, determined to invite others 



to join them in white camblet cloaks, and seated 
on white horses to form part of the procession ; 
but some unforeseen obstacles intervening, they 
were compelled to substitute a stand at the East- 
end of $t. Paul's, erected over another appointed 
for a boy from Christ's-hospital to pronounce an 
oration to the King, where a considerable num- 
ber appeared to shew their loyalty. One of the 
newspapers of the day observes, that the weather 
was uncommonly fine, and that the cavalcade of 
the procession and volunteers reached from Green- 
wich to St. Paul's. Exclusive of the usual even- 
inr demonstrations of joy, a fire-work was exhi- 
bited in St. Paul's church-yard, representing two 
flaming dragons on one side, and on the other 
the Crown accompanied by the motto, " Floreat 
Civitas" Cockades of ribband, and ribbands 
decorated with mottos and devices in gold and 


silver, were very generally worn on this occasion, 
and at the subsequent Coronation ; previous to 
which, the Envoys of Sicily and Venice had a 
warm dispute on precedency in the box prepared 
for the Ambassadors in Westminster-hall; this 
the Marshal of the Ceremonies adroitly parried, 
by declaring all precedency ceased in the box. 
Every description of utensils and table-linen were 
purloined from Westminster-hall, as at the pre- 
ceding Coronation. 

Dreadful accidents occurred during the proces- 
sion, by the fall of over- loaded scaffolds in Old 



Palace-yard and the Broad Sanctuary : iiineteert 
persons were killed and wounded, amongst whom 
was Lady Burton, far advanced in pregnancy ; 
this unhappy lady diecj in a few minutes. Every 
recompence was made to the survivors, by the 
King's orders, that pecuniary assistance could 

The King soon after witnessed the Lord 
Mayor's annual ceremony from Mr. Taylor's bal- 
cony in Cheapside. This gentleman was a Quaker 
and a Linen-draper, to whom the Monarch offered 
the honour of Knighthood in return for his civility ; 
but the wary Friend declined the tempting baity 
which would have procured him the less accept- 
able ceremony of being read out of Meeting. 

The Proprietors of Sion gardens advertised the 
following singular method of selling deer from 
their park, in May 1715. They appointed the 
afternoons of Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
for killing those animals; when the publick were 
admitted at one shilling each to see the operation, 
or they might purchase tickets from four to ten 
shillings, which entitled them, I suppose by- 
way of Lottery, to different parts of the beast, 
as- they say the quantity killed was to be divided 
into sixteen lots, and the first choice to be go- 
verned by the numbers on the tickets ; a ten 
shilling ticket was entitled to a fillet; eight a 
shoulder ; seven a loin, &c. If the full price of 
the Deer was not received on a given day, the 



keeper held the money till that sum was ob- 
tained. They offered to sell whole deer, and to 
purchase as many as might be offered. 

A singular wedding occurred in November 
1^15, secundum mum Tremulorum, between a 
rich Quaker Apothecary, and a daughter of 
Daniel Quare, the celebrated watch-maker in 
Exchange-alley. The place of entertainment was 
Skinners-hall, " where 300 persons were present, 
amongst whom was the Duchess of Marlborough, 
&c. The Princess of Wales was invited, but 
did not go." 

However unpleasant the yells of Barrow-women 
are at present, no other mischief arises from 
them than the obstruction of the ways. It was 
far otherwise before 1716", when they generally 
carried Dice with them, and children were en- 
ticed to throw for fruit and nuts, or indeed any 


persons of more advanced age. However, in the 
year just mentioned, the pernicious consequences 
of the practice beginning to be felt, the Lord 
Mayor issued an order to apprehend all retailers 
so offending, which speedily put an end to street- 
gaming ; though, I am sorry to observe, that some 
miscreants now carry little wheels marked with 
numbers, which being turned govern the chance 
by the figure a hand in the centre points to 
when stopped. 

The first notice of coloured lamps for illumina- 
tions that I have met with is in the year 1716", 



when Dr. Chamberlain displayed 200 on the 
front of his house in Surrey-street, in honour of 
the King's birth-day. 

The same year produced the annual rowing- 
match by six young watermen who have just 
completed their apprenticeship, which was 
founded by Mr. Doggett, ,the Comedian, who 
left a certain sum in trust for the purchase of the 
prize, an orange-coloured coat with a silver 
badge, representing the Hanoverian horse, as I 
take it ; but the papers of the day will have it to 
represent the wild unbridled horse Liberty. 

The reader will rind in the following advertise- 
ment a singular method of invitation to a public- 
house and gardens ; and I think he will agree 
with rne, that this custom of our predecessors is 
better honoured in the breach than in the ob- 

" Sion Chapel, at Hampstead, being a private 
and pleasant place, many persons of the best 
fashion have been lately married there. Now, as 
a Minister is obliged constantly to attend, this is 
to give notice, that all persons, upon bringing a 
licence, and who shall have their wedding-dinner 
at the house in the gardens, may be married in 
the said Chapel without giving any fee or reward ; 
and such as do not keep their wedding at the 
gardens, only five shillings will be demanded of 
them for all fees." 

A grand 


A grand aquatic procession occurred in July 
1717. The King, accompanied by the Dutchess 
of Newcastle, Lady Godolphin, Madam Kilman- 
seck and the Earl of Orkney, went in the even- 
ing in an open barge to Chelsea. As they floated 
up the tide, surrounded by thousands of boats, 
fifty performers in a City-barge serenaded his 
Majesty with the strains of Handel, composed 
expressly for this occasion, with which he was so 
enraptured that they were thrice repeated. At 
eleven o'clock the boats had reached Chelsea; 
there the Monarch landed, and, proceeding to 
the mansion of Lady Catharine Jones * he sup- 
ped, was entertained by a concert, and returned 
at two in the morning. The Princess of Wales 
frequently hired the common watermen, and 
glided about the same part of the river; and 
once honoured a West-country barge with a visit, 
partaking with the men their homely fare of salt- 
pork and bread, and distributing a tenfold equi- 
valent of guineas. This honour was so accepta- 
ble to the Master of the vessel, that he imme- 
diately gave her a Royal title, and expended 
great part of the money in purchasing a splendid 
cockade as a distinguishing vane for his head, 
vowing to renew it when decayed. 

Such were the happier moments of Royalty ! 
Thanks to our Constitution, happiness reigns in 
gradations from the Throne to the Cottage ; and 

* Daughter to the earl of Ranelagh. 
VOL. i. s while 


while George I. solaced in his Gondola, fanned 
by the evening breeze, and lulled by the sweet 
notes of Handel, his peasants were celebrating 
their Florists' feast at Bethnal-green, with a Car- 
nation named after him, the King of the Year ; 
the Stewards bearing gilded staves, crowned with 
laurel, and bedecked with flowers, and 90 culti- 
vators in their rear, each bearing his blooming 
trophy, traversed the fields to the sound of musick, 
happy in themselves, and rendering the nume- 
rous spectators not less so. Why is this pleasing 
custom neglected and forgotten ? 

It would have been well if the Society for the 
Reformation of Manners had attempted the re- 
form of a class of people whose manners were 
extremely provoking and very disgusting. 

I beg leave to introduce a paragraph from the 
Medley of May 16, which will explain my mean- 
ing, and support my assertion, that in this parti- 
cular the watermen of our day are greatly im- 
proved, though still very rough in their actions 
and conversation. 

" On Monday last, being the day King George 
set out for Hanover, several of his lower domes- 
ticks went before ; and while they were upon the 
Thames, a brisk bold lass, that was perfectly 
well versed in water-language, gave them several 
plaguy broadsides ; certain it is, she made use of 
several odd, comical, out-of-the-way expressions, 
at which, though at the same time they were 



heartily vexed, they could not forbear laughing. 
The phrases she made use of should be repeated 
here, but only they were of such a rude nature, 
that, though they did not fall under the cogni- 
zance of the law by water, -yet they would be 
perfectly punishable by land ; and I question 
whether if they would not even be deemed trea- 
sonable. The Thames seems to have a charter 
for rudeness ; and the sons of Triton and Nep- 
tune have not only a freedom of, but a licence 
for, any sort of speech. The privilege, by being 
so antient, is grown incontestible ; and scandal 
there is as it were a law by prescription. Crowned 
heads in former times did not go scot-free, and 
yet no punishment ensued ; so that Majesty then 
seemed, by conniving in silence at the abuse, to 
give the Royal assent to those rough water-laws. 
Several bitter jests were cast on our good Queen 
Catharine ; and people told her Majesty merrily 
of the several children King Charles had by his 
concubines, and made it a matter of ludicrous 
wonder and surprize, that the constant bedfellow 
of so mettlesome a Prince should not give the 
world one token of their mutual love." 

Such were the manners of watermen ; and, 
without doubt, their passengers frequently bore 
a part in the low amusement of abuse. Mr. Mist, 
well known as one of the heroes of the Dunciad, 
enables me to shew those of some of the lands- 
men of the same period. He introduces them 
s 2 in 


in very good advice to parents and masters previ 
ous to the holidays of May ; and observes, that 
many coaches were in a state of requisition for 
the conveyance of journeymen, apprentices, and 
their masters' daughters, to the churches of St. 
Pancras and Mary-le-bon, for private marriage. 

He conjures all sober honest tradesmen who 
love their wives to walk abroad with them and 
their children. " And whereas Mr. Mist has 
been informed, that in holiday times divers per- 
sons of distinction and figure transform them- 
selves into the shapes of journeymen, apprentices, 
and other mechanical habits, to trepan young- 
wenches out of their modesty ; he therefore re- 
quires of all viceroys and governors of families to 
give the strictest orders for their female children 
and servants to repair to their respective habita- 
tions before candle-light. 

" All journeymen Drapers, Mercers, .Lawyers- 
clerks, and other ten or twelve-shilling workmen, 
are strictly forbid to cause riots and routs in the 
streets concerning precedency, as they return 
from their carouses in the night-time. 

" N. B. Bullies and Gamesters, who have an 
indisputable right to make disturbances every 
night in the year, are not meant in this article. 

" Journeymen Shoemakers are desired to take 
notice, that by an antient statute, yet unrepealed, 
any of their function going sober to bed on the 
night of Whitsun-Monday forfeits 5*. ; upon non- 


payment to be levied by distress, one moiety to 
the informer, and the other to the poor alehouse- 
keepers of the Parish where the fact was com- 

The horrid custom of Duelling never was at a 
greater height than at the above date. The 
newspapers from 1700 to 1719 appear to have 
preserved their progression faithfully ; every gam- 
ing-table, despicable brothel, tavern, coffee-house, 
masquerade, the theatres, and even festive meet- 
ings, produced its duellist; and the universal 
fashion of wearing swords allowed no time for 
passion to subside, or reason to reflect; a walk 
into the street or into an adjoining room, enabled 
the parties to wound each other in an instant; 
revenge and pain maddened them ; and death 
frequently ensued to both. Government at length 
interfered ; but duelling has again recovered from 
temporary interruption ! Doctors Mead and 
Woodward fought like a pair of butchers, in 
June 1719, at the very gates of Gresham-college ; 
and every drunken rake who staggered through 
the streets had it in his power to plunge a sword 
into an unoffending breast, or to wound where he 
now dare not strike. Dead bodies were fre- 
quently found ; and the thief and the duellist 
seemed emulous which should furnish the Diaries 
of the time with the greater number of victims. 
Robberies, attended with monstrous cruelty, 
were dreadfully frequent ; and such was the gene- 


ral profligacy "of the age, that the paragraph- 
writers endeavoured to convey horrid facts with 
a levity of expression suited to the coarseness of 
their style, which was truly vulgar throughout 
all the newspapers. Let one instance speak for 
me : " People sicken and die at an uncommon 
rate in and about this city and suburbs; and 
there is a sad outcry raised (especially by antient 
females) of a plague, pestilence, and what not, 
which has occasioned abundance of people to 
leave the town, and fly to the countries for re- 
fuge, whilst horse and foot physicians, mounte- 
banks, dead-mongers, parish-clerks, and other 
lesser ministers of dust and ashes, are continually 
in motion in one part or other to perform their 
several offices ; and we hear that in some parishes 
the sexton or grave-digger can afford to employ 
two or three journeymen." 

Original Weekly Journal, May 22, 1719. 
It must, however, be allowed that frequent at- 
tempts were made to resist the progress of vice, 
and many of the Justices concurred in warning 
the people of the illegality of their conduct ; ten 
of them, at a special Session held for the division 
of the Tower, in pursuance of an order made at 
the General Quarter Sessions for Middlesex, on 
the ipth of January 17 19, for putting in execu- 
tion the Statute of 33 Henry VIII. Cap. 9, di- 
rected authentic copies of the order to be given 
to all victuallers, &c. whom it concerned, and 



also to be affixed in all public places within that 
Division ; " That none shall keep or maintain 
any house or place of unlawful games, on pain of 
40*. for every day, of forfeiting their recognizance, 
and of being suppressed ; that none shall use or 
haunt such places on pain of 6s. Sd. for every of- 
fence ; and that no artificer, or his journeyman, 
husbandman, apprentice, labourer, servant at 
husbandry, mariner, fisherman, waterman, or 
serving-man, shall play at tables, tennis, dice, 
cards, bowls, clash, coiting, loggating, or any 
other unlawful game, out of Christmas, or then 
out of their master's house or presence, on pain 
of 20,9." 

But, though it was sometimes possible to pre- 
vent the depravity of the lower order of people, 
there were others, that moved in the sphere of 
gentlemen, who set the worst of examples to 
their inferiors. Such were those that had assem- 
bled on the evening of a Court drawing-room at 
the Royal Chocolate-house in St. James's-street ; 
where disputes at hazard produced a quarrel, 
which became general throughout the room ; and, 
as they fought with their swords, three gentle- 
men were mortally wounded ; and the affray was 
at length ended by the interposition of the Royal- 
guards, who were compelled to knock the parties 
down with the butt-ends of their muskets indis- 
criminately, as intreaties and commands were of 
no avail. A footman of Colonel Cunningham's, 



greatly attached to his master, rushed through 
the swords, seized, and literally carried him out 
by force without injury. 

This horrid rencontre was the effect of sudden 
passion, roused by disappointment and avarice ; 
there was nothing of depravity prepense, except 
the act of gaming. Weak as this palliative may 
be, the members of two other clubs had them 
not to plead for their infamous profligacy. The 
wretches who associated under the titles of the 
" Bold Bucks" and the " Hell-Jires" are de- 
scribed in a paper of February 20, 1720, as de- 
liberate abandoned villains. " The principles of 
the first are to come up to the flaming lust of 
their worthy patrons, from whom they take their 
denomination, by their examples ; they attempt 
all females of their own species promiscuously 
grandmothers and mothers, as well as daughters ; 
even their own sisters fear their violence, and fly 
their privacies. Blind and bold Love is their 
motto, and their soul's faculties strictly termi- 
nated in a participation of entertainment and 
judgment with brutes." 

" The Hell-fires, you may guess by the ap- 
pellation, aim at a more transcendant malignity ; 
deriding the forms of Religion as a trifle with 
them, by a natural progression from the form 
they turn to the substance ; with Lucifer they riy 
at Divinity. The third person of the Trinity is 
what they peculiarly attack ; by the following 



specimen you may judge of their good will : i. e, 
their calling for a Holy Ghost-pye at the Tavern, 
in which, by the bye, you may still observe the 
propriety and justice of God's judgment on them, 
that blasts the advantages of their education, so 
as to make this shocking stupidity to be the poig- 
nancy of their wit, and the life they lead, the 
sublimity of their genius. Such is their dispo- 
sition ; the next things to be remarked are their 
education and usual place of conference. Their 
education then, after the care of tender parents, 
and their initiation into the liberal arts, is pro- 
posed to be finished in an academy ; (do not mis- 
take me) not a scholastic schismatical one, but a 
riding one ; where obsceneriess, curses, blasphe- 
my, exclamations, with revolving regularity, meet 
each curvet of the more rational animal. Their 
usual place of conference in full council, is a di- 
minutive Tavern not very far from thence ; where 
the master and cook may perhaps in time hear 
something from a Magistrate for striking in with 
the rakes' blasphemous jests, and supplying them 
with cards and dice on Sundays." 

As a further illustration of the manners of the 
times, the following paragraph is of importance : 
" On Wednesday night last, about twelve, there 
was such a great riot in Windmill- street, near 
the Haymarket, that near 100. gentlemen and 
others were all engaged at one time, some with 
swords,, and others with sticks and canes, wherein 



abundance were dangerously wounded ; the watch- 
men that came to put an end to the affray were 
knocked down and barbarously used ; at last the 
patrole of Horse-guards came, and finding them 
obdurate, rode through them cutting all the way 
with their swords ; yet we hear of none that were 
killed upon the spot, though many, it is thought, 
cannot recover of their wounds. When they saw 
their own time, they gave over ; and, upon sum- 
ming up the matter, the quarrel began at first by 
two chairmen only *." 

On the evening of May 28, Captain Fitzgerald 
and three young men his companions met a lady 
in the Strand, returning from St. James's, con- 
veyed in a sedan-chair. They immediately en- 
deavoured to force her out, but were opposed by 
the chairmen, upon which they drew their swords, 
and proceeded to demolish the vehicle. The 
noise brought a watchman to the spot, who in- 
stantly received a deadly wound through the 
back, and as instantly expired. This mighty 
son of Mars was secured ; but the others fled from 
their foul deed, like true cowards. 

It may be supposed that this laxity of manners 
influenced all ranks, when inroads upon the 
paths of decorum prevailed even in the Church. 
In order that this fact may not rest upon my 
mere assertion, I shall quote the concluding lines 

* Original Weekly Journal, May 21, 1720. 



of a letter to the Author of the London Journal, 
dated December 21, 1/20, and signed " A. A. a 
lover of decency and order." He speaks of an 
impropriety, now become quite common, in the 
Stewards of the Sons of the Clergy permitting 
persons from the Theatres to perform in their 
annual celebration at St. Paul's ; and then pro- 
ceeds : " There are other things truly blameable 
to be observed, when the Te Deum or Anthem 
hath been performing, yes, when the parson hath 
been preaching, (viz.) persons eating, drinking 
wine, laughing and talking; a conduct much 
more becoming those who attend the performan- 
ces of Drury-lane or the Haymarket, than the 
Temple of the Lord. 

" ' What is here taken notice of, as it is fact, 
so it is abominable, and ought to be exposed ; 
the doing of which may tend to reform such irre- 
gularities for the future, and keep those disorders 
from the House of God, which cannot admit of 
a justification unless by those who may think 
the same liberties may be taken in places set 
apart for devotion, as are in the Synagogue of 

The progress of the shocking Clubs already 
noticed became so alarming, that the King found 
it necessary to issue his proclamation for their 
suppression, in April 1721, which establishes 
their existence beyond all dispute. 

" At 


" At the Court of St. James's, the 28th day of 
April 1721. 

Present, the King's most excellent Majesty in 

" His Majesty having received information 
which gives great reason to suspect that there 
have been lately, and still are, in and about the 
Cities of London and Westminster, certain scan- 
dalous Clubs or Societies of young persons, who 
meet together, and in the most impious and 
blasphemous manner insult the most sacred prin- 
ciples of our Holy Religion, affront Almighty 
God himself, and corrupt the minds and morals 
of one another ; and being resolved to make use 
of all the authority committed to him by Al- 
mighty God to punish such enormous offenders, 
and to crush such shocking impieties, before they 
increase, and draw down the vengeance of God 
upon this nation : His Majesty has thought fit to 
command the Lord Chancellor, and his Lordship 
is hereby required, to call together his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace of Middlesex and Westmin- 
ster, and strictly to enjoin them in the most ef- 
fectual manner, that they and every of them do 
make the most diligent and careful inquiry and 
search for the discovery of any thing of this and 
the like sort, tending in any wise to the corrup- 
tion of the principles and manners of men, and 
to lay before his Lordship such discoveries as 
from time to time may be made, to the end that 



all proper methods may be taken for the utter 
suppression of all such detestable practices. His 
Lordship is further directed to urge them to the 
due execution of their office, in detecting and 
prosecuting with vigour all profaneness, immo- 
rality, and debauchery, as they value the bless- 
ing of Almighty God, as they regard the happi- 
ness of their country, which cannot subsist if 
things sacred and virtuous are trampled upon ; 
and, as they tender his Majesty's favour, to 
which they cannot recommend themselves more 
effectually than by shewing the utmost zeal upon 
so important an occasion ; to which end his Lord- 
ship is to acquaint them, that as his Majesty, for 
himself, has nothing more at heart than to regard 
the honour of God so impiously struck at, and is 
determined to shew all marks of displeasure and 
discouragement to any who may lie even under 
the suspicion of such practices ; so he shall always 
account it the greatest and substantial service they 
can do to his -Majesty or his government, to exert 
themselves in discovering any who are guilty of 
such impieties, that they may be openly prose- 
cuted and punished with the utmost severity and 
most public ignominy which the laws of the land 
can inflict. EDWARD SOUTHWELL." 

ee His Majesty has been pleased to give orders 
to the principal officers of his Household, to 
make strict and diligent enquiry whether any of 
his Majesty's servants are guilty of the horrid 



impieties>mentioned in the Order of Council in- 
serted above, and to make their report to his 

The dreadful consequences of this attempt to 
set aside all virtue and all religion were conspicu- 
ously observable, even at the moment, in the 
sudden deaths of four members of these dreadful 
clubs ; not that I mean to insinuate the Almighty 
interfered by miracles to shew his displeasure ; 
on the contrary, the event was produced by na- 
tural causes inherent in each diabolical act. The 
hurry of the spirits, occasioned by ardent liquors 
and the terrors of conscience, were sufficient ; 
Nature shrunk from the contest; and he that 
drank a toast too shocking to repeat fainted under 
the recollection ; and she that had assumed the 
character of the Mother of Christ fell a victim to 
the keen horrors of remembrance in her lucid 
moments of repentance. It was said, that one 
of the clubs met at Somerset-house, where they 
celebrated their infamous orgies to the sound of 
musick during the hours of Divine service, which 
will account for the concluding paragraph of the 
Proclamation. The number of Justices who at- 
tended the Lord Chancellor's summons exceeded 
100 ; they received his most strenuous recom- 
mendation to exert themselves in the execution 
of the order, but I find no recorded effects of its 



The mob carried the same brutality more bru- 
talised to the feet of the gallows ; and even while 
the miserable wretches, who afforded them a 
spectacle, were supplicating that forgiveness 
which the laws of morality denied on earth, they 
were interrupted by shouts and execrations, and 
injured by stones, dirt, and filth, thrown with 
violence in every direction. At an execution, 
June 1721, several persons had their limbs bro- 
ken, others their eyes almost beaten out ; and 
Barbara Spencer, carried to Tyburn to be strang- 
led and burnt, was beaten down by a stone when, 
beseeching on her knees the mercy of Heaven, 
These wretches frequently robbed the Surgeons. 

The wretched manner in which the lowest de- 
scription of people lodged in 1721, may be ga- 
thered from the ensuing extract from an order of 
the Court at a General Quarter Session, October 
4. " It is now become a common practice in 
the extreme parts of the town, to receive into 
their houses persons unknown, without distinc- 
tion of age or sex, on their paying one penny or 
more per night for lying in such houses without 
beds or covering ; and that it is frequent in those 
houses for 15 or 20, or more, to lie in a small 

These miserable people, thus indiscriminately 
mixed, corrupted each other, and licentiousness 
reigned triumphant amongst them ; in truth, the 
population of London always exceeded the means 



of subsistence ; and I believe there are now, upon 
an average, three families to each house, and 
thousands of homeless wanderers. Fleet mar- 
riages were common in 1723 ; and the wonderful 
omissions of government at that period, in per- 
mitting so sacred an office to be celebrated, and 
registers of marriages kept at ale-houses and 
brandy-shops within the rules, where 32 couples 
are known to have been joined in three days, 
was one cause of the overgrown community. An 
author of the time alluded to says : " It is plea- 
sant to see certain fellows plying by Fleet-bridge 
to take poor Sailors, &c. into the noose of ma- 
trimony every day throughout the week, and the 
clocks at their offices for that purpose still stand- 
ing at the canonical hour, though perhaps the 
time of the day be six or seven in the afternoon." 

Macky gives a good sketch of the manner of 
living in 1724. The following is extracted from 
his Journey through England, vol. I. p. lo,0. 

" I am lodged in the street called Pall-mall, 
the ordinary residence of all strangers, because of 
its vicinity to the King's Palace, the Park, the 
Parliament house, the Theatres, and the Choco- 
late and Coffee-houses, where the best company 
frequent. If you would know our manner of 
living, it is thus: we rise by nine, and those that 
frequent great men's levees find entertainment at 
them till eleven, or, as in Holland, go to tea- 
tables. About twelve the beau-monde assembles 


in several chocolate and coffee-houses ; the best 
of which are the Cocoa-tree and White's choco- 
late-houses, St. James's, the Smyrna, and the 
British coffee-houses ; and all these so near one 
another, that in less than an hour you see the 
company of them all. We are carried to these 
places in chairs (or sedans) which are here very 
cheap, a guinea a-week, or a shilling per hour, 
and your chairmen serve you for porters to run 
on errands as your gondoliers (watermen) do at 

" If it be fine weather, we take a turn in the 
Park till two, when we go to dinner ; and if it be 
dirty, you are entertained at Picket or Basset at 
White's, or you may talk politics at the Smyrna 
and St. James's. I must not forget to tell you, 
that the parties have their different places, where, 
however, a stranger is always well received ; but 
a Whig will no more go to the Cocoa-tree or 
Ozinda's, than a Tory will be seen at the coffee- 
house of St. James's. 

" The Scots go generally to the British, and 
a mixture of all sorts to the Smyrna. There are 
other little coffee-houses much frequented in this 
neighbourhood, Young-man's for officers, Old- 
rnan's for stock-jobbers, pay-masters, and cour- 
tiers, and Little-man's for sharpers. 1 never was 
$o confounded in my life, as when I entered into 
this last : I saw two or three tables full at Faro, 
heard the box and dice rattling in the room 
VOL. i. T above- 


above-stairs, and was surrounded by a set of 
sharp-faces, that I was afraid would have devoured 
me with their eyes. I was glad to drop two or 
three half-crowns at Faro, to get off with a clear 
skin, and was overjoyed I was so got rid of them. 

" At two we generally go to dinner : ordina- 
ries are not so common here as abroad ; yet the 
French have set up two or three pretty good 
ones, for the conveniency of foreigners, in Suf- 
folk-street, where one is tolerably well served ; 
but the general way here is to make a party at 
the coffee-house to go dine at the tavern, where 
we sit till six, that we go to the play ; except you 
are invited to the table of some great man, which 
strangers are always courted to, and nobly enter- 

" J know abundance of French, that by keep- 
ing a pocket-list of tables, live so almost all the 
year round, and yet never appear at the same 
place above once in a fortnight. By looking into 
their pocket-book in the morning, they fix their 
place of dining, as on Monday with my Lord 
', and so for two weeks, fourteen Lords, Fo- 
reign Ministers, or men of quality ; and so they 
run their round all the year long, without notice 
being taken of them. 

" There ara three very noble Theatres here : 
that for Opera's at the end of the Pall-mall, or 
Hay-market, is the finest I ever saw, and where 
we are entertained in Italian music generally 



twice a-week : that for History, Tragedy, and 
Comedy, is in Covent-garden (a Piazza I shall 
describe to you in the sequel of this letter), and 
the third for the same, is by Lincoln' s-Inn-Fields 3 
at a small distance from the other. 

" The Theatres here differ from those abroad ; 
in that those at Venice, Paris, Brussels, Genoa, 
and other parts, you know, are composed of rows 
of small shut-boxes, three or four stories in a 
semi-circle, with a Parterre below ; whereas here 
the Parterre, commonly called the Pit. contains 
the gentlemen on benches ; and on the first story 
of boxes sit all the ladies of quality ; in the se- 
cond, the Citizens wives and daughters ; and in 
the third, the common people and footmen : so 
that between the Acts you are as much diverted 
by viewing the beauties of the audience, as, while 
they act, with the subject of the Play ; and the 
whole is illuminated to the greatest advantage. 
Whereas abroad, the stage being only illumi- 
nated, and the lodge or boxes close, you lose the 
pleasure of seeing the company ; and indeed the 
English have reason in this, for no nation in the 
world can shew such an assembly of shining beau- 
ties as here. 

" The English affect more the Italian than the 
French music ; and their own compositions are 
between the gravity of the first, and the levity of 
the other. They have had several great masters 
of their own : Henry Purcel's works in that kind 
T 2 are 


are esteemed beyond Lully's every where; and 
they have now a good many very eminent mas- 
ters : but the taste of the town being at this day 
all Italian, it is a great discouragement to them. 

" No nation represents History so naturally, 
so much to the life, and so close to truth, as the 
English ; they have most of the occurrences of 
their own History, and all those of the Roman 
Empire, nobly acted. One Shakespear, who 
lived in the last century, laid down a masterly 
foundation for this in his excellent plays ; and the 
late Mr. Addison hath improved that taste by his 
admirable Cato, which hath been translated into 
several languages, particularly into Italian blank 
verse, and is frequently acted in Italy. 

' <e Their comedies are designed to lash the 
growing follies in every age ; and scarce a fool or 
a coxcomb appears in town, but his folly is re- 
presented. And most of their comedians, in 
imitation of Moliere, have taken that province ; 
in which Mr. Gibber, an extreme good player, 
hath succeeded very well. 

'' They seldom degenerate into farce, as the 
Italians; nor do they confine their tragedies to 
rhyme and whining, as the French. In short, if 
you would see the greatest actions of past ages 
performed over again, and the present follies of 
mankind exposed, you must come here. 

" After the Play, the best company generally 
go to Tom's and Will's coffee-houses, near ad- 


joining, where there is playing at Picket, and 
the best of conversation till midnight. Here you 
will see blue and green ribbons and stars sitting 
familiarly with private gentlemen, and talking 
\vith the same freedom, as if they had left their 
quality and degrees of distance at home ; and a 
stranger tastes with pleasure the universal liberty 
of speech of the English nation. Or, if you like 
rather the company of ladies, there are assemblies 
at most people of quality's houses. And in all 
the Coffee-houses you have not only the foreign 
prints, but several English ones with the Foreign 
Occurrences, besides papers of morality and 

" My Bills of Exchange oblige me now and 
then to take a turn to the Royal-Exchange, in a 
hackney-coach, to meet my merchant. These 
coaches are very necessary conveniencies not to 
be met with any where abroad ; for you know 
that at Paris, Brussels, Rome or Vienna, you 
must either hire a coach by the day, or take it at 
least by the hour : but here you have coaches at 
the corner of every street, which for a shilling 
will carry you any where within a reasonable dis- 
tance ; and for two, from one end of the City to 
the other. There are eight hundred of them 
licensed by Act of Parliament, and carry their 
number on their coaches ; so that if you should 
chance to leave any thing in a coach, and know 
but the number of it, you know presently where 



to lay your claim to it ; and be you ever so late 
at a friend's house in any place of this great City, 
your friend, by taking the number of the coach, 
secures your safety home. 

" The Royal-Exchange is the resort of all the 
trading part of this City, foreign and domestic, 
from half an hour after one, till near three in the 
afternoon ; but the better sort generally meet in 
Exchange-alley a little before, at three celebrated 
Coffee-houses, called Garraway's, Robin's, and 
Jonathan's, In the first, the people of quality 
who have business in the City, and the most 
considerable and wealthy Citizens, frequent. In 
the second, the Foreign Banquiers, and often 
even Foreign Ministers. And in the third, the 
buyers and sellers of Stock. 

" When I entered into this last, I was afraid 
I had got into Little-man's Coffee-house again ; 
for busy faces run about here as there, with the 
same sharp intent looks, with the difference only, 
that here it is selling of Bank-stock, East-India, 
Spiith-Sea, and Lottery Tickets, and there it ig 
all cards and dice. 

" You will see a fellow in shabby clothes seU 
ling ten or twelve thousand pounds in stock, 
though perhaps he may not be worth at the same 
time ten shillings, and with as much zeal as if he 
were a Director, which they call selling a Bear- 
skin ; and these men find bubbles enough to get 
bread by it, as the others do by gaming; and 



some few of them manage it so, as to get pretty 
large estates. 

" Near this Exchange are two very good French 
eating-houses, the one at the sign of Pontack, a 
President of the Parliament of Bourdeaux, from 
whose name the best French clarets are called so, 
and where you may bespeak a dinner from four 
or five shillings a-head to a guinea, or what sum 
you please ; the other is Caveack's, where there 

is a constant ordinarv, as abroad, for all comers 

j ' 

without distinction, and at a very reasonable 

" I am told, that while wagers were allowed 
to be made on taking of towns, and gaining of 
battles, during the last war, this Exchange-alley 
was the sharpest place in the World ; but the 
abuse of intelligence, sham letters spread upon 
the Exchange, and private letters coming before 
the Mails, made that practice so notorious, that 
the Queen and Parliament wisely thought fit to 
put a stop to it by a seasonable provisional Act 
against it, 'as they have endeavoured to do by 
another Act against excessive gaming, being both 
equally looked on as a cheat and imposition upon 
the well-meaning subject. However, some great 
men have not disdained to be deeply concerned 
in both, and have got good estates : for tricking 
is not here reckoned so despicable a quality as 
abroad, when it is cleanly done; therefore, my 
friend, when you come here, play not in Eng- 


land, nor venture to lay wagers, except you know 
your company very well, or are sure of your fact. 
The fatal South-Sea scheme, and the wicked exe- 
cution of it, proves what I foretold you to be too 

The pernicious and general custom of wearing 
masks enabled half-repentant sinners to mix with 
the most profligate of the female sex undiscovered, 
and to indulge in excesses which they would not 
have dared to commit had their features been ex- 
posed as at present. This practice afforded op- 
portunities of gratifying very improper curiosity, 
and of visiting places at unseasonable hours ; an 
instance of this description occurred in May 
1724. The White-lion*, in Wych-street, had 
long been famed for riotous assemblies under the 
pretence of Concerts ; and the neighbouring mo- 
ralists waited with impatience for the hour when 
they should effectually transgress the Law : that 
hour at length arrived, and a posse of Constables, 

* " This house was one of the last of the hundreds 
of Drury Taverns (for in that district it was included). 
Tradition formerly said it had, in the reign of Charles 
II. been much celebrated for the gaiety of its visitors. 
The rooms in which the concerts were performed and 
balls given, were at the top of the house : these were 
large, others smaller ; the bur conveniently situated to 
see who went up stairs. All the premises, except the 
Tavern part, which dwindled into a public-house, 
were let to an organ-builder and harpsichord-maker." 

European Magazine. 


executing a warrant obtained for the purpose, 
discovered females even of some distinction, 
tradesmen's wives, their daughters, and many 
common prostitutes, a collection that really sur- 
prised each other; the vicious hardly crediting 
that they were in so much good company, and 
the noviciates frightened at the features of un- 
masked depravity. The latter received whole- 
some admonition, and were sent home ; the 
former visited Bridewell. 

The custom of walking and talking in the 
Nave of St. Paul's cathedral had become so very 
prevalent in 1725, that the Bishop of London 
found it necessary, at his visitation in that year, 
to declare his positive intention of ^ enforcing the 
18th Canon, and the Act of tire First of William 
And Mary, by which transgressors forfeited 20l. 
for every offence. 

A subscription was opened in 1727 for the re- 
lief of Mrs. Clark, the aged and only surviving 
daughter of Milton. An author, under the sig- 
nature of Bruyere, in the London Journal, ar- 
dently recommended liberal contributions ; and 
drew the following picture of the manners then 
prevailing. " At White's we see nothing but 
what wears the mask at least of gaiety and plea- 
sure ; powder and embroidery are the ornaments 
of the place, not to forget that intolerable stink 
of perfumes, which almost poisons the miserable 
chairmen that besiege the door. Conversation is 



not known here ; the enquiries after news turn 
chiefly upon what happened last night at the 
Groom Porters. The business of the place is to 
promote some musical subscription ; to make all 
possible court to some young man of quality that 
is next expected to take possession of a great 
estate; to take care to be very well with a knot of 
well-dressed people that meet here, and modestly 
call themselves the world; but, above all, to so- 
licit a share in the direction of the moneyed in- 
terest, which is established here under the name 
of a Faro Bank. 

" At Tom's Coffee-house, in Cornhill, there is 
a very different face of things. Plenty, the pa- 
rent of Cheerfulness, seems to have fixed her 
residence on this spot ; while Joy, which is the 
offspring of Folly, seems to be utterly unknown. 
Industry, the first principle of a Citizen, is an 
infallible specifick to keep the spirits awake, and 
prevent that stagnation and corruption of hu- 
monrs which make our fine gentlemen such hor- 
rible torments to one another and to themselves. 
Decency in dress is finery enough in a place 
where they are taught from their childhood to 
expect no honours from what they seem to be, 
but from what they really are. The conversation 
turns principally on the interests of Europe, in 
which they themselves are chiefly concerned ; 
and the business here is to enlarge the commerce 
of their country, "by which the publick is to gain 



much more than the merchant himself. For the 
rest I need not add, that there is a vein of strong 
sense and useful knowledge runs through their 
whole discourse, which makes them to wise men 
very desirable companions. If I should say that 
in this house I have met with Merchants of as 
liberal education and generous principles, of as 
exquisite taste in classical knowledge and polite 
learning, as are to be found at Court or in the 
College, I should be confident of every reader's 
credit when he knows that in this place was first 
projected the subscription for the relief of the 
sightless old age of Milton's daughter." 

The Monarchs of this happy Island have fre- 
quently honoured the Citizens of London with 
their presence at Guildhall, when the Lord Mayor 
enters upon his office. On the 2,9th of October 
1727, and in the Mayoralty of Sir Edward Be- 
cher, Knight, and afterwards Baronet, George II, 
his Queen, the Princess Royal, and the Princess 
Carolina, proceeded to Cheapside at three o'clock 
in the afternoon, attended by a great number of 
the Nobility and others, through a double line 
of the London Militia. A balcony near Bow- 
church had been prepared for their reception, 
whence they viewed the procession, and the 
houses decorated with carpets and tapestry to do 
them honour. After the City-officers were dis- 
posed in due order for the reception of the King 
in Guildhall, the Sheriffs waited on him, arid con- 


ducted him there ; the Lord Mayor, kneeling at 
the entrance, presented the Sword of State to his 
Majesty, who returned it, and followed the 
Mayor to the Council Chamber, where Sir Wil- 
liam Thompson (as Recorder) thus addressed the 

* ( May it please your Majesty, 

" The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commons 
of this City, beg leave to offer their most humble 
acknowledgments for this great honour to the 
City, by the presence of your Majesty, your 
Royal Consort, the Princess Royal, and her 
Royal Highness. Their joy is inexpressible, to 
behold their Sovereign condescending to accept 
their good-will and affections, and in the most 
engaging manner vouchsafing here to receive their 
homage and duty. 

" This day will be ever remembered by them, 
with the highest satisfaction : this happy day, 
which gave birth to their most gracious King, 
who is pleased thus to honour them, and who 
protects them in the enjoyment of all their rights 
and privileges : a Prince who takes pleasure in 
promoting their happiness, and who thinks it 
gives the truest lustre to his Crown, to preserve 
the religion, the laws, and liberties of his people. 
Fortunate is their present condition, and delight- 
ful is their prospect while they have in view your 
Majesty, their most gracious and justly admired 
Queen, and the illustrious branches of your Royal 


' 285 

Family. Permit, Sire, these your Majesty's most 
faithful subjects to take this opportunity of assur- 
ing your Majesty of their unalterable attachment 
to your Royal Person, and of their warmest zeal 
for the support of your government. 

" The best, the only security of our excellent 
Constitution in Church and State, and of every 
thing which is dear and valuable to Englishmen, 
Gratitude and Interest, make these the unani- 
mous sentiments of this your Majesty's most loyal 
and most dutiful City of London." 

Their Majesties (preceded by the Lord Mayor 
bearing the Sword) went to the Hustings, where 
they dined in company with the Princesses and 
the Ladies of the Bed-chamber. The entertain- 
ment was of the most sumptuous description, and 
served at different tables, prepared for the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, the 
foreign Ministers, the Nobility, Privy Counsel- 
lors, the Judges, ladies, &c. &c. After silence 
had been commanded, the Common Cryer an- 
nounced that the King drank to the health of the 
Lord Mayor, and prosperity to the City of Lon- 
don and the trade thereof, and, that her Majesty 
drank, confirming the same. He then proclaimed 
that the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common 
Council drank health, long life, and a prosperous 
happy reign to our Sovereign Lord King George ; 
and that they drank to the health, long life, and 



happiness of our most gracious Queen Caroline, 
and all the Royal family. 

When the dinner was concluded, their Ma- 
jesties returned to the Council Chamber, where 
they were seated till 1 1 o'clock during a ball m 
the area below. The City was illuminated on 
this occasion. 

An author of this period, treating on the num- 
ber of poor, and their manner of living, very 
justly observes : " If any person is born with any 
defect or deformity, or maimed by fire or any 
other casualty, or any inveterate distemper which 
renders them miserable objects, their way is 
open to London ; where they have free liberty of 
shewing their nauseous sights, to terrify people, 
and force them to give money to get rid of them ; 
and those vagrants have for many years past been 
moved out of several parts of the three King- 
doms, and taken their stations in this Metropolis* 
to the interruption of conversation and business. 

" The Quaker workhouse is an example for 
each parish : the poor orphans among them, as 
well as the children of such poor as are unable to 
subsist them, are put to their workhouse, where 
they are taught to read and write certain hours of 
the day, and at other times are put to spin, or 
other employments. And as the Nation has 
found great advantage by those workhouses, 
which have been established bv Act of Parlia- 

ment, it is a great pity that so profitable an In- 


stitution was not made general through the Na- 
tion, that so there might be no pretence for any 
beggar to appear abroad. Their example is very 
pernicious, for what they get by begging is con- 
sumed commonly in Ale-houses, Gin-shops, &c. ; 
and one drunken beggar is an inducement to a 
great many to follow the same trade. 

" But, as to those creatures that go about the 
streets to shew their maimed limbs, nauseous 
sores, stump hands or feet, or any other defor- 
mity; they are by no means objects fit to go 
abroad ; and considering the frights and pernici- 
ous impressions which such horrid sights have 
given to pregnant women, should move all ten- 
der husbands to desire the redress of this enor- 

I have frequently observed, in the course of 
my researches, the strange methods and customs 
peculiar to gaming, horse-racing, dice, and 
wagers ; the latter are generally governed by 
whim and extreme folly. We have already no- 
ticed Noblemen running their coaches and foot- 
men. In 1729, a Poulterer of Leadenhall-mar- 
ket betted 50/. he would walk 202 times round 
the area of Upper Moorfields in 27 hours, arid 
accordingly proceeded at the rate of five miles an 
hour on the amusing pursuit, to the infinite im- 
provement of his business, and great edification 
of hundreds of spectators. Wagers are now a 
favourite custom with too many of the Lon- 
doners ; 


doners ; they veiy frequently, however, Originate 
over the bottle or the porter-pot. 

A curious exhibition distinguished the anni- 
versary of the Queen's birth-day, March 3, 1730 ; 
100 wool-combers assembled in their shirts, with 
various coloured woollen caps on their heads, in 
Bishopsgate-street, from whence they went in 
procession to St. James's Palace, preceded by 
the Steward of their company and a person on 
horseback, representing Bishop Blaze, in wigs of 
wool neatly curled ; the Bishop carried a wool- 
comb in one hand, and a Prayer-book in the 
other. They arranged themselves in the Park 
facing the Palace ; and their leader addressed the 
King and Queen, who appeared at a window, 
thanking his Majesty for the encouragement they 
had received, and intreating his future protection. 
A writer in Read's Weekly Journal of January 
9, 1731, has obliged us with a concise and pleas- 
ing description of Christmas customs prevalent 
at that period, which I shall transcribe for the 
reader's information. 

" My house, Sir, is directly opposite to a 
great Church ; and it was with great pleasure I 
observed from my window, last Christmas-day, 
the numerous poor that waited at the doors very 
liberally relieved; but my joy was soon over, for 
no sooner were the charitable congregation dis- 
persed, but these wretches, who before appeared 
the very pictures of misery, forgot their cant, 



and fell to quarrelling about the dividend ; oaths 
and curses flew about amongst them, very plenti- 
fully, and passion grew so high that they fell 
hard upon one another's faults. In short, Sir, I 
learned from their own mouths that they were 
all impostors, both men and women; and that 
amongst their whole number, which was very 
large, there was not one object of charity. When 
they had tired themselves with scolding, they 
very lovingly adjourned to a neighbouring brandy- 
shop, from whence they returned in a condition 
neither fit for me to describe nor you to hear. 

" The next day I met with another wonder ; 
for, by that time I was up, my servants could do 
nothing but run to the door. Enquiring the 
meaning, I was answered, the people were come 
for their Christmas-box j this was logick to me ; 
but I found at last, that, because I had laid out 
a great deal of ready-money with my brewer, 
baker, and other tradesmen, they kindly thought 
it my duty to present their servants with c^me 
money for the favour of having their goods. This 
provoked me a little ; but, being told it was the 
custom, I complied. These were followed by 
the watch, beadles, dust-men, and an innumera- 
ble tribe ; but what vexed me the most was the 
Clerk, who has an extraordinary place, and 
makes as good an appearance as most tradesmen 
in the parish ; to see him come a-boxing, alias 
begging, I thought was intolerable j however, I 
VOL. i. u found 


found it was the custom too, so I gave him half- 
a-crmvn ; as I was likewise obliged to do to the 
bell-man, for breaking my rest for many nights 

" Having talked this matter over with a friend, 
he promised to carry me where I might see the 
good effects of this giving box-money. In the 
evening away we went to a neighbouring ale- 
house, where abundance of these gentry were as- 
sembled round a stately piece of roast-beef and 
as large a plumb-pudding. When the drink and 
brandy began to work, they fell to reckoning of 
their several gains that day ; one was cursed for a 
stingy dog for giving but sixpence ; another cal- 
led an extravagant fool for giving half-a-crovvn, 
which perhaps he might want before the year was 
out ; so I found these good people were never to 
be pleased. Some of them were got to cards by 
themselves, which soon produced a quarrel and 
broken heads. In the interim came in some of 
their wives, who roundly cursed the people for 
having given them money, adding, that instead 
of doing good it ruined their families, and set 
them in a road of drinking and gaming, which 
never ceased till not only their gifts, but their 
wages, were gone. One good woman said, if 
people had a mind to give charity, they should 
send it home to their families ; I was very much 
of her opinion ; but, being tired with the noise, 
we left them to agree as they could. 

" My 


" My friend next carried me to the upper-end 
of Piccadilly, where, one pair of stairs over a 
stable, we found near an hundred people of both 
sexes, some masked, others not, a great part of 
which were dancing to the musick of two sorry 
fiddles. It is impossible to describe this medley 
of mortals fully ; however, I will do it as well as 
I can. There were footmen, servant-maids, but- 
chers, apprentices, oyster and orange-women^ 

common w s, and sharpers, which appeared 

to be trie Eest of the company. This horrid 
place seemed to me the very sink of hell, where, 
however virtuous young people may be before^ 
they will not come often thither before they 

learn to be both w -s and thieves. It is a 

notable nursery for the gallows. My friend in- 
formed me, it was called a three-penny hop ; and 
while we were talking, to my great satisfaction, 
by order of the Westminster Justices, to their 
immortal honour, entered the constables and their 
assistants, who carried off all the company that 
was left ; and, had not my friend been known to 
them, we might have paid dear for our curiosity. 

" I believe I have almost tired you as well as 
myself with an account of the lower sort of diver- 
sions. I come next to expatiate on the enter- 
tainment and good cheer I met with in tlie City, 
whither my friend carried me to dinner these 
holidays. It was at the house of an eminent and 
worthy merchant; and though, Sir, I have been 
* u 2 accustomed 


accustomed in my own county to what may very 
well be called good house-keeping, yet, I assure 
you, I should have taken this dinner to have 
been provided for a whole parish, rather than for 
about a dozen gentlemen. It is impossible for 
me to give you half our bill of fare ; so you must 
be content to know that we had turkeys, geese, 
capons, puddings of a dozen sorts, more than I 
had ever seen in my life, besides brawn, roast- 
beef, and many things of which I know not the 
names; mince-pies in abundance, and a thing 
they call plumb-pottage, which may be good for 
aught I know, though it seems to me to have 50 
different tastes. Our wines were of the best, as 
were all the rest of our liquors ; in short, the God 
of Plenty seemed to reign here. And, to make 
every thing perfect, our company was polite, and 
every way agreeable; nothing but mirth and 
loyal healths went round. 

" I allowed myself now but one day more to 
finish my ramble and my curiosity ; and that 
was last Wednesday, being Twelfth-day. The 
preparations which were made for the keeping 
this day, which is reckoned the conclusion of 
the holidays, were reported to me to be so great, 
and the cheerfulness and good humour with 
which most persons spoke of its approach ap- 
peared so remarkable, that my expectation was 
not a little impatient for the sight of this last 
scene of the Jubilee. And as I had the honour 



of having been several times invited by a person 
of quality, with whom I had transacted some af- 
fairs since my being in town, to take the free- 
dom of his table ; I determined with myself that 
I could not choose a more agreeable time for the 
acceptance of his courtesy than this. Accord- 
ingly, I dressed myself in a manner as suitable 
as I could to the place where I proposed to make 
my visit, and took coach for the Court end of 
the town; in my passage to which, from the ex- 
treme part of the City, I was highly entertained 
with almost one continued subject of wonder and 
amusement. All the trades in town seemed to 
be suspended for a while, and to yield to that 
single one of the pastry-cooks ; and no other ma- 
nufactories were thought on but the grocery and 
confectionary wares, that were taken up in the 
incredible number of cakes prepared for this 
night's revel. The pomp and pageantry with 
which the several pastry-shops were set out, the 
fancy, richness, and number of their flags and 
streamers, and the contention which appeared in 
every one to outdo his neighbour in splendor and 
delicacy, were pleasingly remarkable ; and failed 
not of attracting the eyes of successive crowds of 

' Having passed through this diverting scene, 
I was set down at last at my nobleman's door, 
who, being at home, gave me a free, noble, and 
generous reception. There was a pretty deal of 



company besides, but all perfectly easy and 
cheerful, without stiffness or ceremony. I need 
not, I believe, inform you that we had a very 
elegant and sumptuous entertainment ; and that 
one article of it was the reigning topick of the 
day, an immense rich twelfth-cake. The sight 
of this immediately introduced the ceremony of 
choosing King and Queen, a custom, whose rise 
or antiquity very few I believe are able to give us. 
Through the extraordinary bounty of my stars, 
the election of King fell upon me ; whereupon, 
I instantly received the compliments of the com- 
pany upon my new dignity. The title of Queen 
came to a beautiful lady who sat opposite to me. 
There were inferior characters, which fell amongst 
others of the company. In short, after having 
supported my mock Royalty with a great deal of 
innocent and decent mirth for some hours, till 
the night was pretty far wasted, making my pro- 
foundest respects to his lordship and company, 
and rewarding the servants, according to the rank 
I had borne that night, I very contentedly drove 
home, and having taken a hearty sleep, 1 found 
myself in the morning entirely divested of all 
Royalty, and no more than your plain humble 
servant, THOMAS NORTH." 

AV attempt was made, at the commencement 
of 1731, to suppress some of the most consider- 
able gaming-houses in London and the Suburbs, 
particularly one behind Gray's-Inn walks. The 



Editor of the St. James's Evening-Post, observed 
upon this occasion : " It may be matter of in- 
struction as well as amusement, to present our 
readers with the following list of officers which 
are established in the most notorious gaming- 

" A Commissioner, always a proprietor, who 
looks in of a night ; and the week's account is 
audited by him and two others -of the proprietors. 

" A Director, who superintends the room. 

" An Operator, who deals the cards at a 
cheating game called Faro. 

" Two Crowpees, who watch the cards, and 
gather the money for the Bank. 

" Two Puffs, who have money given them to 
decoy others to play. 

" A Clerk, who is a check upon the Puffs, to 
see that they sink none of the money given them 
to play with. 

" A Squib is a Puff of a lower rank, who serves 
at half-salary, while he is learning to deal. 

" A Flasher, to swear how often the bank has 
been stripped. 

" A Dunner, who goes about to recover money 
lost at play. 

" A Waiter, to fill out wine, snuff candles, 
and attend in the gaming- room. 

" An Attorney, a Newgate solicitor. 

tf A Captain, who is to fight any gentleman 
that is peevish for losing his money. 



" An Usher, who lights gentlemen up and 
down stairs, and gives the word to the Porter. 

" A Porter ', who is generally a soldier of the 

" An Orderly-man, who walks up and down 
the outside of the door, to give notice to the Por- 
ter, and alarm the house at the approach of the 

** A Runner, who is to get intelligence of the 
Justices meetings. 

' f Link-boys, watchmen, chairmen, drawers, 
or others, who bring the first intelligence of the 
Justices meetings, or of the Constables being 
out half a-guinea reward. 

" Common-bail, affidavit-men, ruffians, bravoes, 
cum multis aliis." 

To characterise the follies of the day, it will 
be necessary to add to the account of the walking 
man, in a preceding page, another of a hopping 
man, who engaged to hop 500 yards in 50 hops, 
in St. James's-park, which he performed in 46. 
This important event occurred in December 173*- 

The Lord Mayor issued a notice in December 
1732, observing, that vagrant children were suf- 
fered to .skulk about the streets and lanes, and 
sleep upon bulks, stalls, and other places, 
" whereby many of them perish by the extremity 
of the weather." In order to prevent this, he 
commanded constables, &c. to apprehend them, 



and to have them properly taken care of accord- 
ing to Law. 

The Citizens of London have been particularly 
distinguished for their loyalty since the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 ; this they have evinced by public 
rejoicings or respectful mourning on any great 
event occurring in the domestic concerns of their 
Sovereigns ; thus it has become an established 
custom to celebrate the marriages of the respec- 
tive branches of the Royal family. When that 
of the Prince of Orange and the Princess Royal 
took place in March 1734, the City was brilliantly 
illuminated ; but, as that of Ludgate exhibited on. 
each front, at the expence of Henry Vander Esche, 
surpassed every other, I shall present the reader 
with a minute description. 

" First, A pyramid, whose base and perpendi- 
cular were 25 feet each, on each side of which 
was placed an obelisk, standing upon a pedestal, 
supported by the arms of the most noble and 
antient City of London. 

" Secondly, A little higher on the face of the 
plan, were interwoven the cyphers of Prince 
William of Nassau, and her Royal highness the 
Princess Anne of Great-Britain. 

" Lastly, At the extreme height of the build- 
ing, were the P-oyal arms, over a large transpa- 
rent semicircie, on which were delineated the 
several hieroglyph icks following. In the middle 
stood his Highness the Prince of Orange, hand- 


in-hand with his illustrious bride, the Princess 

" For these bless'd nuptial?, loyal hearts contend 
Which shall the most with ardent joy transcend. 
" On the left-hand of his Highness was repre- 
sented Prudence, by a woman with two faces, 
having a helmet on her head, a looking-glass in 
one hand, and in the other a remora, which re- 
tards the motion of a ship. 

" Whilst others court applause by feats of arms, 

The fair, 'tis Nassau's wit and prudence, charms. 

" Behind, on the right hand of his Highness, 

appeared the emblem of Fortitude, a virtue which 

enables us to overcome the greatest difficulties, 

and frequently rewards with riches and glory 

those who are happily endowed with it. 

" 'Tis this which bears aloft on the wings of fame, 

Great Caesar's, and royal William's greater name. 

(i Farther forward on the right-hand near his 

highness stood Hymen, the God of Marriage, 

with a burning torch, the emblem of ardent love, 

in one hand, in the other a flame-coloured veil, 

the emblem of modesty, called flammeum, with 

which the bride used to be covered to conceal her 


" Patron of marriage! bless the Royal pair, 
Nor veil, nor burning torch are wanting there. 
" Near Hymen's right-hand was pourtrayed 
Religion, a woman with her face veiled, fire in 
her left hand, and in her right a book with .a 

cross j 


cross ; veiled because she is always secret ; the 
cross is the victorious banner of the Christian 
religion ; the book the Holy Scriptures. 
" True piety ne'er so lovely does appear, 
As when conspicuous in the great and fair. 
" Over the Prince near the sweep of the circle 
was the figure of Fame, holding a trumpet in her 
right-hand, with which she celebrates the glorious 
actions of heroes ; now flying abroad with this 
joyful motto : 

" Happy Union ! 

Happy, thrice happy, may this Union be, 
And prove the firm support of Liberty ! 
(( On the right-hand of Fame was represented 
Diana, the goddess of chastity and sister of 
Apollo, with a crescent on her forehead and lance 
in her hand ; her dress, though careless, yet de- 
cent, and behaviour modest and unaffected. 
"As amongst the rural ny mph s her beauties shine, 
Amidst the British fair, so Anna, thine. 
" On the other side of Fame, is seen the figure 
of Divine Justice, a winged woman with a crown 
on her head, her hair dishevelled, a sword in the 
right-hand, and a shield in her left, from which 
shines the piercing eye of Justice ; she flying thus 
to the assistance of Hercules, the emblem of he- 
roic Virtue, who is chasing away faction, envy, 
malice, and tyranny, in the defence of Britannia, 
who is seated leaning upon the British arms, hold- 
ing those of Nassau in her right hand, 



" Thrice happy Isle, where Peace and Plenty 
reign ; 

Whose Royal fleets give laws unto the main. 

" On the fore-ground, on the left-hand of the 
circle, stood Peace, a young woman winged, 
crowned with olive and ears of corn; having 
seated by her on the ground, Plenty crowned 
with a garland, holding a cornucopiae in her right 
hand, denoting the affluence of all things neces- 
sary for human life. 

" What by those joyful emblems are design'd, 
May Britain in abundance ever find ; 
May Peace and Plenty still join hand-in-hand, 
And unanimity spread o'er the land ! 

* c Lastly, on the left-hand and on the fore- 
most ground were Thame and Isis, whose united 
streams, as they flow with a long and easy course 

" So may great Nassau and his Royal Dame, 
In blended love, glide with a gentle stream, 
Nor ebb 'till sweet repose of night they know, 
At day's return, fresh tides of transport flow.'* 

2000 lamps were used for the above transpa- 
rencies: the monument was singularly orna- 
mented with lamps suspended on the urn and 
flame, and the Duke of Newcastle caused a large 
bonfire to be lighted before his door in Lincoln's-" 
inn-fields, where he regaled the populace with 




The humane Act for the transportation of 
felons had saved 6000 lives in the Metropolis 
alone, from the date of its commencement till 1 734. 

The Beau of 1734 " was like the cinnamon- 
tree ; his bark is worth more than his body. A 
creature of the doubtful gender, masculine in 
habit, and feminine in manners ; one who has so 
little manners, that he himself doth not regard it 
half so much as his body. All his reading has 
been the academy of compliments ; and his heels 
have profited as much by it as his head. The 
cut of his clothes he learnt at Paris, the tone of 
his voice in Italy, and his affectation every where. 
In his dressing he shews his industry ; for he 
spends four hours a day constantly in it without 
being fatigued or out of patience. His genius 
appears in the variety of his suits, and his gene- 
rosity in his taylor's bills ; his delicacy in not so 
much as bearing a breath of wind to blow on 
him, and his innocency in being seen with ladies 
at all hours, and never once suspected of doing 
an uncivil thing. When he is dressed, the busi- 
ness of the day is over ; when he is undressed, 
he grows invisible, for his clothes are all that is 
seen of him ; when he dies, they are his only 
valuable remains, and hung up as trophies in 

The customs and manners of a part of the com- 
munity of 1/35 are satirically detailed in a " Co- 
vent-garden Eclogue :" 



(i The midnight Justice, now devoid of care, 
Began to slumber in his elbow-chair ; 
Long had he wak'd, but now his trade was o'er, 
Nor could expect a single shilling more : 
The watch had cry'd Past one, with hollow 


And to their stands return'd to sleep again ; 
Grave cits and bullies, rakes and squeamish 


Came reeling with their doxies from the Rose ; 
Jephson's and Mitchell's hurry now was done, 
And now Tom King's (so rakes ordain'd) begun ; 
Bright shone the Moon, and calm around the sky, 
No cinder-wench, nor straggling link-boy nigh, 
When in that garden, where with mimic pow'r 
Strut the mock-purple heroes of an hour ; 
Where by grave matrons cabbages are sold, 
Who all the live-long day drink gin and scold ;" 


The St. James's Evening Post of August 21, 
1735) contains the following paragraph: " Yes- 
terday the antient company of Archers of this 
City met at the Pied Horse, at the Artillery- 
ground, where a grand entertainment was pro- 
vided for them, after which they performed their 
exercise with bows and arrows. This company 
is of several hundred years standing, and used 
formerly to muster at this time of the year in 
the Artillery-ground, as our Trained Lands do 



now. Some time after the invention of fire-arms 
the City voted them useless ; but they have ever 
since kept up the company and their annual 
meeting, having a Marshal handsomely equipped 
in a green livery with a large silver badge." 

Michaelmas or Mile-end fair was presented as 
a nuisance by the Grand Jury of Middlesex in 

1735, which had been extended to seven days 
continuance beyond the original grant. 

Another Royal marriage was celebrated in 

1736, which is so amply described by Read in 
his Weekly Journal of May 1, that I cannot do 
better than give it in his own words : 

tf Monday between one and two in the after- 
noon his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales 
set out from St. James's, and crossing the water 
at Whitehall, went on horseback to Greenwich, 
where he dined with the Princess, and returned 
in the evening to St. James's in his barge. 

(f The crowd of people at Greenwich was the 
greatest that had ever been seen ; it is thought 
there was not less than 10.000 persons at one 
time in the Park : and her Highness had the 
goodness to shew herself for upwards of half an 
hour from the gallery of the Palace, which drew 
the loudest acclamations. 

" On Tuesday the King's leading coach, fol- 
lowed by his Majesty's body coach, drawn by 
his cream-coloured horses, brought her Highness 
and her retinue to Lambeth, where the King's 



barge waited, and carried her over to Whitehall, 
and from thence in the King's own chair through 
the Park to St. James's house, where the Court 
was in the Drawing-rooms, and appeared in their 
new clothes to receive her with all imaginable 

" When her Royal Highness the Princess 
came to St. James's, she was dressed in a suit of 
rich silk ; deep ground, trimmed with gold ; and 
embroidered with green, scarlet, and purple 
flowers : in which manner her Highness was so 
condescending, that she shewed herself in several 
of the windows of the Prince of Wales's apart- 
ments, to gratify the curiosity of the people, who 
expressed their joy and satisfaction with the 
loudest acclamations. 

" About four o'clock her Highness dined with 
the Prince of Wales and the Princess Amelia and 
Caroline, in his Royal Highness's apartment. 

tl Between six and seven o'clock her Highness, 
dressed in her wedding-clothes, which were of 
silver tissue, and all over white, with her hair 
curled and stuck with jewels, after the German 
fashion, was presented to her Majesty, who pre~ 
sented her to the Prince ; whose clothes were of 
silver tissue, with white shoes and stockings. 

" In the evening the ceremony of the marri- 
age was performed ; and the procession from the 
King's apartments down the great stairs, under 
the Piazza, to the Chapel Royal, was as follows : 



Four drums, drum-major, eight trumpets, four 
and four. Kettle-drum. Serjeant-trumpeter in 
his collar of SS. bearing his mace. The master 
of the ceremonies, with the Right Honourable 
the Lord Carnarvon, Gentleman Usher, between 
the two senior heralds. The Prince of Wales in 
his nuptial apparel, invested with the collar of 
the garter, conducted by the Lord Chamberlain 
and Vice Chamberlain, and supported by two 
Lords Bachelors. The officers attendant upon 
the Prince followed by pairs. 

" Upon the entry into the Chapel, the Master 
of the Ceremonies, with the Gentleman Usher, 
went to the seats assigned them ; and the Bride- 
groom was brought to the stool placed for his 
Highness, fronting his Majesty's Throne. 

" The Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamber- 
lain returned to conduct the Bride ; and the two 
Heralds returned with them to perform other 
functions, as did the Drums and Trumpets. 

Procession of the Bride. 

" Gentleman Usher to the Bride, between two 
Provincial Kings at Arms. The Bride, in her 
nuptial habit, with a coronet, conducted by the 
Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamberlain, and 
supported by the Duke of Cumberland ; her train 
borne by ten young ladies. 

" Upon the entry, the Bride was conducted 
to her stool, below her Majesty's Chair of State, 

VOL. j, x opposite 


opposite to the Prince ; the Duke sat on a stool 
near the Altar ; and the ladies who bore the train 
stood near the Bride, to perform their duties 
while the Marriage was solemnizing. 

" The Lord Chamberlain and Vice Chamber- 
lain returned, with the Provincial Kings, to wait 
upon his Majesty. 

His Majesty proceeded in this manner. 

66 Knight Marshal. Pursuivants. Heralds, 
Sir Robert Walpole, Knight of the Garter, with 
his collar. The Comptroller of the Household. 
The Bishop of London, &c. Two Provincial 
Kings at Arms. Lord Privy Seal. Lord Chan- 
cellor. Garter Principal King at Arms, between 
two Gentlemen Ushers. The Earl Marshal with 
his gold staff. The Sword of State carried by 
the Duke of Portland. His Majesty in the Great 
Collar of fhe Garter. The Lord of the Bed- 
chamber in waiting. 

<e Her Majesty, preceded by Mr. Coke, Vice 
Chamberlain, and supported by the Earl of Gran- 
tham, her Lord Chamberlain, and the Earl of 
Pomfret, her Master of the Horse. 

" The Princesses Amelia, Carolina, Mary, and 
Louisa, supported severally by two Gentlemen 

" The Ladies of her Majesty's Bed-chamber, 
Maids of Honour, and Women of the Bed- 

" Upon 

" Upon the entry into the Chapel, none of 
the persons in this procession remained upon the 
Hautpas, except the Lord of the Bed-chamber 
in waiting behind the King, the Lord who bore 
the Sword, who continued holding it erect upon 
his Majesty's right-hand, and the Lord Cham- 
berlain, who stood upon the left-hand of his 
Majesty, having the Vice Chamberlain next to 

" His Majesty was seated in his Chair of State 
in the upper angle of the Hautpas, on the right 

" Her Majesty was seated in her Chair of State, 
on the other side of the Hautpas. 

ee And the four Princesses on stools placed next 
the Duke at the side of the Altar. 

" Her Majesty's Lord Chamberlain, Master of 
the Horse, and Vice Chamberlain, stood upon 
the Hautpas behind her. 

" The Ladies of the Bed-chamber, &c. went 
to the places assigned them. 

" During all this time the organ played ; but, 
as soon as the persons were thus seated, the organ 
ceased, and Divine Service began. 

" After the Bishop of London and Dean of the 
Chapel had given the Blessing, their Majesties 
removed to the Throne, erected on the right-hand 
of the Altar of crimson velvet, richly laced with 


x 2 " Then 


' Then the Prince of Wales, leading the Prin- 
cess of Wales, went up to the Altar, and kneeled 

" When the Dean had finished the Divine 
Service, the married pair rose, and retired back 
to their stools upon the Hautpas ; where they re- 
mained while an Anthem composed by Mr. Han- 
del was sung by his Majesty's band of musick, 
which was placed in a gallery over the Commu- 

The Return was in the manner following. 

<{ The drums, &c. as before. 

" The Prince of Wales, supported by two 
married Dukes, &c. 

" The Princess, supported as before. 

" Then their Majesties and the Princesses, in 
the same manner as they went to the Chapel. 

" As soon as the Procession came back to the 
door of the latter Drawing-room, the company 
stopped; but their Majesties, the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, the Duke and the Princesses, 
yvent in, when the Prince and Princess received 
their Majesties' blessing. 

" About half an hour after ten the Royal Fa- 
mily supped in public, in the Great State Ball- 
room. Their Majesties were placed at the upper 
,-nd of., the table under a canopy : .on the right- 
hand the Prince of Wales and the Duke ; and on 



the left the Princess of Wales, and the Princesses 
Amelia, &c. 

" The first course consisted of fifteen dishes 
cold and fifteen hot, the second of thirty dishes 
hot ; and then came the dessert, which formed a 
fine garden rising to a terrace, the ascent to 
which was adorned with the resemblance of foun- 
tains, grottoes, groves, flowers, &c. In the mid- 
dle was the Temple of Hymen, the dome of 
which was supported on transparent columns 
three foot high. As the meats were the most 
exquisite and rare that could be procured, so the 
dessert contained a profusion of the finest fruits, 
amongst which were cherries in great perfection, 
apricots, pinerapples, &c. At the end of the 
first course, their Majesties drank to the Bride 
and Bridegroom ; and soon after, the Prince and 
Princesses rising up, drank the healths of their 
Majesties, during which the Duke and Princesses 
stood likewise. When the Royal Family rose 
from table, the sweetmeats were distributed 
amongst the Quality. 

" Their Majesties retired to the apartments of 
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales ; the 
Bride was conducted to her bed-chamber, and 
the Bridegroom to his dressing-room, where the 
Duke undressed him, and his Majesty did his 
Royal Highness the honour to put on his shirt. 
The Bride was undressed by the Princesses ; and 
being in. bed in a rich undress, his Majesty came 


into the room, and the Prince following soon 
after in a night-gown of silver stuff, and cap of 
the finest lace, the Quality were admitted to see 
the Bride and Bridegroom sitting up in the bed, 
surrounded by all the Royal Family. 

" His Majesty was dressed in a gold brocade 
turned up with silk, embroidered with large flow- 
ers in silver and colours, as was the waistcoat; 
the buttons and star were diamonds. Her Ma- 
jesty was in a plain yellow silk, robed and laced 
with pearl diamonds, and other jewels o im- 
mense value. 

5 C The Dukes of Grafton, Newcastle, and St. 
Alban's, the Earl of Albemarle, Lord Hervey, 
Colonel Pelham, and many other noblemen, were 
in gold brocades of 3 to 500/. a suit. The Duke 
of Maryborough was in a white velvet and gold 
brocade, upon which was an exceeding rich 
Point d'Espagne ; the Earl of Euston, and 
many others, were in cloths flowered or sprigged 
with gold ; the Duke of Montague in a gold bro- 
caded tissue. The waistcoats were universally 
brocades, with large flowers. It is assured that 
most of the rich cloths were the manufacture of 
England ; and it must be acknowledged, in 
honour of our own Artists, that the few which were 
French did not come up to these in richness, 
goodness, or fancy, as may be seen by the Royal 
Family, which are all of the British Manufac- 

" The 


" The ladies were principally in brocades of 
gold and silver, with large flowers, and wore 
their sleeves much lower than had been done for 
some time. 

" Some worthy Citizens, on this further 
strengthening the Protestant Succession, a truly 
joyful occasion, finely illuminated the Monument 
(as was indeed the whole City), to shew their 
regard to his Majesty, and his most illustrious 
Family, the great protectors of it. 

<s At the Drawing-room on Wednesday morn- 
ing his Royal Highness saluted all the ladies, and 
afterwards the Princess Amelia presented them to 
her Royal Highness, to kiss her hand ; when the 
Honourable Colonel Townshend informed her 
Royal Highness of the names of every particular 
lady as they came up. 

" His Royal Highness presented all his chief 
officers and servants himself to his Royal Con- 
sort ; and they had severally the honour of kissing 
her Royal High ness's hand. 

" Wednesday at noon there was the greatest 
appearance of the Nobility, Quality, and Gentry 
at Court, that has been known in the memory of 
man, to congratulate their Royal Highnesses on 
their nuptials. 

" The ladies were variously dressed, though 
with all the richness and grandeur imaginable ; 
many of them had their heads dressed English of 
fine Brussels lace, of exceeding rich patterns, 



made up on narrow wires, and small round rolls, 
and the hair pinned to large puff caps, and but a 
few without powder; some few had their hair 
curled down on the sides : pink and silver, white 
and gold, were the general knots wore. There 
were a vast number in Dutch heads, their hair 
curled down in short curls on the sides and be- 
hind ; and some had their hair in large ringlets 
behind, all very much powdered, with ribbands 
frilled on their heads variously disposed, and 
some had diamonds set on ribbands on their 
heads ; laced tippets were pretty general, and 
some had ribbands between the frills ; treble- 
laced nifties were universally worn, though abun- 
dance had them not tacked up. Their gowns 
were either gold stuffs, or rich silks, with gold 
or silver flowers, or pink or white silks, with 
either gold or silver nets, or trimmings; the 
sleeves to the gowns were middling (not so short 
as formerly) and wide, and their facings and rob- 
ings broad ; several had flounced sleeves and pet- 
ticoats, and gold or silver fringe set on the floun- 
ces ; some had stomachers of the same sort of the 
gown, others had large bunches of made flowers 
at their breasts ; the gowns were variously pinned, 
but in general flat, the hoops French, and the 
petticoats of a moderate length, and a little sloped 
behind. The ladies were exceeding brilliant 
likewise in jewels, some had them in their neck- 
laces and ear-rings, others with diamond solitaires 



to pearl necklaces of three or four rows ; some 
had necklaces of diamonds and pearls intermixed, 
but made up very broad ; several had their gown- 
sleeves buttoned with diamonds, others had dia- 
mond sprigs in their hair, &c. The ladies' shoes 
Were exceeding rich, being either pink, white, 
or green silk, with gold or silver lace and braid 
all over, with low heels, and low hind-quarters, 
and low flaps, and abundance had large diamond 

" The gentlemen's clothes were generally gold 
stuffs, flowered velvets, embroidered or trimmed 
with gold, or cloth trimmed, the colours various. 
Their waistcoats were also exceeding rich silks 
flowered with gold, of a large pattern, all open 
sleeves, and longer than formerly, and the cuff 
broader ; the clothes were longer waisted than of 
late, and the plaits of the coat were made to 
stick out very much (in imitation of the ladies ^ 
hoops) and long. The wigs were of various sorts ; 
the tyes, higher foretops than formerly, and tied 
behind with a large fiat tye ; the bag-wigs, &c. 
as usual. White stockings were universally worn 
by the gentlemen as well as the ladies. 

" Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales 
left 100 guineas to be distributed among Sir John 
Jennings's servants at Greenwich. 

" The officers of the horse and foot-guards that 
mounted on Tuesday at St. James's wore Kamel- 
lie periwigs by his Majesty's order." 



The now almost obsolete practice of giving 
strong-beer to the populace on public rejoicings 
always occasioned riots instead of merriment. 
This assertion is supported by the behaviour of 
the mob in August 1737, when the present Du- 
chess of Brunswick was born. The Prince of 
Wales ordered four loads of faggots and a num- 
ber of tar-barrels to be burnt before Carleton- 
house as a bonfire, to celebrate the event ; and 
directed the Brewer to his household to place 
four barrels of beer near it, for the use of those 
who chose to partake of the Ibeverage, which cer- 
tain individuals had no sooner done, than they 
pronounced the liquor of an inferior quality : this 
declaration served as a signal for revolt, the beer 
was thrown into each other's faces, and the barrels 
into the fire, " to the grea,t surprize of the spec- 
tators ; it being perhaps the first instance of Sir 
John Barleycorn's being brought to the stake, 
and publicly burnt by the rabble in Great Bri- 

The Prince had the good-nature to order a se- 
cond bonfire on the succeeding night, and pro- 
cured the same quantity of beer from another 
brewer, with which the populace were pleased to 
be satisfied. Such was the strange disposition of 
the collected mind of the lower classes ; a mind 
compounded of insensibility of kindness, pride, 
and independence, that condescended to accept 
of an entertainment, and that had the ill-nature 



to condemn the provision even in the presence of 
their Prince, who must have been ignorant that 
the beer was bad if it really was so, 

An instance of blind folly arising from a better 
motive occurred very soon after, during the exer- 
cise of an antient custom practised by the mob 
at that period, though now discontinued. 

Two loose women had seized upon an inebri- 
ated gentleman, and were conveying him to their 
lodgings at noon-day : the populace concluded 
he would at least be robbed, and determined to 
rescue him immediately; which they did, and 
severely ducked the women in the Chequers Inn 
yard. Thus far justice proceeded in its due 
channel ; but an unfortunate journeyman cutler 
happened to exert himself rather too outrageously, 
and attracted notice : he was observed to hold the 
woman or women in a manner that might be 
supposed real efforts of anger, or as efforts in- 
tended to mask an intention to release them ; 
the word was instantly given to duck him as their 
bully the women were released, and escaped; 
the cutler was thrown into the horse-pond in de- 
fiance of his protestations of innocence ; and when 
his wife endeavoured to rescue him, she under- 
went the same discipline. 

Many of the follies committed in this wanton 
manner must doubtlessly have originated from 
the excessive use of beer and gin ; to suppress 
which, every possible effort was then making; 



but such was the demand for the latter, that no 
less than 587 persons were convicted, and paid a 
penalty of WOl. each, between September 1736 
and August 1737, for retailing it, besides 127 
committed to Bridewell. 

Practical jokes sometimes distinguished the 
manners of the Citizens of London : those were 
generally innocent, and generally very silly ; but 
one of a contrary description marked the Autumn 
of the year just mentioned. A well-dressed man 
rode down the King's road from Fulham at a 
most furious rate, commanding each turnpike- 
gate to be thrown open, as he was a Messenger, 
conveying the news of the Queen's sudden death. 
The alarm instantly spread into every quarter of 
the City ; the Trained-bands, who were on their 
parade, desisted from their exercise, furled their 
colours, and returned home with their arms re- 
versed. The shop-keepers began to collect sa- 
bles ; when the jest was discovered, but not the 
author of it. 

The following ballad gives a pleasant review of 
the customs, or, if you please, fashions of the 
Citizens, previous to 1737? in the care of their 
health : 

tc On fashions a ditty I mean to indite, 
Since surely you '11 own, 'tis the fashion to write : 
And, if you don't like it, then e'en lay it down, 
The fashion is not to be scar'd with a frown. 



To fashion our healths, as our figures, we owe ; 
And, while 'twas the fashion to Twtbridge to go, 
Its waters ne'er fail'd us, let ail us what wou'd ; 
It cemented crack'd bones, and it sweeten'd the 

When Fashion resolv'd to raise Epsom to fame, 
Poor Tunbridge did nought : but the blind or 

the lame, 

Or the sick or the healthy, 'twas equally one, 
By Epsoms assistance their business was done. 

BatJis springs next in fashion came rapidly on, 
And out-did by far whate'er Epsom had done ; 
There the gay and the sullen found instant relief, 
And the sighing young widow was eas'd of her 

Unrival'd by any, Bath flourish'd alone, 
And fail'd not to cure in gout, colic, or stone, 
Till Scarborough waters, by secret unknown, 
Stole ail the fam'd qualities Bath thought her own. 

Ev'n Islington waters, though close to the TOWJI, 
By Fashion one Summer were brought to renown ; 
Where we flock'd in such numbers, that for a 

We : almost had tippled the New-river dry. 

It late was the fashion bv Ward to be cur'd ; 


And his pill mov'd the cause on't, whate'er we 
endur'd ; 



While every eye saw on which Taylor laid hand, 
And no cripple Mapp touch'd, but could instantly 

But since 'tis the fashion to banter their skill, 
Our eyes are relaps'd, and we 're worse for the 


Our joints are contracted, our anguish so sore, 
We fly to the Doctors we laugh'd at before." 

One of the strange and perverse customs prac- 
tised by the Society of Quakers is, their determina- 
tion to open their shops on those days held sacred 
by other classes of Religion. On the Fast-day of 
February 1757? the Lord Mayor sent the proper 
officers to close their windows per force, which 
they did to the number of 70 : yet a person of 
this persuasion had the presumption to wait on 
the Chief Magistrate with an anonymous letter 
he had received, threatening to destroy his house 
if his windows were opened,, at the same time 
soliciting him to go there and read the Riot Act ; 
thus demanding protection from the vengeance 
he provoked, by insulting the piety of others, 
exclusive of the impiety of opposing respect and 
supplication, directed to the same Divinity he 

Curiosity may be said to have become so pre- 
valent throughout all classes of the inhabitants of 
London, that it is actually a distinguishing trait 
in their general character ; nor is it by any means 

a new 


a new one, an assertion that might be supported 
by many proofs. An essayist of 1757 says: " I 
have that opinion of the ladies and gentlemen of 
the present age, that if the French were in full 
march along the New-road, and they had no en- 
gagement of pleasure on their hands, they would 
go out to see a new army, as, indeed, there 
would be a variety in it ; the clothes, standards, 
&c. being different ; nor do I believe that any 
one person would put off their intended pleasure, 
even though they heard the enemy's drums beat- 


" Would you a modern beau commence, 

Shake off that foe to pleasure, sense ; 

Be trifling, talkative, and vain ; 

Of ev'ry absent friend complain, 

Their worth contemn, their faults deride, 

With all the insolence of pride. 

Scorn real unaffected worth, 

That claims no ancestry by birth : 

Despise the virtuous, good, and brave, 

To ev'ry passion be a slave. 

Let not sincerity molest, 

Or discompose your tranquil breast ; 

Barter discretion, wit, and ease, 

As idle things, that seldom please 

The young and gay, who laugh and wink 

At senseless drones who read and think ; 



Who all the fleeting hours count o'er, 

And wish the four-and-tvventy more ; 

Furnish'd with volumes in their head, 

Above all fire, below all lead. 

Be it your passion, joy, and fame, 

To play at ev'ry modish game, 

Fondly to flatter and caress ; 

A critick styl'd in point of dress ; 

Harangue on fashions, point, and lace, 

On this one's errors, Mother's face ; 

Talk much of Italy and France, 

Of a new song and country-dance ; 

Be vers'd in politicks and news ; 

All Statesmen, Ministers, abuse ; 

Set public places in a blaze : 

Loudly exclaim 'gainst Shakspeare's Plays ; 

Despise such low insipid strains, 

Fitted for philosophic brains : 

But modern Tragedies extol, 

As kindling rapture in the soul. 

Affect to know each reigning belle, 

That throngs the Playhouse or the Mell, 

Declare you're intimate with all 

You once have met with at a ball ; 

At ev'ry female boldly stare, 

And crowd the circles of the fair. 

Tho' swearing you detest a fool, 

Be vers'd in Folly's ample school : 

Learn all her various schemes, her arts, 

To shew your merit, wit, and parts. 



These rules observ'd, each foppish elf 
May view an emblem of himself." 

London Chronicle. 


The reader who has waded through my Lon- 
dinlum will find that several thousands of our vast 
community are of that profession which might 
furnish matter for a very considerable number of 
pages Lawyers; but what can I say of their 
manners or customs, without incurring a charge 
of fixing upon a single class, and of thus appear- 
ing particular in praising or censuring? In this 
dilemma I have very fortunately met with the 
" Long Vacation, by Jemmy Copywell, 'of Lin- 
coln's-Inn ;" which the writer and the editor of 
the London Chronicle, foreseeing the use / 
should make of it, have kindly preserved for the 
present purpose. 

" My Lord now quits his venerable seat, 
The Six-clerk on his padlock turns the key, 

From bus'ness hurries to his snug retreat, 
And leaves vacation and the town to me. 

Now all is hush'd, asleep the eye of Care, 
And Lincoln's-Inn a solemn stillness holds, 

Save where the Porter whistles o'er the Square ; 
Or Pompey barks, or basket-woman scolds. 

VOL. i. Y Save, 


Save, that from yonder pump, and dusty stair, 
The moping shoe-black, and the laundry-maid, 

Complain of such as from the town repair, 
And leave their usual quarterage unpaid. 

In those dull chambers, where old parchments lie, 
And useless drafts, in many a mouldering heap, 

Each for parade to catch the client's eye ; 
Salkeld and Ventris in oblivion sleep. 

In these dead hours, what now remains for me, 
Still to the stool and to the desk confin'd : 

Debarr'd from Autumn shades, and liberty, 
Whose lips are soft as my Cleora's kind !" 

" See Term appears to rule a passive world, 
And awe the frighted rustick with its train 
Of wigs and gowns, and bands. The jemmy 


Close by his master's side, stands powder'd, while 
His client at a distance cringes. Now, 
Thou dear associate of my busy hours, 
Whom (since Vacation in her sleepy lap 
Lull'd me to indolence, Circasan queen, 
Who poisons while she smiles) I have disdain'd. 
Welcome to my embrace once again 
Thy presence let me hail I greet thee well. 
Now will I lead thee thro' the maze of law, 
Perplexing and perplex'd. The knotty point, 
And ev'ry quirk and quibble, will I shew : 
And sometimes on huge folios shalt thou tread 



With black-brow'd sections hideous. There, in- 

The puzzling clause shalt thou transcribe, until 
Thy pilot sickens, Strait he shall revive, 
And speed thy flight to equitable shores. 
There shalt thou penetrate each deep recess, 
And labour'd labyrinth of a Bill in Cane. 
Daring to face tautology. How thick 
Thy stream will run, respondent to each note 
Of dull interrogation ! Quickly thence, 
As time may prompt, and active fancy flow, 
Thy font I '11 purify, and turn its course 
O'er fairy mountains and poetic vales. 
Say ! hadst thou rather the Demurrer's bar 
Erect invincible, than waft my sighs 
To my Cythera's bosom, and direct 
Her eyes, those lamps of beauty, where to shine ? 
When Cupid's messenger, how dost thou fly, 
Swifter almost than thought ! and as I touch, 
In honour of my love, the Sapphic lyre, 
Methinks thy feather dances to the tune. 
But, when I bid thee up the heavy hill, 
Where Bus' ness sits, to travel, how thy pace 
Wants quick'ning I this and that way dost thou 


Convolv'd, uneasy with the tiresome march. 
Hold up awhile for sure is the reward 
That waits on labour Bear, oh ! bear me thou 
Thro' long succeeding covenants, from sense 
However devious. Spread thy black'ning cloud 
Y 2 O'er 


O'er this fair face of parchment Haste, dispatch 
This cumbrous load of things. On, quicker on, 
And rid me of the bus' ness of the Term. 
Then in reward for all thy service past 
(Tho' gratitude be held a crime) thy plume 
With gold shall blazon. Safe in silver case 
Shalt thou recline, from vulgar ken remote, 
Nor ever visit more the sons of care, 
Unless to win respect, and be admir'd." 

The conduct of both sexes, when mixed in 
what are generally termed parties, can only be 
known by the person who actually views it. 
How then am I (who had not received the breath 
of life in 1758) to draw a faithful picture of the 
manners of that period ? There is but one way, 
quotation from contemporary moralists. The 
Craftsman says, " A Frenchman has no more 
idea of a party of pleasure without ladies, than 
an Englishman can entertain the least conception 
of enjoying himself until they retreat. From 
those opposite dispositions it arises, that the first 
introduces himself with a becoming unconcern 
into company, and master of that bienseance 
which distinguishes the gentleman, and performs 
all 'offices of life without the least embarrass- 
ment;, whereas nothing is more common among 
us, than to find gentlemen of family and fortune, 
who know nothing of the fair sex but what they 
have collected from the most abandoned part of 
it, and. can scarce reckon a virtuous family within 


the scope of their whole acquaintance. It is not 
unpleasant to observe one of this class, when 
chance or necessity has brought him in a room 
with ladies of reputation. An awkward restraint 
hangs about him, and he is almost afraid to 
speak, lest he should inadvertently bolt out some- 
thing, which, though extremely suitable to the 
dialect of Co vent -garden, would be grossly offen- 
sive to those females who had not received their 
rudiments of education in that seminary. The 
gloom that hangs over an English company while 
the ladies remain, and the reciprocal restraint 
that each sex seems to be upon the other, has 
been frequently a subject of ludicrous observation 
to foreigners ; and, indeed, the fair-ones them- 
selves, though natives, and to the manner born, 
frequently express astonishment, what mysteries 
the men can have to celebrate, so opposite to 
those of the bona dea, that no female must be 
present at the ceremony. 

" At the same time that I condemn my coun- 
trymen for separating themselves from those who 
have the art of refining every joy this world af- 
fords ; I am sorry to be obliged to observe, that 
the ladies themselves do in some measure contri- 
bute to this great evil. The scandalous practice 
so prevalent at present of giving up their whole 
thoughts as well as time to cards, has made the 
company of women, pardon the expression, ex- 
tremely insipid to those who would willingly con- 


sider them as rational creatures, and do not de- 
pend upon superior skill in the game of whist for 
a subsistence. Is it to be imagined that a man, 
whose mind is the least raised above the vulgar, 
will devote that time which he may employ in 
conversing agreeably, either with the dead or the 
living, to those assemblies, where no ideas enter 
beyond the respective excellences of Garrick and 
Gibber; and the several possible cases so pro- 
foundly calculated by the incomparable Mr. 
Hoyle? Yet, from declining these places, I 
know many intimate friends who have acquired 
the odious character of women-haters ; though at 
the same time they entertain the highest esteem 
for that amiable sex, and sincerely regret that 
the tyrant Fashion has put it out of their power 
to enjoy more of their company than a bare 
view of their persons, agitated by the various 
and uncertain revolutions of Fortune's wheel." 


Foreigners very justly conceive that a double 
advantage may be accomplished in teaching their 
languages to youth and adults, by introducing 
them into their families ; the latter pronounce 
nothing but what is to be acquired, and the 
teacher obtains a handsome sum for lodgings and 
board. It may be supposed that this was a mo- 
dern invention. Who is there that doth not re- 
collect the Advertisements of Monsieur Dn 

M dj 


M d ; but Monsieur Switterda precedes him 
a whole century ; and proves that the rage for 
acquiring French was in full vigour when our 
grandfathers were infants. " Mr. Switterda has 
lately given, in the Postman, a very kind and 
candid invitation to the nobility and gentry to 
learn of him to speak Latin, French, and High 
Dutch fluently, with as good grace as if it were 
natural to them, and no wise pednatick, accord- 
ing to Grammar rules, and to explain any author, 
as Erasmus, C. Nepos, &c. ; but few noblemen 
and ladies of quality have taken notice of his pro- 
posals, which, if he had sent them in any Coun- 
try beyond Sea, had been well accepted, to his 
great advantage. He intends to dispose of two 
Copper-plates, containing the grounds of the 
Latin tongue. Those who will study in Divinity, 
Law, or Physick, may but come twice a-week 
to him to learn Latin. He can be aspersed by 
none, but by slanderous and interested persons, 
who have need to lodge a competent dose of hel- 
lebore in themselves. Youth may board with 
him at his house in Arundel-street, next to the 
Temple passage, where you may have the grounds 
of the Latin tongue in three sheets of paper, or 
grammatical, and Latin and French historical 
cards, and a packet to learn Copiam I'erborum 
and Syntaxim ornatam. He teacheth also in 
Drury-lane, within two doors of the Dog-tavern, 
at Mr. Peache's house, or at any place where 



ladies and gentlemen. will appoint him, if it be 
worth his acceptance. Thursdays and Saturdays, 
from five till eight, he teacheth at the Cock and 
Bottle in the Strand, next to Salisbury-street. 
Invidiam solertia et virtute vincam" 16*99. 

Ladies boarding-schools were in high reputa- 
tion at the same period, and had been so for 
many years before. Mrs. Bellpine, daughter to 
Mr. La Marre, a French Minister, who had kept 
one for thirty years, hired Mary-le-bon house, 
near the church, wnere she professed to teach 
every thing then taught in boarding-schools, to- 
gether with musick, dancing, and singing. 

Observers frequently attacked the general sys- 
tem of female education, and as frequently ex- 
posed the frivolous pursuits taught in the various 
schools near the Metropolis; even in the year 
1759? two or three houses might be seen in al- 
most every village, with the inscription, " Young 
Ladies boarded and educated," where every de- 
scription of tradesmen sent their children to be 
instructed, not in the useful attainments neces- 
sary for humble life, but the arts of coquetry and 
self-consequence in short, those of a young lady. 
The person who received the children had then 
the sounding title of Governess ; and French and 
Dancing-masters prepared the girl for the hour 
when contempt for her parents' deficiencies was 
to be substituted for affection and respect. In- 
stead of reading their native language with pro- 

329 * 

priety and just emphasis, it was totally neglected, 
and in place of nervous sentences and flowing pe- 
riods, the vulgarisms of low life were continued ; 
while the lady repeated familiar words of the 
French language with a sound peculiar to Board- 
ing-schools, and quite unintelligible to a native 
of France : the pleasing labours of the needle 
were thrown aside, and the young lady soon be- 
came an adept in imitating laces and spoiling the 
beauty of coloured silks. 

Such were the follies of 1759 ; and they so 
nearly resemble those of 1807, that I really 
dread I shall be supposed to criticise the moderns, 
when I am in truth repeating the animadversions 
of an author probably long since deceased. 

" Jan. 29, 1759. 

" At a meeting of the Society for Reformation 
of Manners, especially with respect to the Lord's- 
day : Ordered, that the thanks of the Society be 
returned to the worthy person, unknown, for his 
kind present of ten guineas. They also hereby 
give notice to all grocers, chandlers, butchers, 
publicans, pastry-cooks, and others whom it may 
concern ; that they are resolved to put the laws 
in execution against all such as shall continue to 
offend, by exercising their callings on the Lord's 
day, in such a manner as may most effectually 
suppress that great and growing evil, whether by 
indictments or otherwise, of which they are de- 
sired to take this friendly public warning." 



The reader will observe, that it has long been 
customary for tradesmen of the above description 
to sell on Sundays ; but it should be recollected 
that the lowest classes of the community are 
sometimes paid very late on Saturday evenings, 
and that they have it not always in their power 
to arrange their time, so as to procure every ne- 
cessary for the only holiday they have. When 
such wants are supplied by the tradesman before 
the hour of Divine service, he must be a rigid 
moralist indeed who would prosecute the offender. 
If persons in opulent circumstances were in the 
practice of purchasing on Sundays, it could be 
attributed to no other cause than mere indolence 
in themselves and servants, and they would de- 
serve punishment ; but I cannot help thinking a 
grocer or chandler would find very little account 
from opening his shop for such, as I do not be- 
lieve there are five in each parish throughout 
London. For the pastry-cooks and publicans I 
have no excuse. 

There were people in the middle of the last 
Century who had so little regard for decency, 
that they even interrupted those solemn hours of 
silence which are devoted, in our Courts of Jus- 
tice, to ascertaining the guilt or innocence of 
persons whose lives are in question. Would it 
be credited that when an evidence was speaking, 
a Jury and a Judge listening, spectators should 
be seen in deep discourse upon some irrelevant 



subject, others quarrelling about places, and 
young ladies actually sewing each other's clothes 
together amidst titters and suppressed laughter 
yet such was the fact. Surely this practice can- 
not now prevail. 

Illegal concerts were held in 1759, and the 
conductors of them collected innocent young men 
and apprentices, by declaring that the receipts 
were intended for charitable purposes. When 
assembled, notorious Procuresses made their ap- 
pearance, attended by the Cyprians, their pro- 
geny ; and the consequence to the manners of 
youth may be imagined. Sir John Fielding, 
acting under the authority of the following clause 
in a very salutary Act of Parliament, and sup- 
ported by a party of guards, dispersed one of 
those riotous assemblies in April of the above 
year, and sent the ladles to Bridewell : 

" Any house, room, garden, or other place, 
kept for public dancing, music, or other public 
entertainment of the like kind, in London and 
Westminster, or within 20 miles thereof, with- 
out a licence had for that purpose, shall be 
deemed a disorderly house or place ; and that it 
shall be lawful for any person, authorised by 
warrant from a Justice, to enter such house, and 
seize every person found therein ; and that every 
person keeping such house, c. without such 
licence shall forfeit 100/. and be otherwise pu- 


nishable as the Law directs in case of disor- 
derly houses." 

Since Sir John Fielding's time, the publick 
have frequently had occasion to applaud the vigi- 
lance of the Police in their attempts to prevent 
illegal assemblies, whether under the title of con- 
certs or dances ; and instances might be related 
when dancing-masters and groupes of their pre- 
tended scholars have visited the watch-house ; 
but the most obstinate places of vicious amuse- 
ment were the Dog and Duck, and the Apollo- 
gardens, in St. George's- fields ; the latter of which 
is not only now suppressed, but the site has be- 
come a mere level, and the Dog and Duck served 
for several years as a public kitchen for charitable 
purposes, after the keeper had been expelled. 

At the latter place there was a long room fur- 
nished with tables and benches, and at the up- 
per-end an organ. The company who assembled 
in the evening, consisted of some of the finest 
women of the town of the middle rank, their bul- 
lies, and such young men as could, without re- 
flection, condescend to supply the thirsty palates 
of the women with inflaming liquids . the con- 
versation was Reader, imagine what ! 

The Apollo-gardens might accidentally receive 
decent visitors, but I presume their stay to have 
been short. These places flourished much too 
long ; infinite injury was done by them. But 
we have now the consolation to reflect, that Vice is 



compelled to hide her fascinating visage ; and 
though it is impossible to dive into all her haunts, 
we do not find them blazoned with large charac- 
ters in the public ways, where her votaries how- 
ever contrive intimations which are passed un- 
observed by the, virtuous, but understood by the 
vicious ; and these Bagnio's, Seraglio's, or what- 
ever else the reader pleases to term them, are in 
many instances large and handsome houses. 

The lady who trades upon her own account 
can never be at a loss for a sign to indicate her 
profession, as long as her own sweet person is 
permitted to appear at a window, either in elegant 
disorder, or habited fit for a drawing-room. How 
shall I number these signs, or the streets where 
they most abound? The Reader would disbe- 
lieve the enumeration. 

When some concurring circumstances have 
prevented the rapid letting of new houses in parts 
of the parish of St. Mary-le-bon, I believe it 
might be safely asserted, that builders have ad- 
mitted persons into them who had a girl in al- 
most every room as a distinct lodger ; but tiiey 
are generally dislodged as respectable inhabitants 
approach, and they return to their previous 
haunts in more obscure situations. Exeter- street 
was dreadfully infested with wretched women and 
thieves in 1759, and great difficulty occurred in 
driving them from it ; that it has been accom- 


plished, may serve as a hint for some modern un- 
fortunate neighbourhoods. 

There are but few of our Essayists who have 
not reprobated the distribution of vales to the 
domesticks of those to whom visits were paid. 
When the custom was in full vigour, the office 
of a footman became very lucrative, and the di- 
vision of the profits arising from the contributions 
of a large company, was a matter of no small im- 
portance to the parti -coloured mendicants ; who 
arranged themselves in their Master's hall in 
double ranks, prepared to affront those who in- 
fringed their rights, and were barely civil when 
they received sums which would have procured 
meals for fifty poor families. Card- money, or 
money deposited under the candlesticks for the 
servants where card-parties were held, deserved 
less reprehension, as it was in every one's power 
to avoid gaming ; but when a man in moderate 
circumstances was insulted for not giving that 
which was necessary for his own existence, or 
wa> compelled to decline an invitation to his in- 
jury, we cannot but wonder that such a custom 
should have prevailed for a year, much less a 
Century or more. It was meanness in the master 
to suffer such an exaction, and folly to comply 
with it when himself a visitor. Some serious at- 
tempts were made about l/GO to abolish Vales, 
which has been at length gradually accomplished, 



though there are still unthinking people who give 
where it is not expected. 

Cock-fighting, Cudgel-playing, and Boxing, 
were practised in some parts of the Metropolis in 
1761 ; and most of the promoters of those elegant 
customs escaped punishment. Higginson, mas- 
ter of the Tennis-court and Little Theatre in 
James-street, near the Haymarket, less fortunate, 
was tried at the bar of the King's-bencb, and 
convicted of encouraging this species of brutality; 
however, Mr. Higginson contrived either to set 
the verdict at defiance, or to evade future penal- 
ties, for subsequent newspapers contained long 
accounts of a battle between Meggs, a collier, 
and the celebrated Nailor, at the Tennis-court, 
where the seats let at 5-s. and 10s. 6d. to an over- 
flowing audience. The reader will forgive me, 
if I at once proceed to notice this hateful custom 
of Boxing in its present state ; he need not be 
informed that it has been encouraged by persons 
of the highest rank, who have been and are now 
known to disgrace their situation in life, by wit- 
nessing the infliction of blows which sometimes 
produce death, and always disfigure the human 
form, for the avaricious purpose of betting on 
either party, to the injury at least of their for- 

The Magistracy, well aware of the wiles and 
power of their antagonists in the race between 
Justice and Depravity, made but few movements 



for a considerable length of time, by which means 
they gained to their support all well-disposed 
persons ; in consequence, their exertions have 
been so far successful, that when matches are 
made for 'battles, cavalcades of Lords, Knights, 
Commoners, dustmen, and the rabble in general, 
may be observed in motion, destined for an arena 
they know not where, as the spot fixed upon 
for the scene of combat is frequently occupied by 
a party of Officers of the Police previous to their 
arrival. Thus defeated, they have been known 
to traverse the roads and fields for miles, to enter 
some jurisdiction independent of their persecu- 
tors. Cock-fighting is yet permitted to be pub- 
licly advertised, though but seldom ; and Cudgel- 
playing has lately exhibited some strong symp- 
toms of revival. 


" He could wish to see Butchers' boys, who 
gallop through the streets of London, punished 
for so doing, or at least their horses seized for 
the use of the poor of the parish in which they 
so offend ; for, though a poor man's life may not 
be worth preserving, his limbs may be of use to 
him while he crawls upon earth. 

ff Brewers starting their butts in the day-time, 
he considers as an intolerable nuisance. 

* ride London Chronicle, vol. IX. p. 315. 

" Ruinous 


tc Ruinous Houses ought to be pulled down, 
because they may as well tumble upon the head 
of an Alderman as upon that of a Cobler. 

" A regulation in Smithfield-market, he thinks, 
ought to take place, because a mad Ox may as 
well gore the lady of a Knight Banneret, as a 
poor Oyster- wench. 

" Worn-out Hackney-coaches should in a par- 
ticular manner be looked into, because none but 
those in easy circumstances can be affected by 
their breaking-down in the streets. This regula- 
tion in no shape regards my family, because I 
never suffer my Moll to enter one till I have first 
properly surveyed it. 

" That Cheesemongers should not set out their 
butter and cheese so near the edge of their shop- 
windows, nor put their firkins in the path-ways, 
by which many a good coat and silk gown may 
be spoiled ; as by advertising in the papers his 
shop will be sufficiently known, without carry- 
ing home the shop-bill upon their clothes. 

" Ladders, pieces of timber, &c. should by no 
means be suffered to be carried upon men's 
shoulders within the posts of this City, because, 
by a sudden stop, they may as well poke out the 
eye of a rich man as that of a poor one. 

" Chairmen, as they are a kind of human nags, 
ought to amble withcut-side the posts as well as 
other brutes. 

VOL. i. 2 " It 


i{ It is needless for ladies of a certain cast to 
patrole the streets at noon-day with a bundle m 
one hand, as they carry an evident sign of their 
profession in their eye. 

" Long swords are a nuisance in the City at 
Change-time, as the wearer may very well receive 
a bill without that dangerous weapon ; and as it 
is not often he comes into it to pay one. 

" Churches are no places to sleep in, because, 
if a person snores too loud, he not only disturbs 
the congregation, but is apt to ruffle the preach- 
er's temper. 

" Barbers and Chimney-sweepers have no right 
by charter to rub against a person well-dressed, 
and then offer him satisfaction by single combat. 

tf Splashing a gentleman with white silk stock- 
ings designedly is a breach of decency, and ut- 
terly unknown at Wapping or Hockley in the 

" That reading these hints and not endeavour- 
ing to redress them, will be a fault somewhere, 
but not in CRISPIN." 

The whimsical manner in which the above 
customs are reprehended, was fairly matched by 
the following notice from the Publick Advertiser, 
issued in downright serious earnest. 
" To the Inhabitants of the Parish of St. Faith. 

" I have observed of late years, that the Lon- 
don meeting-houses of all Sectaries have crowded 
audiences, and that the Prayers of our established 



Church are read, and the Sermons of her Mini- 
sters preached, to empty seats, unless at places 
where some new-fangled doctrines are propagated 
to captivate weak minds. It becomes me as an 
honest man, and agreeable to the oath I have 
taken, earnestly to admonish you to attend the 
service of the Church on Sundays, unless pre- 
vented by occasions that are lawful. 

" It requires I should give you this notice pub- 
licly, that no person may have reason to think 
me over-officious, if he rinds his name among the 
presentments my oath obliges me to exhibit be- 
fore the Ecclesiastical Court at the expiration of 
my office. DAVID RICE, Chwchwarden." 


The spirits of the Community were never more 
exhilarated than at the auspicious period which 
gave England her present King arid Queen. The 
Coronation was necessarily similar to those de- 
scribed in Londinium Redivivum; and the sim- 
plicity of our Church in the article of marriage 
admits of little more splendour than that of dress, 
at all times superb on such occasions in the*Bri- 
tish court. The fireworks, illuminations, and 
behaviour of the populace, who were in some in- 
stances regaled with beer round a bonfire, was 
generally decorous, and in some measure compels 

z 2 me 


me to silence as to incidents, except in one par- 
ticular case, when an odd scene of midnight gra- 
titude was exhibited to Earl Temple and Mr. 
Pitt, who were returning incog, from Guildhall, 
where they had dined on the <)th of November 
176*1. The instant those Patriots were recog- 
nized, the multitude crowded round the carriage, 
impeded its progress, and shouted with so much 
ardour, that the sleeping neighbours were roused, 
and, when they had discovered the cause of the 
tumult, heartily joined in the shouts with night- 
caps instead of hats in hand. 

The report of the Committee appointed to 
provide the entertainment on the above day, will 
evince how well they performed their duty. 

" At a Court of Common Council held June 
17, 1762 , the following Report was presented to 
the Court : 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor } Al- 
dermen., and Commons of the City of London, 
in Common-Council assembled. 

({ We your Committee, appointed by your 
order, of the third day of October last, to manage 
the entertainment for their Majesties at the 
Guildhall of this City, on the then ensuing Lord 
Mayor's Day, beg leave to report, that duly sen- 
sible of the great honour done us in this appoint- 
ment, we cheerfully devoted our time and ut- 
most endeavours to prepare and regulate the said 



entertainment, so as best to answer the intention 
of this honourable Court. 

" In the preparations for the intended feast, 
your Committee omitted no expence that might 
serve to improve its splendour, elegance, or ac- 
commodation : whilst on the other hand they re- 
trenched every charge that was not calculated to 
that end, however warranted by former prece- 
dents. Their Majesties having expressed their 
Royal inclinations to see the Procession of the 
Lord Mayor to Guildhall, the Committee ob- 
tained Mr. Barclay's house in Cheapside for that 
purpose, where proper refreshments were pro- 
vided, and every care taken to accommodate their 
Majesties with a full view of the whole cavalcade. 

" The great hall and adjoining apartments were 
decorated and furnished with as much taste and 
magnificence as the shortness of the time for pre- 
paration and the nature of a temporary service 
would permit : the Hustings where their Majes- 
ties dined, and the new Council Chamber, to 
which they retired both before and after dinner, 
being spread with Turkey carpets, and the rest 
of the floors over which their Majesties were to 
pass with blue cloth, and the whole illuminated 
with near three thousand wax tapers in chande- 
liers, lustres, girandoles, and sconces. 

" A select band of music, consisting of fifty of 
the best hands, placed in a superb gallery, erected 
on purpose at the lower end of the Hall, enter- 


tained their Majesties with a concert during the 
time of dinner, under the direction of a gentle- 
man justly celebrated for his great musical ta- 
lents ; whilst four other galleries (all covered with 
crimson, and ornamented with festoons) exhibited 
to their Majesties a most brilliant appearance of 
five hundred of the' principal Citizens of both 

te Their Majesties table was served with a new 
set of rich plate, purchased on this occasion, and 
covered with all the delicacies which the season 
could furnish, or expence procure, and prepared 
by the best hands. 

" A proportionable care was taken of the seve- 
ral other tables provided for the Foreign Ambas- 
sadors and Ministers ; the Lords and Gentlemen 
of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy-Council ; 
the Lord Chancellor and Judges ; the Lords and 
Ladies in waiting ; the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, 
Sheriffs, and Common Council ; and many others, 
both of the Nobility and Gentry : the whole num- 
ber of guests within the Hall, including the gal- 
leries, being upwards of twelve hundred; and 
that of the Gentlemen Pensioners, Yeomen of the 
Guard, Horse and Horse-Grenadier Guards, and 
servants attendant upon their Majesties, and the 
Royal Family, and who were entertained at 
places provided in the neighbourhood, amount- 
ing to seven hundred arid twenty-nine. 



" And that this Court may form some judg- 
ment of the manner of the entertainment, your 
Committee have hereunto subjoined the bill of 
fare of their Majesty's table, and the totals of 
the several bills on this occasion, amounting to 
6S981. 5*. 4d.; which, your Committee have the 
satisfaction to acquaint this Honourable Court, 
have been- all ordered for payment. 

" Your Committee, likewise, having provided 
a great variety of the choicest wines, took care 
that every guest should be supplied with plenty 
and dispatch ; and yet the various services per- 
formed without hurry or confusion. 

ft For this purpose your Committee issued no 
more tickets for admission than what (consider- 

ing the necessary number of attendants, amount- 
ing to two hundred and forty persons) would fill 
the Hall without incommoding the Royal Per- 
sonages for whom the feast was intended. 

" And to prevent as much as possible the in- 
trusion of strangers (too frequent on such occa- 
sions) your Committee directed a temporary 
porch to be 'erected in the front of the Hall, 
where gentlemen of trust were placed at three 
several bars. 

" Upon the whole, your Committee omitted 

no care or pains to render the entertainment as 

commodious and agreeable as possible to the 

* Royal Guests, and in some measure expressive of 

the zeal and veneration of this Honourable Court 



for their august Sovereign, his most amiable Con- 
sort, and illustrious Family, and of their sense of 
his gracious condescension in honouring this 
City with his Royal Presence : happy if they 
have in any degree answered expectation, and 
are allowed to have done justice to the honoura- 
ble trust reposed in them. Signed this 15th day 
of June, 1762. 

" S. Fludyer, Charles Meredith, 

Robert Alsop, John Rivington, 
Richard Glyn, Thomas Cogan, 
Francis Gosling, Edward Waldo, 
Thomas Long, W. Reeves, 
Robert Wtlsonn, Samuel Freeman, 
Francis Ellis, William Tyser, 
Henry Kent, John Paterson. 

James Walton, 



. s. d. 

12 Dishes of Olio, Turtle, Pottages, 

and Soups 44 2 
12 Ditto Fish ; viz. John Dories, Red 

Mullet, &c. 44 2 

7 Ditto roast Venison 10 
3 Westphalia Hams consume, and 

richly ornamented 6 6 

* The orthography of the French words in the fol- 
lowing items is wrong in almost every instance ; but it 
must be remembered that it is culinary orthography ! 

2 Dishes 


. s. d. 

2 Dishes Pullets a la Royale 2 2 o 

2 Ditto Tongues Espagniole 330 

6 Ditto Chickens a la Reine 6 6 O 
1 Ditto Tondron de Vaux la Danzie 2 2 O 

1 Harrico 110 

1 Dish Popiets of Veale Glasse 140 

2 Dishes Fillets of Lamba la Conte 220 
2 Ditto Comports of Squabs 2 2 O 
2 Ditto Fillets of Beef Marinate 300 
2 Ditto of Mutton a la Memorance 220 

32 Ditto fine Vegetables - .16 16 


w 6* Dishes fine Ortolans 25 4 

10 Ditto Quails 15 

10 Ditto Notts 30 

1 Ditto Wheat-ears 1 1 O 

1 Goodevau Patte 1 10 O 

1 Perrigoa Pye 1 10 O 

1 Dish Pea-chicks 110 
4 Dishes Woodcocks 440 

2 Ditto Pheasants 33 O 
4 Ditto Teal 330 
4 Ditto Snipes 330 
2 Ditto Partridges 220 
2 Ditto Patties Royal - 300 


1 Ragout Royal - 110 

8 Dishes fine green Morells - 8 8 

10 Dishes 


s. s. d. 

1 Dishes fine green peas 10 10 

3 Ditto Asparagus Heads - 220 

3 Duto fine fat Livers 1 11 6 

3 Ditto fine Combs 1 11 Q 

5 Ditto green Truffles - 550 

5 Ditto Artichoaks a la Provincale 212 6 

5 Ditto Mushroons au Blanc 212 6 

1 Dish Gardens a la Bejamel - 10 6 

I Ditto Knots of Eggs 010 6* 

1 Ditto Ducks Tongues 10 6 

3 Dishes of Peths 111 6 

1 Dish of Truffles in Oil o 10 6 

4 Dishes of Pallets 220 

2 t)itto Ragout Mille - 2 2 


2 Curious ornamented Cakes 2 12 O 
'12 Dishes Blomanges, representing 

different figures 12 12 

12 Ditto Clear Marbrays 14 8 

16 Ditto fine Cut Pastry 16 16 

2 Ditto Mille Fuelles 1 10 6 

The Centre of the Table. 

1 Grand Pyramid of Demies of Shell 

Fish of various sorts 220 

32 Cold things of sorts ; viz. Temples, 
Shapes, Landscapes in Jellies, 
savoury Cakes, and Almond Gothes 33 12 o 

2 Grand 


. s. d. 

2 Grand Epergnes, filled with fine 

Pickles, and garnished round with 
Plates of Sorts, as Laspicks, Ro- 
lards, Sac. 6 6 

Total of the King s Table 374 1 

Totals of the several BILLS. 
Mr. George Dance, Clerk of the Works 6*5 4 6 
Mr. Richard Gripton, Coffee -man 56 10 
Ditto, Coffee, Tea, &c. for the Com- 
mittee - 31 13 
Mr. Jdm Read, Carpenter - 876 6 
Mr. Kuhflj Confectioner 212 I O 
Mr. Wilder, ditto - 121 14 
Mr. Scott, ditto 91 14 
Messrs. Kuhff, Wilder, and Scott, ditto 1749 
Mr. Baughan, Wax Chandler 31 O 
Mr. Garrard, ditto 30 12 
Mrs. Jones, ditto .30 12 
Mr. Cotterel, Chinaman 30 1 1 
Mr. Vere, ditto 1 8 1 2 
Mr Wylde, Paul's-head Tavern 47 13 
Mr. Edward Wix, Bricklayer 147 16 O 
Mr. Charles Easton, Mason 6 4 
Messrs. Alexander and Shrimpton, 

Smiths 300 11 O 

Mr. Peter Roberts, Remembrancer 63 O 
Messrs. Wareham, Oswald, Angel, 

Horton and Birch, Cooks 1600 



. s. d. 

Mr. Stanley, Band of Musick 115 O O 

Mr. Thomas Pattle, Hall-keeper 126 
Messrs. Chesson, Saunders, and Wood- 

rofFe, Upholsterers 458 19 
Mr. Allan, Wine 178 12 
Mr. Francis Magnus, ditto - 175 8 
Mr. Frederick Standert, Hock 11 6 8 
Messrs. Brown and Righton, Wine 48 5 
Mr. Thomas Burfoot and Son, Wool- 
len-drapers - 258 5 
Messrs. Pistor and Son, ditto 74 13 
Mr. - Thomas Gilpin, Plate 57 17 
Mr. Deputy Samuel Ellis and Richard 

Cleeve, Pewterers - 26*4 3 O 

Mr. Christopher Dent, Butler 190 

Mr. Robert Dixon, Baker 8 10 

Mrs. Rachel Stephens, Brewer 8 8 
Messrs. Barber and Shuttle worth, 

Fruiterers - 100 
Messrs. Mason and Whitworth, Rib- 
bands 730 

Mr. Charles Gardner, Engraver 23 13 O 

Artillery Company 20 
Mr. Charles Rivington, Printer 330 

City Musick 133 

Mr. Bromwich, Papier Maohe 70 14 
Mr. James Dobson, Bear Inn, ,Ba- 

singhall-street 42 15 



. *. d. 
Mr. John Handford, Swan with Two 

Necks, Lad-lane - 20 15 6 
Mr. John Greenhow, Castle, in Wood- 
street - 29 5 
Mr. Richard Overhall, Blossom's- inn, 

in Lawrence-lane 34 5 
Mr. Thomas Whaley, Bell-inn, in * 

Wood street 12 10 

Mr. Richard Walkden, Stationer 6 15 

City Marshal - 100 

Mrs. Mary Harrington, Glazier 15 1 6 

Messrs. Willis and Machel, Plumbers 63 1 2 

Messrs. Pope and Son, Painters 37 18 
Heron Powney, Esq. Sword-bearer's 

claim 5^ 
Mr. William Palmer, Senior Attorney 

of the Mayor's Court, claim 2 O 
Serjeants of the Chamber, for delivery 

of the Tickets, &c. 4 10 
Yeomen of the Chamber's claim 400 
Peter Denny, for lighting the Chan- 
deliers - - 20 
Sir James Hodges, Town-clerk, for 

attending the Committee 157 10 
William Rix, Clerk to Sir James 

Hodges, for ditto 15 15 

Andrew Boson, JrLall-keeper's man 10 10 
Six Marshal's-men - 1100 

Six Necessary Women 6 6 



<. s. d. 

Town-clerk's Servants 550 

Chamberlain's Household Servants 5 5 O 

Messrs. Chesson, WoodrofFe, and Saun- 

ders, Extra Bill 10 10 

Mr. Thomas Gilpin, for the use of 

Plate 20 O 

Mr. Chamberlain's Clerks 55 o 

Daniel Philpot, Esq. Cook to his Ma- 
jesty 10 10 O 
Thomas Denny, for attending the 

Committee ~ 110 

Total 6898 5 4 

It was ordered that the said Report be entered 
in the Journal of the Court; and the following 
motion being made, was unanimously agreed to : 

" That the thanks of this Court be, and are 
hereby given, to the Committee appointed to 
conduct the entertainment of their Majesties and 
the Royal Family at Guildhall, on Lord Mayor's 
day last, for their constant and spirited attention, 
in that service, to the honour of the Crown, and 
the dignity of this City.'* 

A futile plan has long been in use, intended 
to lessen the number of women of the town ; and 
particularly in 1762, when the Society for the 
Reformation of Manners followed an old and un- 
profitable example, by sending some of their 



constables through the streets to apprehend those 
miserable young persons ; 40 were taken to 
Bridewell, eleven were whipped, one sent to the 
Magdalen, and the remainder are said to have 
been returned to their friends. Such has been 
the practice at long intervals ever since, perhaps 
with some variations in the punishment inflicted, 
and I am afraid an omission of enquiring for their 
friends. One need only pass through the Strand 
and Fleet-street late in the evening, to perceive 
how ineffectual this method of reformation has 

It appears from a very solemn address to the 
publick inserted in the Newspapers for 176*2, 
that the brutal custom of throwing at Cocks on 
Shrove Tuesday was not then so uncommon as it 
happily is at present. 

When we are passing through the streets of 
London, it but too frequently happens that our 
ears are offended by hearing shocking oaths, re- 
peated with an emphasis which indicates violent 
irritation; but, upon observing the parties thus 
offending against the laws of morality and of the 
realm more closely, it may be immediately per- 
ceived that nothing particular has occurred to 
produce anger, and that the vice has become so 
much a custom, that oaths are now mere flowers 
of rhetorick with the vulgar. 

However unpleasant the reflection, we may 
console ourselves in the certainty that we are not 



more reprehensible than our predecessors have 
been ; as a proof, I present the reader with an 
excellent Charge delivered by Sir John Fielding, 
April 6, 1763, at Guildhall, Westminster. 

" A Charge delivered to the Grand Jury, at the 
General Quarter Session of the Peace, held at 
Guildhall, Westminster, on Wednesday, April 
6, 176*3, by Sir John Fielding, Knight, Chair- 
man of the said Session. Published at the 
unanimous Request of the Magistrates then 
present, and the Grand Jury.'* 

In order to remind the Grand Jury of their 
duty, rather than to inform them of it, Sir John 
Fielding considers, 1st, the object of the en- 
quiry they are expected to make, and 2dly, the 
manner in which it might be made. 

The object of it is, offences towards God, the 
King, to one another, and to the publick in 

Speaking of the offences against God, " 1 can- 
not sufficiently lament (says this devout Magis- 
trate) that shameful, inexcusable, and almost 
universal practice of prophane swearing in our 
streets : a crime so easy to be punished, and so 
seldom done, that mankind almost forget it is an 
offence ; and, to our dishonour be it spoken, it 
is almost peculiar to the English nation ! I beg, 
Gentlemen, you would use your utmost endea- 
vours to suppress this dreadful evil wherever you 



can ; but this you will best do by your own ex- 
ample, as the offence is punishable in a judicial 
way before a Magistrate. Nor should I men- 
tion it here, was I not sensible that I am speak- 
ing in the presence of a great number of peace- 
officers, whose immediate duty it is to apprehend 
such miscreants, and carry them before a Magis- 
trate ; and who are not only blameable, but 
punishable, for the neglect of this duty.. 

" The last offence I shall mention on this sub- 
ject is, the breach of the Sabbath ; a practice as 
shameful as it is common : but, as these are un- 
worthy members of the Church, and not only 
disgraceful, but noxious members of society, they 
will therefore, I doubt not, meet with the de- 
testation of all honest and pious men, and conse*- 
quently with every punishment due to such an 
insolent crime, which it may be in your power 
to inflict ; for this sort of impious neglect par- 
takes of the deepest ingratitude from the creature 
to the Creator." 

With regard to offences committed against the 
Publick in general ; " Of these (says this dili- 
gent Magistrate) there are a great variety, but I 
shall confine myself to the three following, viz. 
public lewdness, bawdy-houses, gaming-houses. 
And first, as to public lewdness : 

fC It is the observation of a moral writer of 
eminence, * That there is some degree of virtue 
in a man's keeping his vices to himself:' for, as 

VOL. I. A A example 


example is allowed to be more efficacious than 
precept in recommendation of virtue, where men 
act as it were in opposition to the depravity of 
human nature, how must the open and public 
example of levvdness draw men into the tide of 
wickedness, when their own passions and incli- 
nations serve as winds to carry them down the 
stream ! Men like these deserve punishment as 
public as their crimes. But, as this offence be- 
longs to none but the most abandoned mind, I 
thank God it is not common ; and perhaps it 
would be much less seen, were those persons 
punished, who exposed to sale the most aban- 
doned prints of levvdness, and the most infamous 
books of bawdry, which are considerably bought 
by curious youths, to the danger of their mo- 
desty, the hazard of their morals, and too often 
to the total destruction of their virtue. 

tf As to bawdy-houses, they are the recepta- 
cles of those who still have some sense of shame 
left, but not enough to preserve their innocence. 

" These houses are all sufficiently injurious, 
and do great mischief. But those I would par- 
ticularly point out to your attention, are the 
open, avowed, low, and common bawdy-houses, 
where vice is rendered cheap, and consequently 
within the reach of the common people, who are 
the very stamina of the constitution. 

" These are the channels through which rot- 
tenness is conveyed into the bones of the artificer, 



labourer, soldier, and mariner; by this means 
weakness and distemper are entailed on their off- 
spring, whose utility to the publick depends on 
their health and strength. These are the houses 
that harbour and protect undutiful children, idle 
servants, and disobedient apprentices. Let me 
then intreat you, as fathers, as masters, and as 
tradesmen, to put an end to these sinks of vice 
in your respective neighbourhoods. 

" Let not that common vulgar error, of being 
afraid of these people, because they are litigious, 
desperate, and full of threats (for these fears are 
groundless, and should not, nay, I hope will 
not) deter you from this particular duty. You 
present ; and we will punish. 

" As to gaming-houses ; such numbers of per- 
sons of all ranks have brought themselves, some 
to the greatest distresses, and others to most 
shameful and ignominious ends, by frequenting 
these houses, where gentlemen, sharpers, high- 
waymen, tradesmen, their servants, nay, often 
their apprentices, are mixed together ; that, when 
I mention the very name of a gaming-house, I 
am persuaded that it conveys to your minds such 
ideas of mischief to society, that you will not 
suffer any of them to escape that come to your 
knowledge : and by a particular attention to the 
last-mentioned offences, you may be the happy 
means of preventing frauds, thefts, and robberies ; 
A A 2 most 


most of which take their rise from these impure 
fountains of extravagance." 

What the Justice, speaking of the manner of 
the enquiry, remarks with regard to the contempt 
of oaths, is but too just, and alarming: 

" When I mention the word Oath ; where 
shall I find language to express the hearty con- 
cern I feel, when I consider with what shameful 
insensibility this great defence of our lives, this 
barrier of our liberties, this security of our pro- 
perties, an oath, is treated by the lower rank of 
the community ! I too much fear, that one of 
the principal causes of this contempt is the slo- 
venly manner in which this solemn obligation is 
administered ; which does not only take off the 
awe, but even the very idea, of the presence of 
Almighty God." 

A facetious writer presented the following ob- 
servations to the Editor of the London Chronicle, 
in June 1765. I think the Reader will find they 
promote the object of this work. 

e< It is common with the old men to assert, 
that times alter for the worse, and that every age 
increases in ignorance and folly. At the Thea- 
tres, they will tell you, that Garrick and Mrs. 
Cibber are tolerable performers, but they will 
not allow them to be equal to Booth and Mrs. 
Oldfield. ' When I was a boy, things were 
otherwise,' is their common expression. Now, 



Mr. Printer, in despite of all this, I affirm, that 
instead of altering for the worse, we daily im- 
prove, not only in Commerce, but also in Man- 
ners and the Polite Arts. Think not by the Po- 
lite Arts I mean only the Exhibitions in Spring- 
gardens and Maiden-lane. No, Sir, my infer- 
ence is a general one ; I include artists of every 
denomination, from the genteel Mr. Pencil, the 
Portrait-painter, to honest Brush, the Sign-pain- 
ter; both Mr. Heeltap, the Shoemaker of St. 
James's, and plain Crispin, the Cobler of Lon- 
don-house-yard. And that we only began to im- 
prove of late years, is evident from the sarcastic 
sneer of a shop-keeper at Epping, who, about 
ten years ago, had painted over his door, ( All 
sorts of Manchester stuffs sold here ; also cardi- 
nals, nails, and hats.' The force of the witticism 
is too 1 plain to need an explanation. This, I 
imagine, gave rise to the number of Dancing- 
masters, who have of late rilled England ; and that 
we are, since that time, greatly polished, no one, 
I dare say, will attempt to deny ; but that it may 
not be thought that I assert what I am unable to 
prove, I will only remind your readers of the re- 
volution that common things have undergone in 
their names. Have we now any shops? Are 
they not all turned into warehouses ? Have we 
not the English warehouse, the Scotch warehouse, 
the Irish warehouse, the shirt warehouse, the 
stocking warehouse, the shoe warehouse, the hat 



warehouse, nay, even the buckle and button 
warehouse ? In like manner our drink ing-houses 
are refined . they no longer go under the vulgar 
denominations of gin- houses, purl-houses, ale- 
houses, and porter-houses, but are all turned into 
coffee-houses without coffee, taverns without wine, 
and inns without a stable-yard. Not content 
with this, they even left off the showy sign-post 
and exuberant sign, which formerly distinguished 
the best-accustomed houses : convinced of their 
own merit, they have come to a right under- 
standing of the words simplex munditiis ; and 
therefore only put up a black board with the 
name of their quondam sign upon it. But I 
would just hint to them, that it would be some- 
thing more grammatical, if, instead of f This is the 
Boar's-head,' they were to say, t This was the 
Boar's-head.' Indeed I cannot help thinking, 
that a very great improvement might be made by 
one of these alehouse innkeepers on the Essex 
road, who has a board with a large punch-bowl 
painted on it, and under it these words : * The 
Boar's-head Inn.' Surely he would have more 
custom, if (like the man at Bath, who changed 
his sio-n of the Boval Oak into that of the Owl in 

o * 

the Ivy-bush, and wrote under it, * This is not 
the Royal Oak') he would say under his punch- 
bowl, ' This is not the Punch-bowl Inn.' 

The impropriety and folly of employing young 
;iud vigorous men to serve female customers with 



articles of dress, and those silly catch-pennies 
idly supposed ornaments to the person now so 
prevalent, is by no means a new trait in our cus- 
toms ; that it should be continued, though se- 
verely reprehended even so long since as 1765, 
is astonishing. At that time the antient sister- 
hood of tire-women were almost extinct ; but 
now what head can be dressed fit to be seen 
without the assistance of a smart male hair- 
dresser r or what lady will purchase her bandeaus, 
her ribbands, gloves, &c. &c. from the hands of 
a young woman, when the same shop contains 
a young man ? Unfortunately this is a fatal cus- 
tom to many fine blooming females, who, thus 
consigned to idleness and temptations, often fall 
victims to seduction. 

A strange infatuation prevailed for many years 
in that class of the community which might be 
termed demi-fashionables, of sending their daugh- 
ters to Convents in France for education ; if that 
could be so termed, which amounted to nothing 
more than speaking the French language toler- 
ably correct, cutting and pasting coloured paper 
together in silly shapes, and learning tambour, 
or working in imitation of lace. To mention 
the disadvantages attending the practice would 
be futile ; the Revolution in France, the dissolu- 
tion of Monasteries, and our endless wars, have 
totally abolished the custom, at least as far as re- 
lates to Convents ; though 1 have no doubt that, 



should Peace ever again smile on us, French 
boarding-schools will be preferred to British. 

Many of the pernicious customs which disgrace 
the populace of London may, and indeed must 
be continued, by their attendance at the various 
Fairs still held near the Metropolis ; some that 
are now suppressed, and that of St. Bartholomew's 
London, will be noticed hereafter. As long as 
the Legislature think proper to permit the exhi- 
bition of wild beasts, and the anticks of human 
brutes, the wicked and the curious will attend 
them : thus the profligate receives legal authority 
to continue his baneful and licentious manners, 
and the curious innocent learns to imitate them 
without restraint as something very worthy of 
imitation. It is well known that the passions of 
human nature require the utmost coercion, even 
in families of undoubted honour and virtue : is it 
then prudent, much less wise, to send apprentices, 
youth from schools, girls the offspring of the lower 
classes, and servants, into these regular scenes of 
riot and systematic violations of order and decency, 
where customs must be acquired which will not 
bear repetition ? The very tradition of the origin 
of Horn fair, held at Charlton and Blackheath, 
though ridiculously unfounded, was a sufficient 
cause for its abolition, when we recollect the ab- 
surd reference it had to a shocking oi.ence against 
the laws of society. The frequenters of this fair 
went to it prepaied to laugh at thote injured by 

seduction ; 


Seduction ; and the exhibition of articles made of 
Horn invited constant inuendos and vulgar double 

Accident this very day afforded me other ar- 
guments against Fairs. Entering the Kingsland- 
road, I was astonished at the scene before me: 
the foot-paths and the carriage-way were crowded 
with pedestrians and vehicles, from the humble 
dung-cart to the hackney-coach; the two latter 
filled with every description of persons, and the 
whole rushing, impelled by one governing mind, 
to Edmonton fair. Hundreds of carts and wag- 
gons, provided with seats placed on the sides, and 
others lengthways in the midst, were stationed 
by the owners in the neighbourhood of Shore- 
ditch church, where several principal streets com- 
municate with the road to Edmonton ; and were 
immediately filled by the infant, its sisters, bro- 
thers, parents, the journeyman, the apprentice, 
and the master, and the female servant, all dressed 
in their best clothing ; many of the latter and 
the daughters of tradesmen in white muslin, silk 
spencers, and new straw bonnets, worth at least 
30s. each. I would ask what the conversation of 
five-and-twenty persons thus assembled in a cart 
or waggon, some of whom consisted of the very 
dregs of society, could well be at noon-day, when 
sober ; but what at night on their return, when 
some at least were intoxicated? We will say 
nothing of the fun of the Fair, 



The succeeding letters which were published in 

1768 require no comment. 
" To the Inhabitants of the three united Parishes 

of St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Paucras, and Allhal- 

lows Honey-lane. 
" Gentlemen, 

" It is a pain and grief to me, after having 
been your Minister four-and-twenty years, to 
have any occasion to make any complaint of your 
behaviour ; but complain of you I must, for suf- 
fering the subscription for the daily prayers to be 
so diminished, and reduced almost to nothing ; 

* O * 

a manifest sign that your Parishes are much 
poorer or less religious than they were, for either 
of which I should be very sorry, but more espe- 
cially for the latter ; for the former may be your 
misfortune, the latter must be your fault. 

" The former Inhabitants were so convinced of 
the reasonableness, the propriety, the expediency, 
and necessity of the daily prayers, that they 
thought it just and fitting to make an extraordi- 
nary allowance for this extraordinary duty, and 
entered into a voluntary annual subscription for 
this purpose, which contributions have in some 
measure been continued from th6 first building 
and opening of your church till within these few 
years. And will you, Gentlemen, suffer so good 
a work, which hath been carried on so many 
years, to perish in your hands? Have you so 
little concern for the honour of your Church, one 



of the first and most conspicuous in the City, the 
principal of the Archbishop of Canterbury's pe- 
culiars, the chief Court of Arches, where so 
many Bishops are confirmed, and so much pub- 
lic business is transacted ? And shall such a 
Church, that ought to be a pattern of regular de- 
votion to others, be the first to set an example 
of irreligion ? 1 hope you have too much sense 
of honour, too much sense of religion, to bring 
such a load of reproach and infamy upon your 
names and characters : for it would be an eternal 
reproach and infamy to you in this world and in 
the world to come ; and the piety of your pre- 
decessors would ' rise up in the judgment against 
you, and condemn you.' 

" You will say, perhaps, that you have not time 
to attend the daily prayers. But why have you 
not time? What are you doing better? Ask 
God and your own conscience. Scarce more than 
half an hour is taken up in the daily prayers : 
and depend upon it, you will find the time not 
lost, or ill employed ; you will proceed to busi- 
ness with the greater cheerfulness, and prosper 
the better for it. But if you cannot or will not 
attend the prayers yourselves, yet why should 
you hinder others who would attend? Why not 
rather, to make some amends for your own de- 
ficiency, contribute something, that others may 
have opportunities for praying for a blessing upon 
the community ? For what will avail all your 



care and attention, all your labour and pains, 
without the blessing of God to prosper them? 
And how can you ever expect the blessing of 
God upon your undertakings, if you neglect and 
despise, and in effect destroy and abolish his ser- 
vice ? The neglect of public worship is soon fol- 
lowed by the neglect of other duties . and it be- 
hoves you seriously to consider, whether this 
may not be the first source and origin, the prin- 
cipal cause and occasion, of so many failures and 
bankruptcies among you. 

" You will urge perhaps that other charges 
and taxes lie heavy upon you, the price of every 
thing is advanced, and you cannot afford to do as 
you have done. But of all charges and expences 
why must this of the daily prayers be the first to 
be retrenched ? Retrench every vanity and folly, 
retrench every idle pleasure and diversion, re- 
trench all your superfluous, all your unnecessary 
expences, rather than what you contribute to the 
public service of God. But no great matter is 
required or expected from you. As but ft very 
short portion of your time is taken up in the 
daily prayers, so a very small part of your sub- 
stance will be sufficient to support so pious and 
useful an institution. All that I desire of you is, 
that of the better sort, every one would subscribe 
ten shillings a-year, that is half a crown a quarter, 
and of those in lower circumstances every one 
would subscribe five or four shillings a year, that 



is, at least a shilling a quarter. Some few (to 
their honour be it spoken) have all along con- 
tinued to do the very thing that I desire ; but I 
wish the thing to be general, and every one of 
you to do the same. You cannot surely think so 
small and inconsiderable a sum any loss or bur- 
den to you. You may easily make it otherwise, 
by riding out a Sunday or two less in a year, or 
by going an evening or two less in a year to 
Vauxhall or Ranelagh, to the Tavern or the Play. 
This you will do, if you are not ' lovers of plea- 
sure more than lovers of God ;' and what you 
thus ' lend unto the Lord,' will be paid you in 
blessings again. 

" But I would rather prefer another proposal 
to your consideration, which probably may be 
more easy and agreeable to you, as it would be 
taking nothing immediately out of your own 
pockets, and certainly would be more easy and 
agreeable to your Ministers, as it would be less 
precarious and uncertain, though perhaps not al- 
together so beneficial. Whatever may be the 
case of some few individuals, your parishes are in 
general very wealthy. Your poor's-rate is low in 
comparison to that of many other parishes, where 
it is nearly equal to that of the land-tax. You 
are in possession of several considerable estates 
left you by the piety and charity of former inha- 
bitants, amounting to 300/. a year or more : and 
these estates being left without any appropriation 



but to the best uses of your parishes, how can 
any part of them be applied to a better use, or 
more agreeably to the intention of the pious and 
charitable donors, than for the public benefit of 
men in the public service of God ? Let me there- 
fore recommend it to you, out of these estates, or 
in any other method that you may think more 
proper, to allow to your Rector, that is, not to 
your Rector properly, but to your Rector for his 
Curate and Reader of the daily prayers, a salary 
of Jive- and-t went y pounds a }^ear, which is no 
more than three shillings and three-half-pence in 
a year from every house : and surely you cannot 
refuse so small a boon for the honour and credit 
of your parishes, for your own character and re- 
putation, for the good of your own souls and the 
souls of others. You see I am very moderate 
and reasonable in my demands, and I hope you 
will be as reasonable in your compliance. This 
is not making godliness a gain. Only the la- 
bourer is worthy of his hire : and you would not 
pay to a Clergyman for double service in a day, 
less than you would pay to a porter. 

" Though I have now been your Rector, as_l 
said, these four-and-twenty years, yet I have 
never in all that time asked any thing of you. I 
have not sent any person to collect your Easter 
offerings, as other City Rectors do, and I might 
also justly have done. I have received nothing 
from you but what is strictly my due, and what 



you are obliged by law to pay : and I shall think 
I have very little weight and interest with you, 
I shall think that either I have preached the 
word of God, or you have heard it, to very little 
purpose, if after all my services I cannot obtain 
this favour from you ; not that it is any favour to 
me, but as it is a real benefit to yourselves, and 
may prove the happy means of your salvation. 
Your not complying with this request would be 
.such a disparagement and discouragement to my 
ministry, that I should almost despair of ever 
doing any further good among you, and could 
only leave you to your own reflections upon that 
solemn commination of Christ unto the Angel of 
the Church of Ephesus, Rev. ii. 5 : f Remember 
from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do 
thy first works ; or else I will come unto thee 
quickly, and remove thy candlestick out of its 
place, except thou repent.' God forbid that this 
should ever be your case ! On the contrary I 
wish to say with the Apostle, Heb. vi. 9, 10, 11 : 
1 Beloved, we are persuaded better things of you, 
and things that accompany salvation, though we 
thus speak. For God is not unrighteous, to for- 
get your work and labour of love, which ye have 
shewed towards his name, in that ye have mi- 
nistered unto the saints, and do minister. And 
we desire that every one of you do shew the same 
diligence, to the full assurance of hope unto the 



end:' And with this trust and confidence in you, 
I remain, Gentlemen, 

" Your loving Friend, 

and faithful Servant in Christ Jesus, 
March 21, 1768. '" THOMAS BRISTOL." 

" To the Right Reverend Father in God THOMAS 
Lord Bishop of Bristol, Rector of the Three 
United Parishes of St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Pan- 
eras, and Allhallows, Honey-lane. 

" My Lord, 

" The first sentence in your Address to our 
united Parishes gave us inexpressible concern, as 
we found ourselves charged with some behaviour 
which had been the occasion of great pain and 
grief' to your Lordship ; but we were happily re- 
lieved from this distress, as soon as your Lord- 
ship condescended to mention the nature of the 
crime with which we are charged ; viz. ( That 
we had suffered the subscription for the daily 
prayers to be diminished, and reduced almost to 

" When we reflect for twenty-four years past 
you have laboured amongst us in the Lord, we 
can have no doubt but this endearing connection 
which has so long subsisted between us will oc- 
casion your Lordship to receive with paternal 
candour every plea we have to offer in our 


" Permit 


" Permit us then to remind your Lordship, 
that, though the attendance on the morning 
prayers has been generally omitted, and the sub- 
scription to them reduced, yet we have hitherto 
endeavoured to promote the honour and reputa- 
tion of St. Mary-le-Bow, all that we could. We 
acknowledge with your Lordship, ' that it is one 
of the first and most conspicuous Churches in the 
City,' and we often view its lofty spire both with 
pride and pleasure ; we are happy in ' its being 
the principal of the Archbishop of Canterbury's 
peculiars, the chief Court of Arches, where so 
many Bishops are confirmed, and so much* pub- 
lic business is transacted ;' and we have always 
endeavoured, at a great expence, to keep every 
part of the Church in such good order, as that it 
might both decently and conveniently accommo- 
date the good company which frequently resort 
there on the above solemn occasions. Surely, 
my Lord, this part of our conduct must convince 
the world, and your Lordship, that those mo- 
tives which you have suggested^to us have already 
produced every effect which ought to be expected 
from them. 

" But to enter more particularly into our de- 
fence. Our not attending these subscription 
prayers is not generally owing either to the want 
of time, or to the desire of saving the expence , 
but proceeds from a very different motive - a 
motive which we cannot urge, till we have again 

VOL. i. B is. bespoke 


bespoke your Lordship's affectionate candour. It 
is this : That we are not convinced of ' the reason- 
ableness, the propriety, the expediency, and ne- 
cessity of having the daily prayers' at those hours, 
and under those circumstances, for which your 
Lordship so warmly recommends a subscription ; 
and there are two reasons on which our doubts 
are founded. 

" The first is, that as your .Lordship has un- 
dertaken the care of our souls, and in conse- 
quence of this trust, receives at least three hun- 
dred pounds per annum, we think ourselves fully 
authorised to believe, that this extraordinary 
duty, as your Lordship properly calls it, cannot 
be essentially necessary to our salvation ; for, if 
it was so, it would, and must have been, a part 
of your Lordships own duty, and consequently 
have rendered any extraordinary allowance un- 
necessary: And we think ourselves assured, that 
the other high offices which your Lordship sus- 
tains in the Christian Church could by no means 
divert you from duly executing the prior engage- 
ments made with us, even though you had 
been obliged to employ a Deputy to share with 
you the honour of attempting our salvation. 

" Nor, secondly, is it possible that these ser- 
vices referred to should be omitted, if they were 
really so absolutely necessary to prevent ( the eter- 
nal reproach and infamy in this world, and the 
next/ of us who are committed to your care. 


Y6ur Lordship, receiving 300/. per annum for 
watching over this flock, could never permit it 
to be involved in eternal infamy, when so small 
a boon (as your Lordship acknowledges) as 25 /. 
per annum would prevent it. Far from us be 
such imaginary fears as these ! The great Apos- 
tles, to whom your Lordship succeeds in an un- 
interrupted line, were inspired with such divine 
zeal to promote the salvation of men, that so far 
from their hesitating to part with twenty-five 
pounds out of three hundred pounds per annum,, 
which is but 8l. 6s. Sd. per cent, deduction, they 
calmly received ( bonds and afflictions, neither 
counted they their lives dear unto themselves, 
so that they might finish their course with joy, 
and the ministry which they had received.' (Acts 
xx. 24, &c.) ( They gloried in having coveted 
no man's silver or gold' (neither for themselves 
nor their Curates); and were enabled to make 
this honourable appeal to their flock, ' Ye 
yourselves know, that these hands have minis- 
tered unto our necessities, and to those who were 
with us.' 

" For our part, therefore, we shall rest assured, 
that as ' the line of the Apostolic Succession is 
uninterrupted,' so also is the ( Apostolic Zeal ;' 
and that, ' as the labourer is worthy of his hire/ 
so also is f the hire worthy of a labourer ;' and 
therefore we hope your Lordship will permit us 
to conclude, that when a wise, a learned, and 
B B 2 pious 


pious Minister of Christ receives the hire, he 
will conscientiously perform tJie labour., or cause 
it to be performed. 

" Our dependance, therefore, on your Lord- 
ship's exact and devout views of this awful and 
7'esponsible connection must necessarily calm every 
fear on our part concerning our own l eternal 
infamy and reproach on this account ;' for we 
are legally committed to your care, for the esta- 
blished outward means of grace ; and such 
means as are absolutely necessary for rendering 
your Lordship a good Shepherd, or us a well-fed 
flock, we are very confident we shall never want, 
whilst we have the pleasure of being under your 
spiritual guidance and instruction. 

" We are, my Lord, your Lordship's 
" Most respectful, affectionate, 

" and obliged humble servants, 
St. Mary-le-Bou} y A B c D E F G." 

April 12, 1768. 

When the King of Denmark visited our Court 
in 1768, he observed the eagerness of the mid- 
dle and lower ranks in their attempts to view his 
person , and politely ordered that they should be 
admitted while he dined. The consequent press 
and rudeness was such, that the permission was 
rescinded after one trial : that rudeness may be 
estimated by the following paragraph : " A cor- 
respondent observes, in the London Chronicle, 
that the crowds which follow after and so rudely 



press upon the King of Denmark, render his 
situation very disagreeable, as he is constantly 
obstructed in the gratification of his curiosity at 
any public place of diversion, or of seeing any 
thing curious in or near the Metropolis, for fear 
of being stifled. He adds, that he wishes the 
people would consider the great rudeness they 
are guilty of, by thus treating so very high and 
respectable a Personage: and let all who have 
once had a view of him in any public place pass 
on, and not stand staring in the King's face with 
such intolerable effrontery as too many have done, 
to the annoyance of his Majesty, as well as the 
hindrance of others from the pleasure of seeing 

The hospitality with which this Prince was re- 
ceived by the superior ranks and all the public 
bodies, particularly the Corporation of London, 
deserves the highest commendation. 

The practice of Betting is tolerably prevalent 
at present, and by no means confined to any par- 
ticular class of the community. In short, I am ' 
afraid it might be traced very far back in the 
history of our customs ; but it will be sufficient 
for the information of the reader, that I present 
him with an article from the London Chronicle 
for lyo'S, which I think will remind him of some 
recent transactions in the City. 

" The introduction and amazing progress of 
illicit gaming at Lloyd's Coffee-house is, among 


others, a powerful and very melancholy proof of 
the degeneracy of the times. It is astonishing 
that this practice was begun, and has been hi- 
therto carried on, by the matchless effrontery 
and impudence of one man. It is equally so, 
that he has met with so much encouragement 
from many of the principal Under-writers, who 
are, in every other respect, useful members of 
society : and it is owing to the lenity of our laws, 
and want of spirit in the present administration, 
that this pernicious practice has not hitherto been 
suppressed. Though gaming in any degree (ex- 
cept what is warranted by law) is perverting the 
original and useful design of that Coffee-house, it 
may in some measure be excusable to speculate 
on the following subjects : 

" Mr. Wilkes being elected Member for Lon- 
don, which was done from 5 to 50 guineas per 

" Ditto for Middlesex, from 20 to 70 guineas 
per cent. 

" Alderman B d's life for one .year, now 

doing at 7 per cent. 

" On Sir J H being turned out in one 

year, now doing at 20 guineas per cent. 

% " On John Wilkes's life for one year, now 
doing at 5 per cent. N. B. Warranted to remain 
in prison during that period. 

" On a declaration of war with France or Spain 
jn one year, 8 guineas per cent. 

" And 


fl And many other innocent things of that kind. 

" But when policies come to be opened on two 
of the first Peers in Britain losing their heads 
within a year, at 10s. 6d. per cent, and on the 
dissolution of the present Parliament within one 
year, at 5 guineas per cent, which are now ac- 
tually doing, and underwrote, chiefly by Scots- 
men, at the above Coffee-house ; it is surely high 
time for Administration to interfere, and by ex- 
erting the rigour of the laws against the authors 
and encouragers of such insurances (which must 
be done for some bad purpose) effectually put a 
stop to it." 

There are certain wags who find great amuse- 
ment in contriving wonderful stories for the pub- 
lick, which are sometimes circulated verbally, 
and frequently inserted in the newspapers.- This 
waggery has recently received the elegant term 
of hoaxing. Twice very lately crowds have been 
sent to the ship-yards below London to witness 
the launching of men of war and Indiamen which 
were not ready to launch ; and last winter re-pro- 
duced an old story of a gardener digging a pit to 
receive the body of a servant he had seduced, 
whom he intended to have murdered, had not his 
master luckily discovered the plan by the inter- 
vention of a dream. Many of these inventions 
are so slightly contrived that persons of very little 
sagacity might detect the impostor; and yet 
numbers are deceived. 



The newspapers of 1772 furnish a rare instance 
of this description, which take verbatim : 

" At the house of one Mrs. Goulding, a single 
gentlewoman, at Stockwell, in the parish of 
Lambeth, in Surrey, about eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon on Monday last, there being no person 
except herself and servant (Ann Robinson, aged 
fifteen years or thereabouts) several earthen plates, 
and one dish, of what is called the Queen's-ware, 
which were placed on a shelf in one of the kit- 
chens, fell down, and all broke except the dish, 
without any visible cause ; in a little time after, 
several candlesticks, and other things, the furni- 
ture of a mantle-piece in the back kitchen, were 
thrown into the middle of the floor, though no 
person was in that room ; then some china, &c. 
on the mantle-piece in the other kitchen was 
in like manner thrown into the middle of the 
floor, and broke, and as the pieces lay, they 
snapped and flew just as though they had been 
thrown on an exceeding hot fire ; a glazed Ian- 
thorn, which hung on the staircase, was thrown 
down ; a clock also was thrown down and broke ; 
a red earthen pan, containing salt beef, flew in 
pieces, and the beef fell about ; and many such 
like uncommon things happened ; which causing 
an alarm, the people from the road, without dis- 
tinction, ran into the house, some supposing it 
to be on fire, others thought the house had re- 
ceived a shock from the explosion of a powder- 


mill at Hounslow, which was blown up about an 
hour before. However, all concurred in moving 
the goods ; and Mrs. Goulding, together with her 
maid-servant, went to Mr. Gresham's, a gentle- 
man who lives in the next house to Mrs. Gould- 
ing's, whither the goods were carried, and parti- 
cularly a tray full of china, an iron bread-basket 
japanned, two mahogany waiters, several bottles 
of different sorts of liquors, a gallipot of jelly, 
and a pier-glass worth about five pounds, which 
glass was taken down by one Mr. Saville (a neigh- 
bour to Mrs. Goulding) who handed it to one 
Robert Hames, and a part of the gilt-work on 
each side of the frame flew off before he could 
put it down in the garden ; but when it was laid 
down, remained without farther damage till it 
was taken into Mr. Gresham's, and put under a 
side-board, where it flew to pieces. Mr. Saville 
and others going to drink of a bottle of rum 
and a bottle of wine, they both flew in pieces, 
though they were uncorked ; the china in the 
tray flew in pieces, some while it was in the 
house, and the rest in the garden, whither it was 
removed by the affrighted spectators after it began 
to break ; the bread-basket was thrown down and 
broke, as also were the two mahogany waiters, 
and the pot of jelly, together with bottles of li- 
quors and jars of pickles, all of them the property 
of Mrs. Gouldino-. Mrs Gouldins, being; ill with 

o O 7 O 

the fright, was let blood by Mr. Gardener, a 



Surgeon of Clapham, who borrowed a pint china 
bowl of Mr. Gresham's people to receive the 
blood, which being afterwards set upon a side- 
board, near a bottle of rum, the property of Mrs. 
Goulding, both bottle and bowl jumped on the 
floor and broke, the bowl going into five pieces 
(a piece of which is now in the possession of Mr. 
Waterfield at the Royal Oak Inn, Vauxhall). 
Mrs. Goulding and her servant then went to Mr. 
Maylin's next door to Mr. Gresham's ; but during 
their stay there (which was but very short) no- 
thing extraordinary happened ; from thence they 
went to the house of Farmer Payne (to whose 
wife Mrs. Goulding is related) on Rush-common, 
near the Wash- way, about half a mile distant 
from her own house, where they found Mr. and 
Miss Gresham, Mr. Payne and his family ; it 
being about dinner-time, they all dined with Mr. 
Payne ; some time after dinner Mrs. Goulding' s 
servant was sent home to examine into the state 
of the house, and returned with an account that 
every thing there had been quiet from the time 
they left it. In a little time after the return of 
the servant, Mr. and Miss Gresham went home 
(nothing unaccountable having yet happened at 
Mr. Payne's) ; but Mrs. Goulding and her servant 
staid, and about seven o'clock in the evening the 
same kind of uncommon operations as had been 
seen at Mrs. Goulding's began at Mr. Payne's, 
by seven pewter dishes out of eight falling from 
the top shelf over a dresser in the kitchen, with- 


out any apparent cause, which was followed by 
an infinite number of examples not less strange, 
and particularly the following : a pestle and mor- 
tar jumped from the mantle-piece in the kitchen 
to the floor, about six feet ; a row of pewter 
plates fell from the second shelf (over the dresser) 
to the ground, and being taken up, and put one 
in the other on the dresser, which is about three 
feet high, they were thrown down again, and 
lay in the same manner as plates are generally 
placed on a shelf; the pewter, china, earthen- 
ware, &c. were then almost all set upon the 
floors in the kitchen and parlour (to prevent being 
broke or bruised by falling), but four pewter plates 
were left on one of the shelves over the dresser, 
which plates did not move the whole night. 
While the things were putting on the ground, a 
stone tea-cup jumped out of a beaufet to the 
floor ; on the floor a glass tumbler jumped about 
a foot and a half," and broke ; another that stood 
near it jumped also about the same distance, but 
remained whole for some hours after, then took 
another spring and broke also ; a china bowl 
jumped from the floor in the middle of the par- 
lour, and went behind the feet of a claw table, 
which was standing in the same parlour, at the 
distance of about eight feet, hut did not break at 
that time, but being replaced by one Mr. Fowler, 
remained whole for a considerable time after- 
wards, and hen flew to pieces ; three china cups, 



which had been left on the dresser in the kitchen, 
flew slant-wise across the kitchen about twelve 
feet, by which two were broke : an egg flew from 
the lower shelf over the dresser, taking the same 
direction as the cups had done, and went nearly 
the same distance ; there was another egg on the 
shelf, which did not move the whole night : a 
candlestick flew from the mantle-piece in the 
kitchen into the parlour door-way, about fifteen 
feet from the place where it stood ; a tea-kettle 
under the dresser was thrown out about two feet : 
another tea-kettle, which stood on the side of 
the grate, was thrown off against an iron that is 
fixed to keep the children from the fire ; a mus- 
tard-glass, which was a little broke by some na- 
tural accident, was thrown from a table into a 
pewter-dish on the floor, at about seven feet dis- 
tance, but did not break, neither was it broke 
afterwards ; the cup that had escaped when the 
other two were broke (as is before-mentioned) 
being set on a table in the parlour, flew off to 
the distance of nine feet, and broke ; a tumbler, 
with a little rum and water in it, standing on a 
waiter upon a table in the same parlour, jumped 
about ten feet, and broke ; the table then overset, 
and threw off a silver tankard of Mrs. Goulding's, 
a candlestick, and the waiter the tumbler had 
jumped from ; two hams, which had been hung 
up in the chimney to dry, fell down, though the 
nail and strings on and by which they had hung 



were not broke or misplaced ; a case-bottle of li- 
quor, part of which they had just drank, flew 
into pieces ; and, in short, about four o'clock in 
the morning of Tuesday, almost every thing in 
the parlour and kitchen were animated, and 
made such a racket, that Mr. Payne's maid-ser- 
vant ran up stairs, and took a child out of bed, 
and carried it into the stable naked, thinking it 
was not safe longer to stay in the house. Mrs. 
Goulding then seeing the general confusion, went 
with her servant across the road to Mr. Fowler's 
(the same Mr. Fowler as is before-mentioned in 
this narrative) and were accompanied by Mrs. 
Payne and her son, about nine years of age ; and 
the confusion at Mr. Payne's immediately ceased, 
when Mr. Fowler had let them into his house, 
he proceeded to light a fire in his back room, 
which done, he put the candlestick and candle 
he had used upon a table in his fore-room 
(through which Mrs. Goulding and her servant 
had passed), where also stood another candle- 
stick with a tin lamp m it, but they did not 
stand long before they were knocked against each 
other, and thrown to the ground by some invisi- 
ble agent; then a lanthorn in the back-room, 
that had been used in lighting Mrs. Goulding. 
&c. across the road, was thrown to the ground ; 
and lastly a basket of coals, which was brought 
from Mr. Payne's, overset, and emptied itself 
upon the floor, Mr. Fowler upon this told Mrs,. 



Goulding he feared she had been guilty of some 
bad act, as it was plain the cause of such wonder- 
ful events was carried with her ; but Mrs. Gould- 
ing answered, that her conscience was clear from 
any extraordinary evil, and that she could not 
tell the cause why she was so troubled, or such 
like words ; however, Mr. To vler desired her to 
quit his house, as he could not afford to have his 
goods destroyed ; whereupon Mrs. Goulding and 
her servant left his house, which has been quiet 
ever since, and returned to her own house ; and, 
in a little time after their arrival, a cask with 
some beer in it was thrown from its stand, and a 
pail of water was moved from its place a little, 
and some of the water spilled, but nothing more 
happened ; then she discharged her servant, and 
has remained quiet ever since." 

Another account has the following additional 
circumstance : 

" Some plates of Mr. Gresham's, by way of 
trial, were placed upon the 'same shelf with those 
of Mrs. Goulding's ; the former stood unhurt, the 
whole of Mrs. Goulding's were broke in pieces. 

" The servant girl is gone home to her father, 
the clerk of Lewisham parish ; and what remains 
are now just as inanimate as the furniture of 
other houses." 

The following extracts from Nugent's transla- 
tion of M. Grosley's Tour to London are inserted 
as the means by which the reader may collect 



facts in proof of my opinion, that the manners of 
the populace are greatly improved since the above 

" Amongst the people of London we should 
properly distinguish the Porters, Sailors, Chair- 
men, and the Dav-lahoufers who work in the 

' V 

streets, not only from persons of condition, most 
of whom walk a-foot merely because it is their 
fancy, but even from the lowest class of shop- 

" The former are as insolent a rabble as can be 
met with in countries without law or police. 
The French, at whom their rudeness is chiefly 
levelled, would be in the wrong to complain, 
since even the better sort of Londoners are not 
exempt from it. Inquire of them your way to a 
street : if it be upon the right, they direct you 
to the left, or they send you. from one of their 
vulgar comrades to another. The most shocking 
abuse and ill language make a part of their plea- 
santry upon these occasions. To be assailed in 
such a manner, it is riot absolutely necessary to be 
engaged in conversation with them ; it is suffici- 
ent to pass by them. My French air, notwith- 
standing the simplicity of my dress, drew upon 
me, at the corner of every street, a volley of abu- 
sive litanies, in the midst of which I slipped on, 
returning thanks to God I did not understand 
English. The constant burthen of these litanies 
was, French dog, French b : to make any 



answer to them, was accepting a challenge to 
fight ; and my curiosity did not carry me so far. 
t saw in the streets a scuffle of this kind; be- 
tween a Porter and a Frenchman, who spit in 
his face, not being able to make any other an- 
swer to the torrent of abuse which the former 
poured out against the latter without any provo- 
cation. The late Marshal Saxe, walking through 
London streets, happened to have a dispute with 
a scavenger, which ended in a bqxing bout, 
wherein his dexterity received the general ap- 
plause of the spectators : he let the scavenger 
come upon him, then seized him by the neck, 
and made him fly up into the air, in such a di- 
rection, that he fell into the middle of his cart, 
which was brimful of dirt. 

" Happening to pass one day through Chelsea, 
in company with an English gentleman, a num- 
ber of Watermen drew themselves up in a line, 
and attacked him, on my account, with all the 
opprobrious terms which the English language 
can supply, succeeding each other, like students 
who defend a thesis : at the third attack, my 
friend, stepping short, cried out to them, that 
they said the finest things in the world, but un- 
luckily he was deaf: and that, as for me, I did 
not understand a word of English, and that their 
wit was of consequence thrown away upon me. 
This remonstrance appeased them ; and they re- 
turned laughing to their business. 

M. de 


" M. de la Condamine, in his journey to Lon- 
don two or three years ago, was followed, where- 
ever he went, by a numerous crowd, who were 
drawn together by a great tube .of block-tin, 
which he had always to his ear ; by an unfolded 
map of London which he held in his hand ; and 
by frequent pauses, whenever he met with any 
object worthy of his attention. At his first going 
abroad, being frequently hemmed in by the 
crowd, which prevented his advancing forward, 
he cried out to his interpreter, ( What would all 
these people have ?' Upon this, the interpreter, 
applying his mouth to the tube, answered by cry- 
ing out to him, ( They are making game of you.* 
At last they became used to the sight ; and ceased 
to crowd about him as he walked the streets. 

a The day after my arrival, my servant disco- 
vered, by sad experience, what liberties the mob 
are accustomed to take with the French, and all 
who have the appearance of being such. He had 
followed the crowd to Tyburn, where three rogues 
were hanged, two of whom were father and son. 
The execution being over, as he was returning 
home through Oxford-road with the remains of 


the numerous multitude which had been present 
at the execution, he was attacked by two or three 
blackguards : and. the crowd having soon sur- 

O ' * O 

rouded him, he made a sight for the rabble. 

Jack Ketch, the executioner, joined in the sport, 

and entering the circle, struck the poor sufferer 

VOL. i. c c upon 


upon the shoulder. They began to drag him 
about by the skirts of his coat, and by his shoul- 
der-knot ; when luckily for him, he was perceived 
by three grenadiers belonging to the French 
guards, who, having deserted, and crossed the 
seas, were then drinking at an ale-house hard by 
the scene of action. Armed with such weapons 
as chance presented them, they suddenly attacked 
the mob, laid on soundly upon such as came 
within their reach, and brought their country- 
man off safe to the ale-house, and from thence to 
my lodgings. Seven or eight campaigns which 
he had served with an officer in the gens-d'armes, 
and a year which he afterwards passed in Italy, 
had not sufficiently inured him to bear this rough 
treatment ; it had a most surprising effect upon 
him. He shut himself up in the house a fort- 
night, where he vented his indignation in con- 
tinual imprecations against England and the 
English. Strong and robust as he was, if he had 
had any knowledge of the language and the 
country, he might have come off nobly, by pro- 
posing a boxing bout to the man whom he 
thought weakest amongst the crowd of assailants : 
if victorious, he would have been honourably 
brought home, and had his triumph celebrated 
even by those who now joined against him. This 
is the first law of this species of combat ; a law 
which the English punctually observe in the heat 
of battle, where the vanquished always find a 



generous conqueror in that nation. This should 
seem to prove, in contradiction to Hobbes, that 
in the state of nature, a state with which the 
street-scufflers of London are closely connected, 
man, who is by fits wicked and cruel, is, at the 
bottom, good-natured and generous. 

" I have already observed, that the English 
themselves are not secure from the insolence of 
the London mob. I had a proof of this from the 
young Surgeon who accompanied me from Paris 
to Boulogne. 

" At the first visit which he paid me in Lon- 
don, he informed me, that, a few days after his 
arrival, happening to take a walk through the 
fields on the Surrey-side of the Thames, dressed 
in a little green frock which he had brolight from 
Paris, he was attacked by three of those gentle- 
men of the mobility, who, taking him for a 
Frenchman, not only abused him with the foul- 
est language, but gave him two or three slaps on 
the face. ( Luckily,' added he in French, f I 
did not return their ill language ; for, if I had, 
they would certainly have thrown me into the 
Thames, as they assured me they would, as soon 
as they perceived I was an Englishman, if I ever 
happened to come in their way again in my 
Paris dress.' 

" A Portuguese of my acquaintance, taking a 
walk in the same fields, with three of his coun- 
trymen, their conversation in Portuguese was 
c c 2 inter- 


interrupted by two Watermen, who, doubling 
their fists at them, cried, ' French dogs, speak 
your damned French, if you dare. 1 

" Happening to go one evening from the part 
of the town where I lived to the Museum, I 
passed by the Seven-dials. The place was crowded 
with people waiting to see a poor wretch stand 
in the pillory, whose punishment was deferred 
to another day. The mob, provoked at this dis- 
appointment, vented their rage upon all that 
passed that way, whether a-foot or in coaches ; 
and threw at them dirt, rotten eggs, dead dogs, 
and all sorts of trash and ordure, which they had 
provided to pelt the unhappy wretch, according 
to custom. Their fuiy fell chiefly upon the 
hackney-coaches, the drivers of which they forced 
to salute them with their whips and their hats, 
and to cry huzza ; which word is a signal for ral- 
lying in all public frays. The disturbance upon 
this occasion was so much the greater, as the 
person who was to have acted the principal part 
in the scene, which by being postponed had put 
the rabble into such an ill-humour, belonged to 
the nation which that rabble thinks it has most 
right to insult. 

" In England, no rank or dignity is secure 
from their insults. The young Queen herself 
was exposed to them upon her first arrival at 
London : the rabble was affronted at her Ma- 


jesty's keeping one window of her sedan chair 
drawn up. 

" The politeness, the civility, and the offici- 
ousness of people of good breeding, whom we 
meet in the streets, as well as the obliging readi- 
ness of the citizens and shopkeepers, even of the 
inferior sort, sufficiently indemnify and console 
us for the insolence of the mob, as I have often 

" Whatever haste a gentleman may be in, 
whom you happen to meet in the streets, as soon 
as you speak to him, he stops to answer, and 
often steps out of his way to direct you, or to 
consign you to the care of some one who seems 
to be going the same way. A gentleman one 
day put me in this manner under the care of a 
handsome young directress, who was returning 
home with a fine young child in her arms. I 
travelled on very agreeably, though I had a great 
way to go, lending an arm to my guide ; and we 
conversed together as well as two persons could 
do, one of whom scarce understood a wond spoken 
by the other. I had frequent conversations of 
this sort in the streets, in which, notwithstand- 
ing all the pains I took to make myself under- 
stood, and others took to understand me, I could 
not succeed : I then would quit my guide, and 
say to him, with a laugh, and squeeze of the 
hand, Tower of Babylon ! He would laugh on 
his side likewise; and so we used to part. 

" Having 


" Having occasion to inquire for a certain per- 
son in Oxford-road, I shewed his address at the 
first shop I came to ; when out stepped a young 
man, in white silk stockings, a waistcoat of fine 
cloth, and an apron about his waist. After hav- 
ing examined whether I was able to follow him, 
he made me a sign, and began to run on before 
me. During this race, which was from one end 
of the street to the other, I thought that my 
guide had interest in -view ; and therefore I got 
ready a shilling, which I offered him upon ar- 
riving at the proper place ; but he refused it 
with generous disdain, and taking hold of my 
hand, which he shook violently, he thanked me 
for the pleasure I had procured him. J afterwards 
saw him at the tabernacle of the Methodists. 

" To take a man in this manner by the arm, 
and shake it till his shoulder is almost dislocated, 
is one of the grand testimonies of friendship 
which the English give each other, when they 
happen to meet : this they do very coolly ; there 
is no expression of friendship in their countenan- 
ces, yet the whole soul enters the arm which 
gives the shake. This supplies the place of the 
embraces and salutes of the French. The English 
seem to regulate their behaviour upon these oc- 
casions by the rules prescribed by Alexander Se- 
verus to those who approached his person *. 

* " If any Courtier bowed in a cringing manner, or 
used flattering expressions, he was either banished the 



" I met with the same politeness and civil 
treatment at all the public and private assemblies 
to which I was admitted. At the House of Lords 
as well as at the House of Commons, a foreigner 
may take the liberty to address himself to any 
gentleman who understands his language ; and 
those who are applied to upon these occasions 
think it their duty to answer his questions. At 
the first meeting of the House of Lords to try 
Lord Byron, I happened to be seated amidst a 
family as much distinguished by their high rank 
as their amiable qualities. They all shewed the 
utmost eagerness to satisfy my curiosity with re- 
gard to the several particulars of this extraor- 
dinary spectacle ; to explain to me all that was 
said ; to instruct me with regard to the origin of 
the most remarkable ceremonies ; and, in fine, to 
share with me the refreshments, which the length 
of the trial made it necessary for them to provide. 

" When the King came to the House of Lords 
to give the royal assent to Bills, one of the Bi- 
shops near whom I was seated offered to be my 
interpreter ; and he took upon him to serve me 
in that capacity during the whole time I staid. 

" At the courts of Common Pleas, King's 
Bench, and Exchequer, in Westminster, I seated 
myself amongst the Lawyers; and upon my 

Court, if the nature of his place admitted of it j or 
turned into ridicule, if his dignity exempted him from 
any severer punishment.'' Lampridius, Life of Alex- 
ander Severus. 



speaking French to the two next me, neither of 
whom happened to understand that language, 
one of them rose, and brought a brother Lawyer, 
who, being acquainted with the French tongue, 
explained to me the best he could all that passed. 

" At the play-houses and other public diver- 
sions, I had the same good fortune. Those that 
did not understand me, were eager to look for 
somebody that did ; and my interpreter, who 
had taken a bottle of wine with him, never drank 
without afterwards presenting me with it : I made 
it a rule to drink, because having declined the 
first time it was offered, I was given to under- 
stand, that such a refusal was contrary to the 
laws of English politeness. 

(< It must, however, be observed, that this 
obliging behaviour is not accompanied with all 
those external demonstrations of civility, which 
are customary upon such occasions in France. If 
an English gentleman, who did not understand 
me, went in quest of an interpreter, he rose, and 
quitted me with an air, which seemed rather to 
be that of a whimsical humourist, than of a gen- 
tleman who was going to do a polite action ; and 
I saw no more of him. 

" I met with the same civility and complai- 
sance amongst all the shop-keepers, whether 
great or little. The tradesman sent his son or 
his daughter to me, who often served me as 
guide, after having first acted as an interpreter : 
for some years past, the French language has 



been taught as universally as the English, in all 
the boarding-schools of London ; so that French 
will soon be by choice the language of the peo- 
ple of England, as it was by constraint and ne- 
cessity under the Norman Kings. This is a 
demonstration, that the antipathy of that Nation 
for every thing belonging to the French is not 
universal and without exception. 

' ' The French are apt to imagine, that it is on 
account of their country they are pushed and 
shoved in the most frequented streets, and often 
driven into the kennel ; but they are mistaken. 
The English walk very fast : their thoughts being 
entirely engrossed by business, they are very 
punctual to their appointments, and those who 
happen to be in their way are sure to be sufferers 
by it: constantly darting forward, they jostle 
them with a force proportioned to their bulk and 
the velocity of their motion. I have seen fo- 
reigners, not used to this exercise, let themselves 
be tossed and whirled about a long time, in the 
midst of a crowd of passengers, who had nothing 
else in view but to get forward. Having soon 
adopted the English custom, I made the best of 
my way through crowded streets, exerting my 
utmost efforts to shun persons who were equally 
careful to avoid me. 

" We should be equally in an error, if we 
were to imagine that the English fashions, dia- 
jnetrically opposite to those of France, are con- 


trived in the manner they are, in order to avoid 
all resemblance to those of our Nation : on the 
contrary, if the former are any way influenced 
by the latter, it is- by the desire of imitating 
them. A mode begins to be out of date at Paris, 
just when it has been introduced at London by 
gome English Nobleman. The Court and the 
first-rate Nobility immediately take it up: it is 
next introduced about St. James's by those that 
ape the manners of the Court ; and by the time 
it has reached the City, a contrary mode already 
prevails at Paris, where the English, bringing 
with them the obsolete mode, appear like the 
people of another world. The little hats, for 
example, at present so fashionable in France, 
begin to be wore by the Nobility, who borrowed 
the model from Paris: by degrees the English 
will come at the diminutive size ; but the great 
hats will then be resumed at Paris. This holds 
good in general, with regard both to men and 
women's apparel." 

It has long been customary for the lower classes 
to hold a burlesque election at Wandsvvorth after 
a dissolution of Parliament for the choice of a 
Mayor of Garratt. To describe the strange pro- 
ceedings of the candidates, who are always se- 
lected from the most ludicrous or most hideous of 
the community, or the riotous freaks of the mob, 
would be impossible. One vast wave of the popu- 
lace rolls impetuous from London aftei^the can- 


didates and officers of the election ; and, If there 
is but little taste in their dresses, there is always 
much " unreal mockery" of finery disposed in a 
manner which cannot but excite laughter, and 
the curiosity of those who are but little satisfied 
to witness the quarrels and intoxication that dis- 
tinguish the electors of the borough of Garratt. 

Many whimsical and satirical imitations of 
speeches and promises are made upon these occa- 
sions ; but the electors, contrary to the customs 
of other elections, always treat themselves, though 
tin sixpences have sometimes been thrown 
amongst the mob as bribes. 

The present member for Garratt is Sir Henry 

Dimsdale, Citizen and Muffin-seller, one of the 

oddest productions of injured nature, and an idiot. 

It is strange that the people who act these follies 

cannot perceive they are satirizing themselves. 

If they were not willing to be deceived, promises 

never meant to be performed would not be made ; 

and, if they would neither receive bribes nor be 

treated, candidates would never offer the former, 

or furnish materials for the latter. When they 

chair a real member through Westminster, after 

having violated the freedom of election by deeds 

which deserve hanging, these wanton fools pull 

the hustings over their own heads, and frequently 

maim peaceable spectators. Such are the electors 

% of Garratt and ! 





To particularise every species of Eccentricity 
which has distinguished this great community 
would be useless ; but the whims of certain indi- 
viduals of it ought to be noticed, in order that a 
just estimate may be formed of the grand whole. 
In the month of November 1700* an old gentle- 
man was found lifeless on the floor of his apart- 
ment in Dartmouth-street by his landlady, who 
had been alarmed by hearing him fall. He died 
intestate, and worth 600/. per annum ; but his 
manner of living was penurious to the most ex- 
travagant degree, allowing nature barely four- 
penny worth of boiled meat and broth per day. 
When he went from home he was under the ne- 
cessity of hiring a boy for a penny to lead him 
across the Park, as he was near-sighted ; but this 
was almost the only intercourse he had with man- 


kind, except to receive his rents, which 'may be 
imagined from the state of his clothing as he 
lay dead : the body had seven shirts on it, each 
dreadfully soiled, and that next the skin actually 
decayed ; and his other clothing was tied on with 
cords, that had even lacerated the flesh. 

Eccentricity my exist in the brain of the most 
exalted character ; the best intentions are often 
marked by it ; therefore the reader must not sup- 
pose that censure is implied when good actions 
are classed under this head : he that deviates from 
the common path is eccentric ; but, if his pur- 
poses are virtuous, the good man will forgive the 

Some Professors of Religion are very apt to be 
eccentric in their conduct. Joseph Jacobs was 
the leader of a set of enthusiasts in 1702, who 
preached to his votaries at Turners-hall : he was 
originally a Linen-draper. " Observator" says, 
his cono;reg;ation were " the remnant of the tribe 

o o 

of Ishmael ; for their hand is against every body, 
and every body's hand against them. By their 
bristles (they suffered their hair to flourish luxu- 
riantly) one would take them to be a herd of the 
Gaderines swine into which the Devil has newly 
entered, from whom at latter Lammas we shall 
have great cry and little wool. They are com- 
pounded of Philadelphians, Sweet-singers, Seek- 
ers, and Muggletonians. Their system of Divi- 
nity is a hodge-podge of Jacobs' putting together, 



and their philosophy is that of Jacob Beh men's. 
If their women do not backslide from the truth, 
it is their native virtue keeps them steadfast ; for 
their Pastor by trade is authorised to ejsamine their 
clouts. He that has the longest whiskers amongst 
them is by so much the better member; but Ja- 
cobs measures their profession by the Mustachio, 
and not by the ell and yard, as he used to do his 
linen. By their look you would take them to be 
of the Society of Bedlam ; madmen we found 
them, and so we leave them." 

This eccentric preacher died in June 1722. 
He retained the name of Whisker Jacobs to the 
day of his death. As he was singular in his life, 
so was he at his departure, having given orders 
that no mourning should be used at his interment 
in Bunhill-fields. Accordingly his executors gave 
the company white gloves and rings, but no 
scarfs or hatbands. 

It would be extremely wrong not to include 
Dr. Sacheverell in the list. This gentleman con- 
trived to turn his talents in eccentricity to some 
account, and was the cause of a wonderful ac- 
quisition of members to the class of oddities. I 
shall leave the Doctor's " birth, parentage, and 
education," to the biographers who have treated 
of the subject ; and introduce him as a singular 
character, and a willing instrument in the hands 
of faction, and as one that contrived to confound 
the State, rouse the passions, and raise a mob 



wherever he chose to exhibit himself; nay, even 
to animate the Rev. Mr. Palmer, preacher at 
Whitehall, at the risk of suspension, to pray for 
him by name as a patient sufferer under the per- 
secution of the House of Lords, who brought 
him to trial, Feb. 27, 1709-10, on charges of hav- 
ing maintained that the necessary means used to 
bring about the Revolution were odious and un- 
justifiable ; that resistance to the Supreme Power 
was illegal under any pretence whatever ; that it 
was the duty of superior pastors to thunder out 
their ecclesiastical anathema's against persons en- 
titled to the benefit of the toleration, &c. &c. ; 
which they decreed the Commons had substan- 
tiated, contents 69, non-contents 52. After this 
event he became the idol of the mob, and of se- 
veral well-meaning but weak people. His vanity 
led him to make a kind of triumphal journey 
through the country, where he was generally re- 
ceived as a conqueror, and in some instances by 
Corporations and the Clergy with flags displayed, 
ringing of bells, and bonfires. However dis- 
graceful such conduct, he furnished the industri- 
ous of many classes with the means .of enriching 
themselves : the Printers and Publishers fattened 
on his Sermons and his Trial ; the Engraver on 
his physiognomy ; and even the Fan-maker sold 
his " Emblematical fans with the true effigies of 
the Rev. Dr. Henry Sacheverell done to the life, 
and several curious hieroglyphicks in honour of 



tlie Church of England finely painted and 
mounted on extraordinary genteel sticks." After 
this summary of the Doctor's exploits, who will 
deny his claim to eccentricity, or that he was a 
most unworthy son of the Church, a teacher of 
bigotry, not of peace ? But he is forgotten ; and 
but one small marble lozenge shews his present 

In l/ll Gustavus Parker entertained the pub- 
lick with a specimen of his eccentricity, exhi- 
bited in a " Monthly Weather-paper," or baro- 
scopicalprognosticks of the description of Weather 
to happen a month after his publication. He 
even pronounced whether there would be warm 
or cold rain, or be clear,- for the day and night, 
and from which point the wind would blow. 
Though Mr. Parker entered into a laboured ex- 
planation of the principles on which he founded 
his infallible judgment, they were confuted most 
completely by the observations of an individual, 
who placed the real state of the weather opposite 
the anticipated ; from which 1 pronounce him no 

Politicks had arrived to a dreadful state of 
effervescence in 1713. Many authors exerted 
themselves to fan the flames, and but few en- 
deavoured to extinguish them. One eccentric 
person (" which lived at the sign of the Queen's- 
arms and Corn-cutter in King-street, Westmin- 
ster, where a blue sign-board is fixed to the other 



that shews what cures I perform, viz. the scurvy 
in the gums, or tooth-ache, likewise the" piles 
and all casual sores, and fasteneth loose teeth, 
and causeth decayed gums to grow firm and well 
again") with more zeal than ability collected a 
farrago of scraps of religion and moral sayings, 
and connected them in a way peculiar to himself 
by fervent wishes and pious ejaculations ; which 
he published twice a-week under the title of the 
" Balm of Gilead, or the Healer of Divisions, by 
Thomas Smith, Operator." I consider this 
Thomas Smith a worthy predecessor of many an 
Itinerant Methodist. 

The public-house is a hot-bed for vulgar eccen- 
tricity ; and without doubt the following mad 
exploit of four men in January 1 715-16* originated 
in one of them, which is thus described in the 
London Post of the 21st. They solemnly bound 
themselves to support each other in every diffi- 
culty and danger that might occur during an ex- 
cursion up the Thames on the ice for four days, 
in which they determined to avoid every track 
made by man, and to explore a way for them- 
selves. They set out provided with poles from 
the Old Swan near London-bridge ; and two of 
them were seen to fall through air-holes opposite 
Somerset-house and Lambeth, but the others 
were never heard of. 

I am rather at a loss under what title to place 
the ignorance and absurdity displayed in the en- 

VOL. I. D D suing 


suing paragraph, copied from the News Letter of 
Feb. 25, 1716; but, as superstition is closely 
allied to folly, and eccentricity is a species of 
folly, I believe this to be the proper one. " The 
Flying Horse, a noted victualling-house in Moor- 
fields, next to that of the late Astrologer Trotter, 
has been molested for several nights past in an 
unaccountable manner; abundance of stones, glass 
bottles, clay, &c. being thrown into the back 
side of the house, to the great amazement and 
terror of the family and guests. It is altogether 
unknown how it happened, though all the neigh- 
bouring houses were diligently searched, and 
men appointed in proper places to find the occa- 

The unknown author of the Advertisement 
which follows appears to have been nearly related 
to Thomas Smith the Corn-cutter, but far more 
enlightened. The motives that dictated it must 
be approved, however extraordinary such a pro- 
duction may appear in the Postman of July 31, 
17 lo\ " Whoever you are to whose hands this 
comes, let the truth it contains abide upon your 
mind, as what is intended for your greatest bene- 
fit. The method taken I know is uncommon ; 
yet, if there is the least probability of success, 
though it be only with a few, the design will be 
justified, as intending the glory of God in your 
salvation. Remember then that you were once 
told in this manner, that being zealous for names 



and parties is what will stand you in no stead at 
death, except you have the life in you that shall 
never die. Are you a Christian? or, have you 
only the name from education, as it is the pro- 
fessed Religion of your Country? If you can 
say on your conscience you have endeavoured to 
lay aside prejudice wherein you might have rea- 
son to suspect yourself of it, and, apprehending 
your lost condition without a Saviour as revealed 
in the Gospel, you have devoted yourself to God 
in him, and therefore hope you are a true Chris- 
tian, it is well give God the praise; but, if in 
your conscience you must say you have no more 
than the name, stay Man, Woman, whoever you 
be, consider, think "before this go out of your 
mind or hand how you shall escape, if you neg- 
lect so great salvation." 

The nobility and young men of fashion of most 
countries are rather eccentric in their amuse- 
ments ; and surely this observation may safely be 
applied to those of England in 1717, when a set 
of escape graces subscribed for a piece of plate> 
which was run for in Tyburn-road by six Asses 
rode by Chimney-sweepers ; and two boys rode 
two Asses at Hampstead-heath for a wooden spoon 
attended by above 500 persons on horseback. 
Women running for Holland smocks was not 
uncommon ; nay, a match was talked of for a 
race of women in hooped petticoats ; and another 
actually took place in consequence of a wager of 
DD? 1000/. 


WOOL between the Earl of Lichfield and Esquire 
Gage, that Gage's Chaise and pair would outrun 
the Earl's Chariot and four. The ground was 
from Tyburn to Hayes ; and Gage lost through 
some accident. Vast sums~were betted on all 
these eccentric operations. 

In the month of February 1717-18, James 
Austin, inventor of the Persian Ink-powder, most 
extravagantly grateful to his customers, deter- 
mined to do an act which renders him a fit sub- 
ject for my groupe of oddities. He selected the 
Boar's- head in East-cheap for the reception of 
those persons, and provided for them a Pudding, 
to be boiled fourteen days, for which he allowed 
a chaldron of coals ; and another baked, a cube 
of one foot ; and nearly a whole Ox roasted. 
Such was the fare. The musick was commen- 
surate with the vastness of the entertainment, at 
least in one particular ; which was a drum, that 
had served as an alarm in some Turkish army, 
eighteen feet in length, and near four feet in dia- 
meter. Swift might have made good use of 
Austin in the travels of Lemuel Gulliver. 

Mist's Journal notices the Austin feast a second 
time, and asserts that the copper for boiling the 
great pudding was then, April 19, erected at the 
Red-lion in Southwark Park, where^crowds of 
people went to see it. Mist adds that the pud- 
ding would weigh o,00lb.; and when boiled was 
to be conveyed to the Swan Tavern, Fish-street- 


hill, Monday, May 26, to the tune of " What 
lumps of pudding my mother gave me !" 

Poor Austin boiled his pudding, and adver- 
tised that the company expected was so numer- 
ous, he should be under the necessity of carrying 
it to the Restoration-gardens in St. George's- 
fields, where he attempted to convey it, as ap- 
pears from a second notice ; but the rabble, at- 
tracted by the ridiculous cavalcade, broke through 
every restraint, and carried off banners, stream- 
ers, &c. &c. which he demanded should be re- 
stored by the 6th of June under pain of prosecu- 
tion for robbery. He says nothing of the fate of 
his Pudding; I must therefore leave him, in 
order to pay attention to a fellow-labourer in the 
works of singularity a poor Benedict, who de- 
clared in the Flying Post of July 8, 1718, 
" About two years ago I intermarried with the 
daughter of Ben Bound of Foster-lane, iron- 
monger, who agreed to give me 6ool. Soon after 
he furnished me three rooms to the value of 50/., 
for which he pretended he gave 300/. ; upon 
which I asked him for the remainder of the 6ool. ; 
but he answered, if I insisted upon any money, 
he would sue me for the goods. Whereupon I 
filed a bill., in Chancery against him, and he 
owned in his answer he had given me the goods ; 
but, being resolved to have them again at any 
rate, upon the llth of June last he persuaded 
my wife to carry them away ; and upon the 12th 

I was 


I was arrested in a sham action for 20 O/. at the 
suit of one Jeffery Sharpe (whom I never heard 
of before), and by 14 officers carried to prison ; 
and in the mean time my house was ransacked ; 
and, had it not been for an Attorney, I had not 
saved the value of one penny, most of my goods 
being carried away, and the rest packed up. And 
after they had kept my wife a fortnight, they 
were so barbarous to let her lie two nights upon 
chairs ; so that she is returned to me again : and 
I hope if her father desist from giving her ill ad- 
vice, and coveting the rest of my goods, she will 
still prove a good wife. JOHN NEWALL." 

A woman who lived in great apparent poverty 
died in March 1718 within the parish of St. 
Dunstan in the East. Those who prepared her 
for burial are said to have found 8000/. concealed 
in her bed. 

The malicious Miser deserves a niche in this 
temple of worthies. Such was Mr. Elderton, a 
farmer of Bow, who went by the name of the 
old Farmer of Newgate ; where he was confined, 
and even died, because he had determined not to 
pay the assessments in common with his neigh- 
bours *. 

Another worthy was Mr. Dyche, whose singu- 
larity is thus mentioned in the Whitehall Even- 
ing-Post for August 1619 : " Yesterday died Mr. 

Origipal Weekly Journal, Dec. 6, 1718. 



Dyche, late School-master to the Charity Chil- 
dren of St. Andrew Holborn. He was a strict 
Nonjuror, and formerly amanuensis to the famous 
Sir Roger L'Estrange. It is said he wore a piece 
of the halter in which parson Paul was executed 
(in the rebellion of 1715, for carrying arms 
against the King) in his bosom ; and some time 
before his death had made a solemn vow not to 
shift his linen till the Pretender was seated on 
the Throne of these Realms." 

In the month of March 17 20 an unknown lady 
died at her lodgings in James-street, Covent-gar- 
den. She is represented to have been a middle- 
sized person, with dark-brown hair and very 
beautiful features, and mistress of every accom- 
plishment peculiar to ladies of the first fashion 
and respectability. Her age appeared to be be- 
tween thirty and forty. Her circumstances were 
affluent, and she possessed the richest trinkets of 
her sex generally set with diamonds. A John 
Ward, Esq. of Hackney, published many parti- 
culars relating to her in the papers ; and, amongst 
others, that a servant had been directed by her 
to deliver him a letter after her death ; but as no 
servant appeared, he felt himself reqmred to no- 
tice those circumstances, in order to acquaint her 
relations of her decease, which occurred suddenly 
after a masquerade, where she declared she had 
conversed with the King, and it was remembered 
that she had been seen in the private apartments 



of Queen Anne ; though after the Queen's demise 
she had lived in obscurity. This unknown ar- 
rived in London from Mansfield in 1714, drawn 
by six horses. She frequently said that her 
father was a nobleman, but that her elder brother 
dying unmarried the title was extinct ; adding 
that she had an uncle then living, whose title 
was his least recommendation. 

It was conjectured that she might be the 
daughter of a Roman Catholick who had con- 
signed her to a Convent, whence a brother had 
released her, and supported her in privacy. She 
was buried at St. Paul's, Co vent-garden. 

When some decay in the draw-bridge on Lon- 
don-bridge had rendered it necessary to prevent 
the passage of persons and vehicles, in order to 
its repair in April 1722 ; the silence and desolate 
appearance of a place so much frequented at all 
other times attracted the attention of some weal- 
thy tradesmen, who entered into the whimsical 
resolution to have a table set in the midst of the 
street, where they sat drinking for an afternoon, 
that they might be enabled to say at a future 
period, *' however crowded the bridge is at pre- 
sent, 1 have drank punch on it for great part of a 

An extraordinary method was adopted by a 
Brewer's servant in February 1723 to prevent his 
liability for the payment of the debts of a Mrs. 
Brittain whom he intended to marry. The lady 



made her appearance at the door of St. Clement 
Danes habited in her shift ; hence her enamorato 
conveyed the modest fair to a neighbouring Apo- 
thecary's, where she was completely equipped 
with clothing purchased by him ; and in these 
Mrs. Brittain changed her name at the church. 

Eccentricity is generally a source of ridicule, 
but rarely one of profit. An instance of the latter 
is recorded in the London Journal : a Mr. Mor- 
risco, an eminent Weaver, and a man of vast 
possessions, resident in Spital-fields, had a bill 
drawn on him from abroad of 80,000/. which was 
held by an Ambassador at our Court, and sent 
for acceptance. When the old gentleman made 
his appearance, the messenger was appalled at 
his figure, which exhibited penury personified ; 
he therefore hurried back to the Ambassador, full 
of doubts and fears whether it could be possible 
such a man should be capable of raising even 
800/. The representative of Sovereignty, terri- 
fied at the idea of his probable loss, resolved to 
satisfy himself by personal inspection ; which h 
had no sooner done than Morrisco divined his 
thoughts, and to ease them, and turn his doubts 
to present profit, he offered to pay the bill im- 
mediately for a valuable consideration ; the offer 
was gladly accepted, and Morrisco fairly pock- 
eted 4000/. the produce of his shabby habili- 


The name of Don Saltero, the odd collector 
and exhibitor of natural and artificial curiosities 
at Chelsea, made its first appearance in the news- 
papers June 22, 17^3, whence the following 
whimsical account of himself and his rarities are 
extracted : 

Sir, Fifty years since to Chelsea great 
, From Rodnam on the Irish main 
I stroll'd, with maggots in my pate, 

Where much improv'd they still remain. 
Through various employs I've past: 

A scraper, vertuos', projector, 
Tooth-drawer, trimmer, and at last 

I'm now a gimcrack whim collector. 
Monsters of all sorts here are seen, 

Strange things in nature as they grew so ; 
Some relicks of the Sheba Queen, 

And fragments of the fam'd Bob Cruso. 
Knick-knacks too dangle round the wall, 

Some in glass cases, some on shelf; 
But what's the rarest sight of all, 

Your humble servant shows himself. 
On this my chiefest hope depends. 

Now, if you will the cause espouse^ 
Jn Journals pray direct your friends 

To my Museum Coffee-house ; 
And in requital for the timely favour, 
I'll gratis bleed, draw teeth, and be your 
shaver ; 



Nay, that your pate may with my noddle tally, A 
And you shine bright as I do marry, shall ye > 
Freely consult my revelation Molly ; J 

Nor shall one jealous thought create a huf 
For she has taught me manners long enough. 
Chelsea Knackatory. DON SALTERO. 

Several frolicsome gentlemen hired a hackney- 
coach in 1724, to which they affixed six horses; 
the coachman and postillion they habited as ken- 
nel-sweepers or scavengers ; and they placed as 
many shoe-boys as could cling to the vehicle be- 
hind as footmen, with their stools on their heads 
and baskets of implements by their sides. Thus 
equipped they drove to the Ring in Hyde-park, 
and there entertained the company with this 
species of eccentricity. 

There is a certain degree of whim in some of 
the wagers we find recorded in the newspapers, 
that, however absurd the bettors may appear, a 
smile is excited perforce. 

In the above year two gentlemen, full of money 
and destitute of wit, had a dispute respecting the 
quantity that might be eaten at one meal. This 
ended in a bet of 5/. proposed by one of them, 
that himself and another would eat a bushel of 
tripe, and drink four bottles of wine, within an 
hour. The parties met at Islington, where the 
tripe was produced and the wine displayed ; no- 
thing remained but the introduction of the ano- 
ther ; that another, gentle reader, proved a sharp- 


set Bear, who fully justified his friend's prognos- 
tick with the tripe diluted by three bottles of 
wine poured into it. 

Applebee's Original Weekly Journal for No- 
vember 19, 1726*, has the following curious arti- 
cle, which fills another niche in our Pantheon of 
Eccentrics : " For the entertainment of our bro- 
ther ditmplineers, we shall inform them of a cu- 
riosity contrived for their accommodation at the 
Sun Tavern in St. Paul's Church-yard ; which is 
the invention of Mr. Johnston, the master of the 
house; being a larder erected in the middle of 
his yard, which stands upon four pedestals, in a 
perfect round twelve feet in circumference, in the 
lower part whereof is three round shelves with 
cylindrical doors to open and shut ; the same is 
covered with a curious slab of black and white 
marble three feet in diameter, and a direct circu- 
lar figure, from whence the four pedestals are 
carried up, between each gf which are two slid- 
ing sashes with convex glasses : the four pillars 
are adorned with curious iron- work and other or- 
naments, as well for beauty as use, and a shelf 
runs round the inside for containing proper pro- 
vent for the stomach. In the midst hangs a 
crown of iron painted and gilt, and the top rises 
into a dome twelve feet in height, in the same 
manner as that of St. Paul's, which is leaded over 
with four round or port holes covered with wire 
for the conveniency of admitting the air and 



keeping out the flies. On the top of the dome 
is a globe, upon which sits Bacchus astride upon 
a tun, to signify his Godship is willing to lay a 
good foundation, that he may be the better able 
to contain his liquor ; on his head is the Sun dis- 
persing his rays ; from the four sides are four 
sliding shelves which draw out for the accommo- 


dation of such dumplineers as desire to drink 
their wine at the fountain-head, or next the cel- 
lar door. The whole is neatly painted and gilt." 
There is sometimes a degree of eccentricity 
blended with revenge ; an instance of which oc- 
curred in 1727. The pastor of the parish of St. 
Andrew Undershaft had differed with a female of 
his flock to a very violent degree ; in consequence, 
the lady renounced his spiritual governance while 
living, and solemnly declared her corpse should 
not receive the rites of burial from his lips when 
dead. This resolution was communicated by the 
executors to the undertaker, who provided a 
Clergyman to officiate at the funeral. As the 
Priest of the parish had notice of this strange 
proceeding, he determined to prevent the intruded 
Priest from performing the ceremony ; but the 
latter, equally tenacious, insisted on his right, 
in compliance with the lady's will. A violent 
dispute succeeded, which terminated by both 
parties reading the burial service. 

After this shameful scene of irnpiety, the Parish 
Priest retired to the Vestry-room, and enquired 



of the Clerk whether he had provided him a 
ticket for hat-bands and gloves, as usual. The 
Clerk replying in a surly manner that he had 
not, the Priest wreaked dire vengeance on his 
body by a thorough beating *. In short the of- 
fending Clerk by his 


Was beat with fist instead of a stick. 
The St. James's Evening Post of January 1728 
mentions a nameless oddity, who kept open 
house in his own way during the holidays at a 
Tavern near St. James's- market: " He treats all 
the company that comes, provided they appear 
fit for a gentleman to keep company with ; pays 
his reckoning twice a day, and thinks no expence 
too great that their eating and drinking can put 
him to. He never quits his room, or changes 
his linen. The house has already received some 
hundreds of pounds from him, and is likely to 
receive many more, if his constitution can but 
do its duty. He proposes to hold it for three 
months ; and it is said, this is not the first time 
he has done so.'* 

Abraham Simrnonds, a tobacconist, who re- 
tired to enjoy a handsome independence at Lewis- 
ham, died in 1728. His widow and executrix 
found, to her utter dismay, upon opening his 
will, that he had directed his body to be buried 

* This affair is mentioned in all the Newspapers of 
the day. 



in his own orchard, wrapped in a blanket, with- 
out any of the usual religious ceremonies ; and 
that his favourite dog after his natural decease 
should be deposited in the same grave. The lady 
seems to have been a sagacious wife, and a good 
hand at a quibble. She strictly complied with 
the eccentric wishes of Mr. Simmonds ; but, as 
that gentleman neglected to say his body must 
remain in the Orchard, she had it conveyed into 
a handsome coffin, and thence to the church- 
yard, where the Parish Priest performed the bu- 
rial rites. 

Orator Henley, who is said to have restored 
the antient eloquence of the pulpit, was. fre- 
quently mentioned in the Newspapers circa 1724 
as appointed to preach Charity Sermons. He 
appears however in 1726 to have entered into 
the true spirit of eccentricity, and frequently ad- 
vertised in the following style : 

" On Sunday July 3 1 the Theological Lec- 
tures of the Oratory begin in the French Chapel 
in Newport-market, on the most curious subjects 
in Divinity. They will be after the manner and 
of the extent of the Academical Lectures. The 
first will be on the Liturgy of the Oratory, with- 
out derogating from any other, at half an hour 
after three in the afternoon. Service and Sermon 
in the morning will be at half an hour after ten. 
The subjects will be always new, and treated in 
the most natural manner. On Wedne?day next, 



at five in the evening, will be an Academical 
Lecture on Education antient and modern. The 
chairs that were forced back last Sunday by the 
crowd, if they would be pleased to come a very 
little sooner, would find the passage easy. As 
the town is pleased to approve of this undertak- 
ing, and the institutor neither does nor will act 
nor say any thing in it that is contrary to the 
laws of God and his country ; he depends on the 
protection of both, and despises malice and ca- 
lumny." One of the writers of the Weekly 
Journal says, the fame of Henley led him to 
visit the Oratory, and adds, " About the usual 
hour of the Orator's entering the public scene of 
action, a trap-door gave way behind the pulpit, 
as if forced open by some invisible hand ; and at 
one large leap the Orator jumped to the desk, 
where he at once fell to work. I eyed the per- 
son of the Orator thoroughly, and could point 
out in every lineament of his face the features 
and muscles of a Jew, with a strong tincture of 
the Turk. But, to come to his oration, which 
turned on the important subject of Education an- 
tient and modern I had entertained hopes of 
meeting with something curious at least, if not 
just, on the great theme he had made choice of; 
though, instead of it, I heard nothing but a few 
common sentiments, phrases, and notions, beat 
into the audience with hands, arms, legs, and 
head, as if people's understandings were to be 



courted and knocked down with blows, and ges- 

x O 

ture and grimace were to plead and atone for all 
other deficiencies." The price of admission was 
one shilling. 

Mr. Henley issued his notice of intended lec- 
tures in November 1728 in the ensuing strange 
manner : " At the Oratory in Newport-market, 
to-morrow, at half an hour after ten, the Sermon 
will be on the Witch of Endor. At half an hour 
after five the Theological lecture will be on the 
Conversion and Original of the Scottish Nation, 
and of the Picts and Caledonians ; St. Andrew's 
relicks and panegyrick, and the character and 
mission of the Apostles. 

" On Wednesday at six, or near the matter, 
take your chance, will be a medley Oration on 
the History, Merits, and Praise of Confusion, 
and of Confounders in the road and out of the 

" On Friday will be that on Dr. Faustus and 
Fortunatus and conjuration ; after each the Chimes 
of the Times, No. 23 and 24. N. B. Whenever 
the prices of the seats are occasionally raised in 
the week-days, notice will be given of it in the 
prints. An account ofiibhe performances of the 
Oratory from the first to August last is published, 
with the discourse on Nonsense ; and if any 
Bishop, Clergyman, or other subject of His Ma- 
jesty, or the subject of any foreign Prince or 
state, can at my years, and in my circumstances 

VOL. i. E E and 


and opportunities, without the least assistance or 
any patron in the world, parallel the study, 
choice, variety, and discharge, of the said per- 
formances of the Oratory by his own or any 
others, I will engage forthwith to quit the said 
Oratory. J. HENLEY." 

This eccentric gentleman, full of conceit and 
self-sufficiency, attracted the notice of the Grand 
Jury for the City and Liberty of Westminster 
Januarys, 1728-9, who presented him thus : 

" Whereas the Act, made in the first year of 
the reign of King William and Queen Mary, for 
exempting their Majesties' Protestant subjects dis- 
senting from the Church of England from the 
penalties of certain laws, was wisely designed as 
an indulgence for the tender and scrupulous con- 
sciences of such Dissenters, and as a means to 
unite all the Protestant subjects in interest and 
affection : And whereas it is notorious, that John 
Henley, Clerk in Priest's orders according to the 
form of the Church of England, did about three 
years since hire a large room over the market- 
house in Newport-market within this City and 
Liberty of Westminster, and cause the said room 
to be registered in the iXuart of the Archdeacon 
of Middlesex (pursuant to the said Act of Tolera- 
tion) as a place for religious worship, to be per- 
formed therein by him the said John Henley, 
who pretended to dissent from the Church of 
England on account of Infant Baptism (although 



that has been the least of his exercises, nor are 
his audiences of that persuasion), and by his ad- 
vertisements in the public newspapers invited all 
persons to come thither, and take seats for twelve- 
pence a-piece, promising them diversion under 
the titles of Voluntaries, Chimes of the Times, 
Roundelays, College-bobs, Madrigals, and Operas, 
&c. : And whereas it appears to us, by informa- 
tion upon oath, that the said John Henley, not* 
withstanding his professed dissention and separa- 
tion from the Church of England, has usually 
appeared in the habit worn by Priests of the 
Church of England; and in that habit has for 
several months past upon one or more days in the 
week made use of the said room for purposes very 
different from those of religious worship; and 
that he has there discoursed on several subjects 
of burlesque and ridicule, and therein and in his 
comments upon the public newspapers, and in 
his weekly advertisements, has uttered several 
indecent, libertine, and obscene expressions, and 
made many base and malicious reflections upon 
the established Churches of England and Scot- 
land, upon the Convocation, and almost all or- 
ders and degrees of men, and upon particular 
persons by name, and even those of the highest 
rank : And whereas it appears to us more parti- 
cularly, by information upon oath, that he the 
said John Henley did, on the 12th day of De- 
cember last, cause to be published in the Daily 
E E 2 Post 


Post an advertisement, giving notice that on the 
evening of the next day he would pronounce 
King Lear's oration in an apology for madness, 
on which evening he did in the said room (called 
by him the Oratory) in the habit of a Clergyman 
of the Church of England repeat a speech out of 
the tragedy of King Lear, acting in such manner 
and with such gestures as are practised in the 
theatres ; and that the said John Henley did, on 
the Ijth day of the same month, cause to be 
published in the said Daily Post another adver- 
tisement) inviting such as went the following 
evening to the ball in the Haymarket to come 
first to his said room in their habits and masks 
for twelve-pence a-piece ; and that according to 
such invitation several persons so dressed and 
masked did then and there appear, and were ad- 
mitted upon paying the said moneys, for their 
seats : 

l( We the grand Jury for, &c. conceiving that 
this behaviour of the said John Henley is con- 
trary to the intention of the said Act of Tolera- 
tion, and tends to bring a disrepute upon the in- 
dulgence so charitably granted to truly scrupulous 
Dissenters, that it gives great offence to all seri- 
ous Christians, is an outrage upon civil society, 
and of dangerous consequence to the State, and 
particularly that the said assemblies by him held 
as aforesaid are unlawful ones, his said room not 
being licensed for plays, interludes, or masque- 


rades, do present the said John Henley, and his 
accomplices and assistants to us unknown, as 
guilty of unlawful assemblies, routs, and riots, 
&c. &c. &c." 

Henley, actuated by the genuine spirit of per- 
severance and opposition, proceeded with his 
lectures. If any effect was observable from the 
presentment, it was that of threefold eccentricity 
and impropriety of subjects for his Orations. 
The bill of fare issued for Sunday September 28, 
1729, contains a list of the fashions in dress of 
the time, and is therefore curious : 

f{ At the Oratory, the corner of Lincoln's-Inn- 
fields near Clare-market, to-morrow, at half an 
hour after ten : 1, The postil will be on the turn- 
ing of Lot's wife into a pillar of salt; 2, The Ser- 
mon will be on the necessary power and attrac- 
tive force which Religion gives the spirit of man 
with God and good Spirits. 

" II. At five : 1, The postill will be on this 
point, In what language our Saviour will speak 
the last sentence on mankind; 2, The lecture 
will be on Jesus Christ's sitting at the right-hand 
of God, where that is ; the honours and lustre of 
his inauguration; the learning, criticism, and 
piety of that glorious article. 

" The Monday's orations will shortly be re- 
sumed. On Wednesday the oration will be on 
the Skits of the Fashions, or a live gallery of family 
pictures in all ages ; ruffs, muffs, puffs manifold ; 



shoes, wedding-shoes, two-shoes, slip-shoes, peels, 
clocks, pantofles, buskins, pantaloons, garters, 
shoulder-knots, perriwigs, head-dresses, modes- 
ties, tuckers, farthingales, corkins, minikins, 
slammakins, ruffles, round-robbins, toilets, fans, 
patches ; Dame, forsooth, Madam, My lady, the 
wit and beauty of my Grannum ; Winifred, Joan, 
Bridget, compared with our Winny, Jenny, and 
Biddy; fine ladies and pretty gentlewomen; 
being a general view of the beau monde from be- 
fore Noah's flood to the year 2Q. On Friday 
will be something better than last Tuesday. After 
each a bob ?t the t ; rnes.'' 

I believe the following curious advertisement 
to have bet-ri the production of the Lady Hamil- 
ton, widow of the Duke killed by Lord Mohun : 
tf I Elizabeth duchess dowager of Hamilton ac- 
knowledge I have for several months been ill in my 
health, but was never speechless, ascertain penny 
authors have printed ; and so, to confute these said 
authors and their intelligence, it is thought by 
my most intimate friends, it is the very last thing 
that will happen to me. I am so good an Eng- 
lishwoman that I would not have my countrymen 
imposed on by purchasing false authors ; there- 
fore, have ordered this to be printed, that they 
may know what papers to buy and believe, that 
are not to be bribed by those who may have pri- 
vate ends for false reports. The copy of this is 
left in the hands of Mr. Berington, to be shewn 



to any body who has a curiosity to see $ signed 
by my own hand. E. HAMILTON *." 

Another, published in September 173 2 , was 
inclosed by a deep border of black, and is strongly 
demonstrative of religious eccentricity, or, if you 
please, religious frenzy. 

" Just published, Divine Inspiration ; or a 
Collection of Manifestations to make known the 
Visitation of the Lord, and the Coming of his 
Kingdom in great power and glory, according to 
the Scripture promise, by the preaching of the 
everlasting Gospel, as Rev. xix. &c. 

" Also, that the righteousness of God in his 
express sovereign power, wisdom, and love, may 
be known in the Divine word, the Sent of God 
to manifest and execute Divine will both in 
mercy and judgment, the two great witnesses, 
the messengers of God in this approaching day of 
the Lord upon us. 

" Lastly, this is the earnest prayer of them 
that have known and tasted the power of the 
Divine word, and who, as a testimony of their 
knowing God, in his out-speaking word imme- 
diately revealing, and from universal love and 
charity wishing true knowledge may descend, 
and increase and multiply in and upon man of 
every order and every degree, and to be the voice 
and word of God, do here give and set their 

* Evening Post, May 23, 1730. 


hands, believing he that now speaks will come, 
and that suddenly, according as hath been the 
voice of the Spirit of the Holy Ghost, the Com- 
forter in the Anointed, saying, So come, O 

This strange effusion is signed by twelve per- 
sons, four of whom were women. 

" By the mouth of Hannah Wharton at Bir- 
mingham and Worcester." 

Master Henley thus informed the publick in 
October 1/32 : " Before any person casts an im- 
putation on me, . in reference to the Oratory, 
wherein I know no fault but one, that it is a 
pattern of the truest principles of Religion, with 
the most various and assiduous endeavour to 
merit, in the capacity of a scholar and a clergy- 
man, that is, or ever was in this island, or in 
the world; before I am reflected upon for this, I 
would desire every man who educates a son to 
orders, and him who is so educated, to consider 
this case, and to make it his own. 

" I waited some years ago on a certain Prelate 
with a solicitation of a pulpit in town, signifying 
my resolution to cultivate and exert the talent of 
preaching which God had given me, in the most 
complete and public manner. His answer was, 
that I might be of use ; but, before he could do 
for me, he must have a pledge of my attachment 
to the government. I was an entire stranger to 
politicks ; but gave him that pledge, 

" A pledge 


<c A pledge demanded, given, and accepted 
for a consideration, is a contract for that con- 
sideration ; the hinge of my interest and for- 
tune very much turned upon it. It was the 
year 1721-2, a tender crisis ; and, doubtless, he 
made a job of it to the Government. When I 
applied for the consideration, he shifted off. Had 
he any possible exception to nty intellectual or 
moral qualifications (though nothing can be more 
immoral, or sooner make the world Atheists than 
a perfidious prelate), he should, before he drew 
me in, have told me, that if he met with any 
such exception, he would not do what I solicited ; 
and that he would take time to examine. This 
would have been fair. He assigned no exception 
at all during a whole year, till I had sacrificed 
my interest to him on his own demand ; and it 
is easy to frame exceptions, if a person be in- 
clined to break his word. My judgment is, he 
and his clergy even envied me in the pulpit, and 
were jealous of my advancement, timorous that 
at Court there might b? a patron, or a patroness 
of learning, and appreh .nsive that I might out- 
strip them there. Was I on my death-bed, I 
would take the Sacrament, that I know the 
former part, and believe the latter part (without 
the least vanity for so poor a triumph as excelling 
them would be) of this advertisement to be a 
matter of fact. J. HENLEY." 

A Miss Jennings, or rather perhaps Mrs. Jen- 
nings, died in November l^Q, who is said to 



have laid strong claims to eccentricity. This lady 
breathed her last at the Oxford-arms fnn, War- 
wick-lane ; and was buried at Christ-church, 
Newgate-street ; but the singularity of her con- 
duct consisted in a predilection for Inns; she 
made them in short her constant residence, whe- 
ther in the country or in London, where she had 
her steward, two female servants, a coachman 
and footman ; and, though she sometimes re- 
mained several months stationary, her bills were 
regularly paid every night. At the same time 
her host was kept in utter ignorance of her name. 
Mrs. Jennings left a fortune of 8o,000/. to five 
children, her first cousins ; and appointed 
Jennings, Esq. of Northaw, her executor. 

A Chair-woman, named Frances White, was 
interred at St. Margaret's, Westminster, in 1736"; 
but the singularity of the circumstance is, that 
she should have been deposited before the Altar 
of the Church, which she thus accomplished : In 
the course of her pursuits she was observed to be 
remarkably assiduous and industrious, and often 
asked charitable assistance: this she frequently 
received, and so carefully preserved that her sister 
gained a bequest of 115O/. on the easy condition 
of procuring a grave for her body ivithin the 
church, and affording it a handsome funeral. 
The above sum had been concealed in various 
hiding-places contrived in her chamber. 

A writer in the Weekly Miscellany for August 
pertinently observed, that " the atten- 


tion of the good people of England is very fre- 
quently ingrossed by the bold pretensions- of per- 
sons starting up from time to time in several 
sciences, but more particularly in those of Di- 
vinity and Physick ; and with the more reason 
of hoping to succeed in their views, as the soul, 
in which the one is concerned, and the body, in 
which the other, are the two grand subjects which 
engage the human mind ; and each of these pre- 
tenders respectively becomes in vogue for a cer- 
tain period, and then generally dies away in a 
silence proportioned to the noise they once made. 
The Stroking Doctor in the reign of Charles II.; 
the French Prophets in the reign of Queen Anne; 
the Quicksilver lunacy lately ; the itinerant 
preaching Quakeress since ; and Mr. Ward's pill 
and drop, not yet quite gone off from its vogue 
are signal instances of the truth of our observa- 
tion. So it may be observed, that the Quick- 
silver fashion seems to have been beat out of doors 
by the pill and drop ; and now the vogue of the 
pill and drop, which seem to owe their success 
to their violent operation in desperate cases, ap- 
pears in a fair way of subsiding to a new object 
of the public attention, which really seems (be- 
yond all that we have named) to deserve it, as it 
is attended v;ith plain and unartificial fact, as it 
is neither violent or dangerous in the operation, 
and carries in every act the clearest demonstra- 
tion along with it. What we mean is the famous 
female Bone-setter of Epsom, who must be al- 


lowed as much to excel the others, as certainty 
does imagination, as simplicity does artifice, and 
as seeing and feeling do the other senses. 

" This person, we are told, is daughter of one 
Wallin, a bone-setter of Hindon, Wilts, and 
sister of that Polly Peachem whom a gentleman 
of fortune married. Upon some family quarrel 
she left her father, and wandered up and down 
the country in a very miserable manner, calling 
herself Crazy Sally ; and often, as it is presumed 
for grief, giving way to a practice that made her 
appear to have too good a title to the name. Ar- 
riving at last at Epsom, she has performed such 
wonderful cures, that we are told the people 
thereabout intend a subscription for 300/. a year 
to keep her among them." 

Many of those cures are then described, which 
seem well attested, and are really surprising. 
" In fine, the concourse of people to Epsom on 
this occasion is incredible ; and it is supposed she 
gets near 20 guineas a day, as she executes what 
she does in a very quick manner. She has 
strength enough to put in any man's shoulder 
w ithout assistance ; and this her strength makes 
the following story, which may be depended 
upon, the more credible. 

" An impostor came to her, sent, as it is sup- 
posed, by some Surgeons, on purpose to try her 
skill, with his head bound up ; and pretended 
that his wrist was put out ; which, upon exami- 
nation, she found to be false ; but, to be even 



with him, she 'gave it a wrench, and really put 
it out, and bade him go to the fools who sent 
him, and get it sett again ; or, if he would come 
to her that day month, she would do it herself." 
This strange woman utterly ruined herself by 
giving way to that eccentricity, which too fre- 
quently in one way or other marks all our cha- 
racters. The object of it was a Mr. Hill Mapp, 
on whom she fixed her affections, and to whom 
she was determined at' all events to be married, 
though every effort was made by her friends to 
prevent the match. On the day appointed for 
the ceremony, Sir James Edwards, of Walton- 
upon-Thames, waited on her with the daughter 
of Mr. Glass, an Attorney, a poor afflicted child 
whose neck was dislocated and supported by steel 
instruments. Miss Wallin saw the girl, and 
said she could restore the parts, but would do 
nothing till she became Mrs. Mapp. A gentle- 
man present, finding her resolute, lent her his 
chariot to convey her to Ewell, where she ex- 
pected to obtain a conveyance to London with 
her intended husband, though in that expecta- 
tion she was disappointed. " As she was going 
to Ewell, Mr. Walker, brazier, of Cheapside, 
met her, and returned with her to the Inn. He 
was carrying down his daughter to her, a girl 
about 12 years of age, whose case was as follows: 
the vertebrae, instead of descending regularly 
from the neck, deviated to the right scapula, 
whence it returned towards the left side, till it 



came within a little of the hip-bone, thence re- 
turning to the locus, it descended regularly upon 
the whole, forming a serpentine figure. Miss 
Wallin set her strait, made the back perfect, 
and raised the girl two inches. While this was 
doing, Sir James Edwards's chariot with two gen- 
tlemen in it, came to beg her to come back to Ep- 
som, suspecting she might not return again ; but 
all their persuasions availed nothing, and the best 
terms they could make with her were, that she 
should not go to London to be married, but have 
the chariot and go to Headley, about three miles 
from Epsom. As the coachman was driving her 
by Epsom, she was told that the Minister of 
Headley was suspended for marrying Mr. C. 
whereupon the coachman said he would carry 
her no further, unless it was to Epsom. She 
then alighted, and went into a cottage on the 
side of the town; presently after which, infor- 
mation being given that she was there, Mrs. 
Shaw and several other ladies of that place went 
to her on foot to importune her to return ; but, to 
avoid any farther solicitation, she protested she 
would never come nigh the town, if they op- 
posed her marriage any longer ; and then walked 
on towards Banstead. Sir James Edwards, being 
informed how much she was affronted by his 
coachman, immediately Bordered a pair of his 
horses to be put to a four-wheeled chaise, and 

sent them with another driver to offer their ser- 


vice to convey her where she pleased. Mr. 

' Bridgwater 


Bridgwater in his chaise, and several other peo- 
ple on horseback, followed her also, and over- 
took her when she had walked about a mile over 
the Downs towards Banstead, where she had de- 
termined to be married. When she came there, 
the Minister having no licences, she returned to 
her first resolution of going to London ; but, the 
horses having travelled that morning from Wal- 
ton, and being harassed about without any re- 
freshment, the coachman was afraid to venture 
so far as London with them, and desired to be 
excused ; upon which Mr. Bridgwater, in regard 
to the child Sir James Edwards had brought, and 
other unhappy creatures who were in Epsom 
waiting for their cure, brought her in his chariot 
to London, saw her married, and conveyed her 
back again immediately after, being fully resolved 
to see her perform her, promise." Mrs. Mapp 
was buried at the expence of the parish of St, 
Giles in l/Sf!! 

The methods adopted by Lord and Lady Vane 
to render themselves conspicuous in the annals of 
their Country were so extremely eccentric, and 
are so well known, that their shades would feel 
indignant should I refuse the Viscount's adver- 


tisement a niche in this odd catalogue of vvor- 


thies. His Lordship thus introduced himself to 
public notice January 24, 1737 : 

" Whereas Frances, wife of the right honour- 
able the Lord Viscount Vane, has for some 
months past absented herself from her husband, 



and the rest of her friends, I do hereby promise 
to any person or persons who shall discover where 
the said lady Vane is concealed, to me or to 
Francis Hawes, Esq. her father, so that either 
of us may come to the speech of her, the sum of 
100/. as a reward to be paid by me on demand at 
my lodgings in Piccadilly. I do also promise 
the name of the person, who shall make such dis- 
covery, shall be concealed, if desired. Any per- 
son concealing or lodging her after this advertise- 
ment, will be prosecuted with the utmost rigour. 
Or, if her Ladyship will return to me, she may 
depend upon being kindly received. She is about 
22 years of age, tall, well-shaped, has light brown 
hair, is fair-complexioned, and has her upper 
teeth placed in an irregular manner. She had on 
when she absented a red damask French sacque, 
find was attended by a French woman, who speaks 
very bad English. VANE." 

The variety produced under this head is al- 
ready so great that I shall desist, lest I tire my 
readers : besides, it will be difficult to select in- 
stances nearer our present time without offending 
individuals or their relatives. 


John Nichols and Son, Printers, 
Red Lion Passage, Fleet Stseet, London.